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Š in upper- and lowercase

The "grapheme Š, š ("S with "caron) is used in various contexts representing the đ sound usually denoting the "voiceless postalveolar fricative or similar "voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. In the "International Phonetic Alphabet this sound is denoted with "ʃ or "ʂ, but the lowercase š is used in the "Americanist phonetic notation, as well as in the "Uralic Phonetic Alphabet. It represents the same sound as the "Turkic letter "Ş and the "Romanian letter "Ș (S-comma).

For use in computer systems, Š and š are at "Unicode codepoints U+0160 and U+0161 (Alt 0352 and Alt 0353 for input), respectively. In HTML code, the "entities Š and š can also be used to represent the characters.

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Primary usage[edit]

The symbol originates with the 15th-century "Czech alphabet as introduced by the reforms of "Jan Hus. From there, it was adopted into the "Croatian alphabet by "Ljudevit Gaj in 1830, and other alphabets of languages such as "Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, "Bosnian, "Belarusian, "Latvian, "Lithuanian, "Macedonian (as auxiliary alphabet), "Montenegrin, "Slovak, "Slovene, "Serbian, "Karelian, "Sami, "Veps, "Sorbian and some forms of "Bulgarian. Some languages in this list also use the "Cyrillic script where the ""ш" represents the "š" in the Latin alphabet.

Also, š occurs in "Finnish and "Estonian, but only in loanwords. On occasion, it is possible to replace š with sh but only when it is technically impossible to typeset the accented character.[1]

Outside of "Europe, the "š" is also used in "Lakota, "Cheyenne, and "Cree (in dialects such as "Moose Cree), and some African languages such as "Northern Sotho and "Songhay.

It is used in the "Persian Latin alphabet, equivalent to "ش.

Transliteration[edit]

The symbol is also used as the romanisation of Cyrillic "ш in "ISO 9 and "scientific transliteration and deployed in the Latinic writing systems of "Macedonian, "Bulgarian, "Serbian, "Belarusian, "Ukrainian, and "Bashkir.

In addition, the grapheme transliterates "cuneiform orthography of "Sumerian and "Akkadian /"ʃ/ or /"t͡ʃ/, and (based on Akkadian orthography) the "Hittite /"s/ phoneme, as well as the /"ʃ/ phoneme of "Semitic languages, transliterating "shin (Phoenician ""Phoenician sin.png and its descendants), the direct predecessor of Cyrillic "ш.

Computing code[edit]

Character Š š
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
"Unicode 352 U+0160 353 U+0161
"UTF-8 197 160 C5 A0 197 161 C5 A1
"Numeric character reference Š Š š š
"Named character reference Š š

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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