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Main article: "Peberholm

The bridge joins Drogden tunnel on the "artificial island of "Peberholm (Pepper Islet). The Danes chose the name to complement the natural island of "Saltholm (Salt Islet) just to the north. Peberholm is a designated nature reserve built from Swedish rock and the soil dredged up during the bridge and tunnel construction, approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) long with an average width of 500 m (1,640 ft). It is 20 m (66 ft) high.

Drogden Tunnel[edit]

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Cross-section of the Drogden Tunnel

The connection between Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at "Kastrup on Amager island, the nearest populated part of Denmark, is through the 4,050 m (13,287 ft) long Drogden Tunnel (Drogdentunnelen). It comprises a 3,510 m (11,516 ft) "immersed tube plus 270 m (886 ft) entry tunnels at each end. The tube tunnel is made from 20 prefabricated reinforced concrete segments – the largest in the world at 55,000 "tonnes each – interconnected in a trench dug in the seabed. Two tubes in the tunnel carry railway tracks, two carry roads and a small fifth tube is provided for emergencies. The tubes are arranged side–by–side.

Rail transport[edit]

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Satellite image of the Øresund Bridge
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The bridge's full stretch between "Peberholm and "Malmö
Oresund Line

The rail link is operated jointly by the Swedish "SJ and Danish railways via "DSBFirst on a commission by "Skånetrafiken and other county traffic companies (that also sell tickets) and the Danish transport agency. A series of new dual-voltage trains was developed, linking the Copenhagen area with Malmö and southern Sweden as far as "Gothenburg and "Kalmar. SJ operates "X2000 and "InterCity trains over the bridge, with connections to Gothenburg and "Stockholm. DSB operates trains to "Ystad that connect directly to a ferry to "Bornholm. "Copenhagen Airport at "Kastrup has its own railway station close to the western bridgehead. Trains operate every 20 minutes, once an hour during the night, in both directions. An additional couple of Øresundstrains are operated at rush hour, and 1–2 SJ trains and DSB trains per hour and direction every other hour. Freight trains also use the crossing.

The rail section is "double track 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) "standard gauge and capable of "speeds of up to 200 kilometres per hour (120 mph), slower in Denmark, especially in the tunnel section. There were challenges related to the difference in "electrification and "signalling between the "Danish and "Swedish railway networks. The solution chosen is to switch the electrical system from Swedish "15 kV, 16.7 Hz to Danish "25 kV, 50 Hz before the eastern bridgehead at Lernacken in Sweden. The line is signalled according to the standard Swedish system across the length of the bridge. On Peberholm the line switches to Danish signalling, which continues into the tunnel.

Swedish trains run on the left, Danish on the right. Initially the switch was made at "Malmö Central Station, a terminus at that time. After the 2010 inauguration of the "Malmö City Tunnel connection, a "flyover was built at "Burlöv, north of Malmö, where the two southbound tracks cross over the northbound pair. The railway in Malmö thus uses the Danish standard.

Costs and benefits[edit]

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On the bridge
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In the tunnel

The cost for the Øresund Connection, including motorway and railway connections on land, was DKK 30.1 billion (~€4.0 bn) according to the 2000 year price index, with the cost of the bridge expected in 2003 to be recouped by 2037.[21] In 2006, Sweden began work on the "Malmö City Tunnel, a SEK 9.45 billion connection with the bridge that was completed in December 2010.

The connection will be entirely user-financed. The owner company is owned half by the Danish state and half by the Swedish state. This owner company has taken loans guaranteed by the governments to finance the connection and the user fees are its only income. After the increase in traffic, these fees are enough to pay the interest and begin repaying the loans, which is expected to take about 30 years.

Taxpayers have not paid for the bridge nor the tunnel, but tax money has been used for the land connections. On the Danish side, the land connection has domestic benefit, mainly connecting the airport to the railway network. The Malmö City Tunnel has the benefit of connecting the southern part of the inner city to the rail network and allowing many more trains to and from Malmö.

According to "The Öresund Committee, the bridge has made a national economic gain of DKK 57 billion, or SEK 78 billion SEK (~€8.41 bn) on both sides of the strait by increased commuting and lower commuting expense.[22] The gain is estimated to be SEK 6.5 billion per year but this could be increased to 7.7 billion by removing the three biggest obstacles to integration and mobility, the two largest being that non-EU nationals in Sweden are not allowed to work in Denmark and that many professional qualifications and merits are not mutually recognised.[23]

Cultural references[edit]

Environmental effects[edit]

The underwater parts of the bridge have become covered in marine organisms and act as an "artificial reef.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Data for 2014: 34,087 motorbikes, 6,217,111 passenger cars, 194,495 vans, 50,362 busses, 422,222 trucks, 6,918,277 total (18,954 per day). Trafikstatistik (oresundsbron.com)
  2. ^ "New Baltic data cable plan unfolding". Yle yhtiönä. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. According to current plans, the undersea optic fibre cable would run directly from Germany to Finland. Haavisto said that the project could make Finland a significant international data hub. So far, all data transmission to Finland has taken place via the Øresund Bridge, that is through Denmark and Sweden. 
  3. ^ a b c Boge, Knut (2006). Votes Count but the Number of Seats Decides: A comparative historical case study of 20th century Danish, Swedish and Norwegian road policy. (Ph.D.). DBI Norwegian School of Management. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Marstrand, Wilhelm (14 March 1936). "Det Store Vej - og broprojekt Motorveje med broer over storebælt og Øresund" [The Great Road and Bridge Project Motorway with Bridge over the Great Belt and Øresund]. "Ingeniøren (in Danish): 67–70. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  5. ^ OECD (2003). OECD Territorial Reviews OECD Territorial Reviews: Oresund, Denmark/Sweden 2003. OECD Publishing. p. 77. "ISBN "978-9264100800. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Krokeborg, J, ed. (1 January 2001). Strait crossings 2001: proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Strait Crossings, Bergen, Norway, 2 - 5 September 2001. Lisse: CRC Press. "ISBN "978-9026518454. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Centre for Mega Projects in Transport and Development (2014). "Project Profile: Sweden, The Oresund Link" (PDF). OMEGA Case Studies. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  8. ^ "HOCHTIEF Infrastructure Scandinavia". HOCHTIEF. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "Danmark og Sverige landfast" [Denmark and Sweden by Land] (in Danish). "DR. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "Øresundsbroen indviet" [Oresund Bridge inaugurated]. "B.T. (in Danish). "Ritzau. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  11. ^ "Broåbning i tragediens skygge". "Berlingske (in Danish). Ritzau. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  12. ^ "90.000 løbere over Øresundsbroen" [90,000 runners cross the Øresunds Bridge]. "B.T. (in Danish). Ritzau. 12 June 2000. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  13. ^ Baunkjær, Claus F. (28 March 2013). "Cautious traffic assumptions for the Fehmarnbelt project". "Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  14. ^ "Øresundsbrons bokslut för 2008: Bättre resultat trots den ekonomiska avmattningen" [Øresundsbrons financial statements for 2008: better results despite the economic slowdown] (in Swedish). Uk.oresundsbron.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  15. ^ "Traffic numbers". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. , "Øresundsbron traffic figures all years". Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  16. ^ "Migrant crisis: Sweden border checks come into force". BBC News. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  17. ^ Kirk, Lisbeth (5 January 2016). "Domino effect: Denmark follows Sweden on EU border checks". EUObserver. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  18. ^ "Stormen lukker Øresundsbroen" [Storm closes the Oresund Bridge]. "JydskeVestkysten (in Danish). 28 October 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  19. ^ "Øresund Bridge". Mageba. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  20. ^ "The Öresund bridge". European Springs and Pressings Ltd. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  21. ^ OECD (2003). OECD Territorial Reviews OECD Territorial Reviews: Oresund, Denmark/Sweden 2003 OECD Territorial Reviews Series. OECD Publishing. p. 38. "ISBN "978-92-64-10080-0. 
  22. ^ Ekonomiska vinster av Øresundsförbindelsen (PDF) (in Swedish). Öresund Institute. November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  23. ^ Hamberg, Thomas (31 August 2014). "Öresundsbron ger mångmiljardvinster" [Oresund Bridge provides multi-billion profits]. "Dagens Nyheter. Stockholm. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  24. ^ Robert Barry, "Bleeding Edge: Nicky Wire on Futures, Futurism and Futurology," TheQuietus.com, 27 May 2014.

External links[edit]

External video
Marine environment

"Coordinates: 55°34′N 12°51′E / 55.57°N 12.85°E / 55.57; 12.85

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