Top: View of the city; Center left: Narrow streets of Šibenik; Center right: Cathedral dome; Bottom: Summer stage inside Šibenik Fortress
|• Mayor||"Željko Burić ("HDZ)|
|• City Council|
|Elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|"Time zone||"CET ("UTC+1)|
|• Summer ("DST)||"CEST ("UTC+2)|
Šibenik (Croatian pronunciation: "[ʃîbeniːk]; "Italian: Sebenico) is a historic city in "Croatia, located in central "Dalmatia where the river "Krka flows into the "Adriatic Sea. Šibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of "Šibenik–Knin County and also the third-largest city in the historic region of Dalmatia. It is the oldest native "Croatian town on the shores of the sea.
There are multiple interpretations of how Šibenik has been named. "Juraj Šižgorić describes in his work the name and position of Šibenik. He attributes the name of the city to it being surrounded by šibama, or birch trees. Another interpretation is associated with the forest through the latin "toponym "Sibinicum," which covered a narrower microregion within Šibenik on and around the area of "St. Michael's Fortress.
Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, Šibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of "St. Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the "Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the "Croatian King "Petar Krešimir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, Šibenik is also called "Krešimirov grad" (Krešimir's city).
Between the 11th and 12th centuries, Šibenik was tossed back and forth among "Venice, "Byzantium, and Hungary. It was conquered by the "Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the "Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands among the aforementioned states several more times until 1180.
In the 14th century, ""Vlachs" were present in the hinterland of Šibenik.
The city, like the rest of "Dalmatia, initially resisted the "Republic of Venice, but it was taken over after a three-year war in 1412. In August 1417, Venetian authorities were concerned with the ""Morlachs and other Slavs" from the hinterland, that were a threat to security in Šibenik. The "Ottoman Empire started to threaten Šibenik (known as Sebenico), as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, "St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and Šubićevac (Barone).
After the "Congress of Vienna until 1918, the town was (again) part of the "Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the "compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in "Kingdom of Dalmatia. The Italian name only was used until around 1871.
In 1872, at the time in the "Kingdom of Dalmatia, "Ante Šupuk became the town's first Croat mayor elected under universal suffrage. He was instrumental in the process of the modernization of the city, and is particularly remembered for the 1895 project to provide "street lights powered by the early AC "Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant. On 28 August 1895, Šibenik became the world's first city with "alternating current-powered street lights.
After World War I, Šibenik was occupied by the "Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the "Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by "Fascist Italy and "Nazi Germany. Communist partisans liberated Šibenik on 3 November 1944.
After World War II it became a part of the "SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.
During the "Croatian War of Independence (1991–95), Šibenik was heavily attacked by the "Yugoslav National Army and Serbian paramilitary troops.["better source needed] Although under-armed, the nascent "Croatian army and the people of Šibenik managed to defend the city. The battle lasted for six days (16–22 September), often referred to as the ""September battle". The bombings damaged numerous buildings and monuments, including the dome of the "Cathedral of St. James and the 1870-built theatre building.
In an August 1995 "military operation, the Croatian Army defeated the Serb forces and freed the occupied areas, which allowed the region to recover from the war and continue to develop as the centre of Šibenik-Knin county. Since then, the damaged areas of the city have been fully restored.
Šibenik has a "mediterranean climate (Csa), with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers. January and February are the coldest months, July and August are the hottest months. In July the average maximum temperature is around 30 °C (86 °F). The "Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is ""Csa" (Mediterranean Climate).
|Climate data for Šibenik|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−10.2
|Average "precipitation mm (inches)||74.1
|Average rainy days||10||9||9||10||9||8||5||5||7||9||12||12||105|
|Average snowy days||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||3|
|Mean monthly "sunshine hours||128.6||150.6||196.1||222.4||286.3||312.1||358.0||326.0||254.3||199.7||131.0||113.8||2,678.9|
|Source: National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (Croatia) |
Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in "Gothic and in "Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the Cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by "Yugoslav forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.
In the city of Šibenik there are four fortresses, each of whom provides spectacular view on the city, sea and nearby islands. Fortresses nowadays serve as a tourist sightseeing with each of them having unique offers to tourists.
The annual Šibenik International Children's Festival (Međunarodni Dječji Festival) takes place every summer which is renowned for many children's workshops, plays and other activities. From 2011 to 2013 the Terraneo festival (music festival) was held in August on a yearly basis on a former military area in Šibenik, and since 2014 Šibenik (and other nearby towns) are the home of its spiritual successor Super Uho festival. The composer "Jakov Gotovac founded the city's "Philharmonia Society" in 1922. The composer "Franz von Suppé was part of the city's cultural fabric, as he was a native of nearby "Split. Each summer, a lot of concerts and events take place in the city (especially on the St. Michael Fortress). Also, starting in 2016 on a nearby island of Obonjan (6 kilometres (3.7 miles) southwest of the city) is held music, art, health and workshop festival.
|Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005|
In the 2011 Croatian census, Šibenik's total city population is 46,332 which makes it the tenth-largest city in Croatia, with 34,302 in the urban settlement. Of Šibenik's citizens, 94.02% were "Croats.
The list of settlements is as follows:
Šibenik is "twinned with:
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Šibenik.|
"" Media related to Šibenik at Wikimedia Commons