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Main article: "Europa (web portal)

The "second-level domain has been reserved for EU institution sites, with institutions and agencies making the switch from " to ." domains on the "Europe day of 9 May 2006.

Actual use[edit]

The main users of .eu domains are websites with pan-European or cross-border intentions and audiences. It is often used to emphasise the 'European identity' of a website, as opposed to the website having a strictly national ccTLD or global "dotcom" nature. Alternative ("opportunistic) uses include "Basque webpages (as the initial letters of "Euskadi or the language "Euskara) and Romanian, Portuguese, or "Galician personal sites, as eu is the equivalent of the English pronoun 'I' in those languages.

In most countries of the EU, the national ccTLDs have the major share of the market with the remainder spread over ".com/".net/".org/".info/".biz. As a result of this, .eu has had an uphill battle to gain a significant share of these national markets. The dominant players tend to be the national ccTLD and .com. The other TLDs such as ".net, ".org and to a lesser extent ".info and ".biz have progressively smaller shares of these national markets.

Over one year after the launch of .eu (5 July 2007), the number of ".de domains registered was 11,079,557 according to the German .de registry's statistics page, while number of German owned .eu domains according to EURid's statistics page was 796,561. The number of ".uk domains registered was 6,038,732 according to .uk registry Nominet's statistics page. The number of apparently UK owned .eu domains was 344,584.

Parking and redirects[edit]

According to page 20 of "EURid's Annual Report for 2006, the breakdown of .eu domain ownership figures on 31 December 2006 was:

The number of registrants with five domains or fewer registered in .eu ccTLD was, according to these statistics, 805,316. These registrants accounted for 1,128,454 domains out of 2,444,947 .eu domains registered as of 31 December 2006. These registrations, typically those of individuals and companies protecting their brand, only represent 46% of the number of registered .eu domains.

It had been actively targeted during the Sunrise period by speculators using fast track Benelux trademarks to create prior rights on various high value generic terms and during the landrush by speculators using EU front companies in the UK and Cyprus to register large numbers of domains. While speculative activity occurred with the launch of other domains, it was the scale of the activity that called into question the competence of EURid in protecting the integrity of eu ccTLD.

The number of .eu domain registrations during the year after the landrush 7 April 2006 to 6 April 2007 seems to have peaked at approximately 2.6 million .eu domains. The market adjustment that follows a landrush in any domain name extension ensures that the number of registered domains will fall as many speculative domain registrations that failed to be resold will not be renewed. This is sometimes referred to as the Junk Dump. On the morning of 7 April 2007, the number of active .eu domains stood at 2,590,160 with approximately 15,000 domains having been deleted since 5 April 2007.

Approximately 1.5 million .eu domains were up for renewal in April 2007. The EURid registry software is based on the DNS. be software and domains are physically renewed at the end of the month of their anniversary of registration. This process differs from more sophisticated registries like that of ".com "TLD and other "ccTLDs that operate on a daily basis. As with any post-landrush phase, an extension shrinks as the Junk Dump takes effect.

The extent of the shrinkage of .eu ccTLD is difficult to estimate because EURid does not publish detailed statistics on the number of new domains registered each day. Instead it provides only a single figure for the number of active domains. The number of new registrations are combined with numbers of domains registered. Approximately 250,000 .eu domains were either deleted or moved into quarantine by 30 April 2007. In the intervening years the renewal rate has stabilised to approximately 80%, which is above the industry average.[11]

Cyrillic domain[edit]

.ею , a top level domain using Cyrillic letters was put in operation in 1 June 2016. Cyrillic letters are used in Bulgaria. ею can be transcribed eyu. Domain names shall use Cyrillic letters (digits or hyphens allowed); in fact new Cyrillic domains shall from the .ею launch date use .ею, not .eu.[12] Older Cyrillic domains under .eu were cloned into .ею at its launch. The EU is called ЕС in Bulgarian Cyrillic, but .ес is much too similar to ".ec, an existing domain, so .ею was chosen.

Greek domain[edit]

The application for a top level domain using Greek letters, .ευ, was turned down because it was too visually similar to .eu.[13]


  1. ^ "IANA .eu country code entry". 
  2. ^ "Register a domain name". 
  3. ^ "Eurid's .eu Timeline". 
  4. ^ "ICANN board approves agreement with EURid" (PDF). EURid. 21 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  5. ^ "Check out our domain name: .eu is now in the internet root" (PDF). EURid. 2 May 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  6. ^ Parsons, Bob (9 April 2006). "The .EU landrush fiasco. A bumbling registry allows Europe's very own domain name to be highjacked!". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  7. ^ Keizer, Gregg (11 April 2006). "New .EU Domain Name System Irks U.S. Firm". TechWeb Technology News. Archived from the original on 12 April 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  8. ^ Parsons, Bob (12 April 2006). "EURid denies .EU landrush abuse. These guys couldn't spin a top.". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  9. ^ News item from EURid announcing suspension of domain names and intention to sue domain name registrars. Retrieved on 26 July 2006. Archived 13 May 2007 at the "Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ a b "Website usage trends among top-level domains" (PDF). EURid. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  11. ^ "Annual Report 2011 - The .eu registry, EURid" (PDF). EURid. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  12. ^ Guidelines for .eu in Cyrillic (eurid)
  13. ^ .ею delegation

External links[edit]

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