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XIII Commonwealth Games
""1986 Commonwealth Games logo.svg
Host city "Edinburgh, Scotland
Nations participating 27
Athletes participating 1,660
Events 161 events in 10 sports
"Opening ceremony 24 July
Closing ceremony 2 August
Officially opened by "Elizabeth II
"Queen's Baton Final Runner "Allan Wells
Main venue "Meadowbank Stadium
<  "XII "XIV  >

The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in "Edinburgh, "Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986. They were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh.



Unlike the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, which were popular and successful, the 1986 Games are ill-famed for the wide political boycott connected with them and the resulting financial mismanagement.[1]


Further controversy arose when it was revealed that through this much-reduced participation and the resultant decline in anticipated broadcasting and sponsorship revenues, the Organising Committee was facing a big financial black hole. The boycott ended any prospect of securing emergency government assistance. Businessman "Robert Maxwell stepped in to offer funding, taking over as chairman; but although he promised to invest £2m, his contribution was just £250,000. On a budget of £14m, the Games opened with a deficit of £3m, which later grew to £4.3m, and instead of putting enough money into the event to save it, the new chairman of the Games asked creditors to forgo half the payment due to them to keep the event out of liquidation. The debt was finally paid off in 1989, with the city of Edinburgh losing approximately £500,000.[2]

Several participants were excluded because they breached the amateurism rules, most notably lawn bowlers "Phil Skoglund from New Zealand and "Willie Wood from Scotland, both of whom have competed in subsequent games.

Participating teams[edit]

Due to the boycott only 27 teams from across the Commonwealth were represented at the 1986 Games.

Participating Commonwealth countries and Territories
Participating Commonwealth countries and territories

^ Note: Bermuda withdrew from the games to join the boycott after the Opening ceremony.[3]

Debuting Commonwealth countries and territories


1986 Commonwealth Games boycotting countries dark red

The majority of Commonwealth nations staged a boycott, meaning that the Games appeared largely to be a whites-only event. Thirty two of the eligible fifty nine countries, largely African, Asian and Caribbean states, stayed away because of the "Thatcher government's policy of keeping Britain's sporting links with "apartheid South Africa in preference to participating in the general sporting boycott of that country. Consequently, Edinburgh 1986 witnessed the lowest turnout since Auckland 1950.[4] Bermuda was a particularly late withdrawal, as its athletes had appeared in the opening ceremony and in the opening day of competition before the Bermuda Olympic Association decided to formally withdraw.[5]

Commonwealth countries and territories that boycotted the Games

Opening ceremony[edit]

The theme of the opening ceremony celebrated the "Spirit of Youth" and included 6500 Scottish schoolchildren taking part in a series of large "Mass Games-style Gymnastics routines. The theme song "Spirit of Youth" was written by "Gerard Kenny. The ceremony began on the esplanade of "Edinburgh Castle from which hundreds of schoolchildren ran down the "Royal Mile, through "Holyrood Park to "Meadowbank Stadium.[7]


Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  "England 52 43 49 144
2  "Canada 51 34 31 116
3  "Australia 40 46 35 121
4  "New Zealand 8 16 14 38
5  "Wales 6 5 12 23
6  "Scotland 3 12 18 33
7  "Northern Ireland 2 4 9 15
8  "Isle of Man 1 0 0 1
9  "Guernsey 0 2 0 2
10  "Swaziland 0 1 0 1
11  "Hong Kong 0 0 3 3
12  "Malawi 0 0 2 2
13  "Botswana 0 0 1 1
 "Jersey 0 0 1 1
 "Singapore 0 0 1 1
Total 163 163 176 502

Medals by event[edit]






Event Gold Silver Bronze
Light Flyweight  "Scott Olson (CAN)  "Mark Epton (ENG)  Johnston Todd (NIR)
 Wilson Docherty (SCO)
Flyweight  "John Lyon (ENG)  "Leonard Makhanya (SWZ)  Kerry Webber (WAL)
 Steve Beaupré (CAN)
Bantamweight  "Sean Murphy (ENG)  Roy Nash (NIR)  Glen Brooks (SCO)
 John Sollitoe (JER)
Featherweight  Billy Downey (CAN)  Peter English (ENG)  Chris Carleton (NIR)
 Johnny Wallace (NZL)
Lightweight  "Asif Dar (CAN)  "Neil Haddock (WAL)  "Lyton Mphande (MAW)
 Joe Jacobs (ENG)
Light Welterweight  "Howard Grant (CAN)  David Clencie (AUS)  Brendan Lowe (NIR)
 Solomon Kondowe (MAW)
Welterweight  "Darren Dyer (ENG)  John McAllister (SCO)  John Shaw (CAN)
 "Damien Denny (NIR)
Light Middleweight  Dan Sherry (CAN)  Rick Finch (AUS)  Glynn Thomas (WAL)
 Alex Mullen (SCO)
Middleweight  "Rod Douglas (ENG)  "Jeff Harding (AUS)  Patrick Tinney (NIR)
 George Ferrie (SCO)
Light Heavyweight  Jim Moran (ENG)  Harry Lawson (SCO)  "Brent Kosolofski (CAN)
Heavyweight  "James Peau (NZL)  Douggie Young (SCO)  Dominic D'Amico (CAN)
 Eric Cardouza (ENG)
Super Heavyweight  "Lennox Lewis (CAN)  Aneurin Evans (WAL)  "James Oyebola (ENG)



Event Gold Silver Bronze
Time Trial  "Martin Vinnicombe (AUS) 00:01:06  "Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:01:06  "Maxwell Rainsford (AUS) 00:01:07
Sprint  "Gary Neiwand (AUS)  "Alex Ongaro (CAN)  "Eddie Alexander (SCO)
Individual Pursuit  "Dean Woods (AUS) 00:04:44  "Colin Sturgess (ENG) 00:04:51  "Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:04:54
Team Pursuit  "Australia
"Glenn Clarke
"Brett Dutton
Bill Hardy
"Wayne McCarney
"Dean Woods
00:04:27  "New Zealand
"Gary Anderson
Russell Clune
"Stephen Swart
"Andrew Whitford
00:04:34  "England
"Chris Boardman
Gary Colman
Rob Muzio
Jon Walshaw
Guy Rowland
10 Miles (16 Kilometres) Scratch  "Wayne McCarney (AUS) 00:19:41  "Dean Woods (AUS) 00:19:41  "Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:19:41


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Road Race  "Paul Curran (ENG) 04:08:50  "Brian Fowler (NZL) 04:08:50  "Jeff Leslie (AUS) 04:08:50
Team Time Trial  "England
Alan Gornall
Deno Davie
"Keith Reynolds
"Paul Curran
02:13:16  "New Zealand
Blair Cox
"Graeme Miller
"Gregory Fraine
"Paul Leitch
02:14:50  "Northern Ireland
Alastair Irvine
"Cormac McCann
Joseph Barr
Martin Quinn


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Single sculls  "England
"Steve Redgrave
00:07:28  "Australia
Richard Powell
00:07:33  "New Zealand
"Eric Verdonk
Double sculls  "Canada
"Bruce Ford
Pat Walter
00:06:19  "Australia
"Paul Reedy
Brenton Terrell
00:06:21  "England
"Carl Smith
"Allan Whitwell
Coxless pair  "England
"Andy Holmes
"Steve Redgrave
00:06:40  "New Zealand
"Barrie Mabbott
"Ian Wright
00:06:43  "Scotland
Ewan Stuart
"David Riches
Coxless four  "Canada
"Grant Main
"Kevin Neufeld
"Paul Steele
"Pat Turner
00:06:01  "New Zealand
"Andrew Stevenson
"Shane O'Brien
"Neil Gibson
"Don Symon
00:06:01  "England
Graham Faultless
Richard Ireland
Mostyn Field
Humphrey Hatton
Coxed four  "England
"Martin Cross
Adam Clift
"Andy Holmes
"Steve Redgrave
"Adrian Ellison
00:06:08  "New Zealand
"Nigel Atherfold
"Chris White
"Greg Johnston
"Bruce Holden
"Andrew Bird
00:06:10  "Australia
"Mark Doyle
"James Galloway
"Michael McKay
"James Tomkins
"Dale Caterson
Eights  "Australia
"James Galloway
"Malcolm Batten
"Andrew Cooper
"Mike McKay
"Mark Doyle
"James Tomkins
"Ion Popa
"Steve Evans
"Dale Caterson
00:05:44  "England 00:05:46  "New Zealand
Mike Burrell[8]
"Neil Gibson[9]
"Barrie Mabbott[10]
"Shane O'Brien[11]
"Andrew Stevenson[12]
"Don Symon[13]
Carl Vincent[14]
"Ian Wright[15]
"Andy Hay (cox)[16]
Lightweight single sculls  "Australia
"Peter Antonie
00:07:16  "Canada
Peter Tattersall
00:07:27  "England
"Carl Smith
Lightweight coxless four  "England
"Christopher Bates
"Peter Haining
Neil Staite
Stuart Forbes
00:06:26  "Australia
Simon Cook
Brian Digby
Merrick Howes
Joseph Joyce
00:06:28  "Canada
Dave Henry
"Brian Peaker
Bob Thomas
"Ryan Tierney
Single sculls  "New Zealand
"Stephanie Foster
00:07:43  "Canada
Lisa Wright
00:07:49  "England
Gillian Bond
Double sculls  "New Zealand
"Stephanie Foster
"Robin Clarke
00:07:22  "Canada
Heather Clarke
Lisa Robertson
00:07:49  "England
Diane Prince
Claire Parker
Coxless pair  "Canada
Kathryn Barr
Andrea Schreiner
00:07:35  "England
Pauline Bird
Fiona Johnson
00:07:42  "Australia
Catherine Hall
Alison Smith
Coxed four  "Canada
Tina Clarke
"Tricia Smith
"Lesley Thompson
"Jane Tregunno
"Jenny Wallinga
00:06:50  "Australia
Debbie Bassett
"Susan Chapman-Popa
"Robyn Grey-Gardner
Marilyn Kidd
Kaylynn Fry
00:06:54  "England
Joanne Gough
"Ann Callaway
Kate Holroyd
Patricia Reid
Alison Norrish
Eights  "Australia 00:06:44  "England 00:06:46  "Canada NTT
Lightweight single sculls  "Australia
"Adair Ferguson
00:07:45  "New Zealand
"Philippa Baker
00:07:46  "Canada
Heather Hattin
Lightweight coxless four  "England
Alexa Forbes
Gillian Hodges
"Lin Clark
Judith Burne
00:06:55  "Australia
Deborah Clingeleffer
"Amanda Cross
"Virginia Lee
"Karin Riedel
00:07:00  "Canada
Anne Drost
Marni Hamilton
Marlene van der Horst
Wendy Wiebe



Event Gold Silver Bronze
Free Pistol  "Greg Yelavich (NZL) 551  "Phil Adams (AUS)
 Ho Kar Fai (HKG)
Free Pistol – Pairs  "Canada
Tom Guinn
Claude Beaulieu
1099  "England
Paul Leatherdale
Richard Wang
1090  "Australia
"Phil Adams
"Bengt Sandström
Centre-Fire Pistol  Bob Northover (ENG) 583  "Phil Adams (AUS) 582  Rod Hack (AUS) 580
Centre-Fire Pistol – Pairs  "Australia
"Phil Adams
Rod Hack
1165  "England
Bob Northover
Michael Cutler
1157  "New Zealand
Rex Hamilton
Barry O'Neale
Rapid-Fire Pistol  Pat Murray (AUS) 591  "Adrian Breton (GGY) 588  Mark Howkins (CAN) 585
Rapid-Fire Pistol – Pairs  "England
"Brian Girling
Terry Turner
1169  "Australia
Pat Murray
Jack Mast
1152  "Canada
Mark Howkins
André Chevrefils
Air Pistol  "Greg Yelavich (NZL) 575  Tom Guinn (CAN) 574  Gilbert U (HKG) 574
Air Pistol – Pairs  "England
Paul Leatherdale
Ian Reid
1143  "Australia
"Phil Adams
Bruce Favell
1143  "New Zealand
"Greg Yelavich
Barrie Wickens


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Small Bore Rifle, Prone  Alan Smith (AUS) 599  "Alister Allan (SCO) 598  Gale Stewart (CAN)
 John Knowles (SCO)
Small Bore Rifle, Prone – Pairs  "Canada
"Michael Ashcroft
Gale Stewart
1175  "Australia
"Donald Brook
Alan Smith
1171  "Wales
Terry Wakefield
Colin Harris
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions  "Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 1170  "Alister Allan (SCO) 1167  Jean-François Sénécal (CAN) 1150
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions – Pairs  "England
"Malcolm Cooper
Sarah Cooper
2278  "Canada
Jean-François Sénécal
Michael Dion
2276  "Scotland
"Alister Allan
Bill MacNeill
Full Bore Rifle  Stan Golinski (AUS) 396  Alain Marion (CAN) 396  "John Bloomfield (ENG) 395
Full Bore Rifle – Pairs  "Canada
Bill Baldwin
Alain Marion
583  "Australia
James Corbett
Stan Golinski
583  "Northern Ireland
David Calvert
Martin Millar
Air Rifle  Guy Lorion (CAN) 588  "Sharon Bowes (CAN) 583  "Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 582
Air Rifle – Pairs  "Canada
Guy Lorion
"Sharon Bowes
1167  "Australia
Wolfgang Jobst
Anton Wurfel
1151  "England
"Malcolm Cooper
Robert Smith


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Trap  "Ian Peel (ENG) 195  "Peter Boden (ENG) 192  Roland Phillips (WAL) 192
Trap – Pairs  "England
"Peter Boden
"Ian Peel
185  "Northern Ireland
Tom Hewitt
Eamon Furphy
183  "Australia
"Terry Rumbel
Domingo Diaz
Skeet  Nigel Kelly (IOM) 196  "Joe Neville (ENG)
 Brian Gabriel (CAN)
Skeet – Pairs  "England
"Joe Neville
Ken Harman
195  "Canada
Brian Gabriel
Don Kwasyncia
193  "New Zealand
"John Woolley
Jeff Farrell


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Flyweight – Overall  Greg Hayman (AUS) 212.5  Charlie Revolta (SCO) 185  Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 177.5
Bantamweight – Overall  Nick Voukelatos (AUS) 245  Clayton Chelley (NZL) 217.5  Teo Yong Joo (SIN) 215
Featherweight – Overall  "Ray Williams (WAL) 252.5  David Lowenstein (AUS) 250  Jeffrey Brice (WAL) 235
Lightweight – Overall  "Dean Willey (ENG) 315  Ron Laycock (AUS) 307.5  Langis Côté (CAN) 290
Middleweight – Overall  Bill Stellios (AUS) 302.5  Louis Payer (CAN) 300  Neil Taylor (WAL) 270
Light Heavyweight – Overall  "Dave Morgan (WAL) 350  "Robert Kabbas (AUS) 325  "Peter May (ENG) 317.5
Middle Heavyweight – Overall  Keith Boxell (ENG) 350  "David Mercer (ENG) 342.5  Guy Greavette (CAN) 340
Sub Heavyweight – Overall  Denis Garon (CAN) 360  Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 332.5  Andrew Saxton (ENG) 327.5
Heavyweight – Overall  Kevin Roy (CAN) 375  Gino Frantangelo (AUS) 372.5  Andrew Davies (WAL) 370
Super Heavyweight – Overall  "Dean Lukin (AUS) 392.5  David Bolduc (CAN) 347.5  Charles Garzarella (AUS) 342.5


Event Gold Silver Bronze
Light Flyweight  Ron Moncur (CAN)  Duncan Burns (ENG)  David Connelly (SCO)
Flyweight  "Chris Woodcroft (CAN)  James McAlary (AUS)  "Nigel Donohue (ENG)
Bantamweight  Mitch Ostberg (CAN)  Steve Reinsfield (NZL)  Brian Aspen (ENG)
Featherweight  Paul Hughes (CAN)  Dan Cumming (AUS)  Stephen Bell (NZL)
Lightweight  "Dave McKay (CAN)  "Zsigmund Kelevitz (AUS)  Stephen Cooper (ENG)
Welterweight  Gary Holmes (CAN)  George Marsh (AUS)  Fitzlloyd Walker (ENG)
Middleweight  "Chris Rinke (CAN)  Wally Koenig (AUS)  Anthony Bell (ENG)
Light Heavyweight  "Noel Loban (ENG)  Doug Cox (CAN)  Graeme English (SCO)
Heavyweight  "Clark Davis (CAN)  Robert Algie (NZL)  David Kilpin (ENG)
Super Heavyweight  "Wayne Brightwell (CAN)  Albert Patrick (SCO)  Keith Peache (ENG)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The forgotten story of … Robert Maxwell's 1986 Commonwealth Games | Sport | theguardian.com". theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  2. ^ "Glasgow makes final call for 2014 Games - Athletics - Scotsman.com". News.scotsman.com. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  3. ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2015-08-19.
  4. ^ "Scottish independence referendum will increase interest in Glasgow 2014, it is claimed | Glasgow 2014". insidethegames.biz. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  5. ^ Fraser, Graham (2014-04-25). Glasgow 2014: The Bermuda boycott of 1986 that still hurts. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2014-11-02.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "8 More Nations Join Boycott of Commonwealth Games; Total Now 23". Los Angeles Times. 
  7. ^ "Power From Within - Commonwealth Games 1986 Opening Ceremony - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  8. ^ "Mike Burrell". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  9. ^ "Neil Gibson". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  10. ^ "Barrie Mabbott". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "Shane O'Brien". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  12. ^ "Andrew Stevenson". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  13. ^ "Don Symon". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Carl Vincent". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "Ian Wright". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Andrew Hay". "New Zealand Olympic Committee. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 

External links[edit]

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