UMB ("Ultra Mobile Broadband) was the brand name for a discontinued 4G project within the "3GPP2 standardization group to improve the "CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications and requirements. In November 2008, "Qualcomm, UMB's lead sponsor, announced it was ending development of the technology, favouring LTE instead. The objective was to achieve data speeds over 275 Mbit/s downstream and over 75 Mbit/s upstream.
At an early stage the "Flash-OFDM system was expected to be further developed into a 4G standard.
iBurst and MBWA (IEEE 802.20) systems
The "iBurst system (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) was at an early stage considered to be a 4G predecessor. It was later further developed into the "Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) system, also known as IEEE 802.20.
Principal technologies in all candidate systems
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The following key features can be observed in all suggested 4G technologies:
- Physical layer transmission techniques are as follows:
- "MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency by means of spatial processing including multi-antenna and multi-user MIMO
- Frequency-domain-equalization, for example multi-carrier modulation ("OFDM) in the downlink or single-carrier frequency-domain-equalization (SC-FDE) in the uplink: To exploit the frequency selective channel property without complex equalization
- Frequency-domain statistical multiplexing, for example ("OFDMA) or (single-carrier FDMA) (SC-FDMA, a.k.a. linearly precoded OFDMA, LP-OFDMA) in the uplink: Variable bit rate by assigning different sub-channels to different users based on the channel conditions
- "Turbo principle "error-correcting codes: To minimize the required "SNR at the reception side
- "Channel-dependent scheduling: To use the time-varying channel
- "Link adaptation: "Adaptive modulation and error-correcting codes
- "Mobile IP utilized for mobility
- IP-based "femtocells (home nodes connected to fixed Internet broadband infrastructure)
As opposed to earlier generations, 4G systems do not support circuit switched telephony. IEEE 802.20, UMB and OFDM standards lack soft-handover support, also known as "cooperative relaying.
Multiplexing and access schemes
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Recently, new access schemes like "Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), "Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), Interleaved FDMA, and "Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. These are based on efficient "FFT algorithms and frequency domain equalization, resulting in a lower number of multiplications per second. They also make it possible to control the bandwidth and form the spectrum in a flexible way. However, they require advanced dynamic channel allocation and adaptive traffic scheduling.
"WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. For the "LTE (telecommunication), OFDMA is used for the downlink; by contrast, "Single-carrier FDMA is used for the uplink since OFDMA contributes more to the "PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus requires energy-inefficient linear amplifiers. Similarly, MC-CDMA is in the proposal for the "IEEE 802.20 standard. These access schemes offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like CDMA. Apart from this, scalability and higher data rates can be achieved.
The other important advantage of the above-mentioned access techniques is that they require less complexity for equalization at the receiver. This is an added advantage especially in the "MIMO environments since the "spatial multiplexing transmission of MIMO systems inherently require high complexity equalization at the receiver.
In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems, improved "modulation techniques are being used. Whereas earlier standards largely used "Phase-shift keying, more efficient systems such as 64"QAM are being proposed for use with the "3GPP Long Term Evolution standards.
Unlike 3G, which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of "circuit switched and "packet switched network nodes, 4G will be based on packet switching only. This will require "low-latency data transmission.
By the time that 4G was deployed, the process of "IPv4 address exhaustion was expected to be in its final stages. Therefore, in the context of 4G, "IPv6 is essential to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of "IP addresses available, IPv6 removes the need for "network address translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing "IPv4 networks.
As of June 2009[update], "Verizon has posted specifications["dead link] that require any 4G devices on its network to support IPv6.
Advanced antenna systems
The performance of radio communications depends on an antenna system, termed "smart or "intelligent antenna. Recently, "multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate, high reliability, and long range communications. In the early 1990s, to cater for the growing data rate needs of data communication, many transmission schemes were proposed. One technology, "spatial multiplexing, gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. This technology, called "MIMO (as a branch of "intelligent antenna), multiplies the base data rate by (the smaller of) the number of transmit antennas or the number of receive antennas. Apart from this, the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. This is called transmit or receive diversity. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the space-time coding techniques, which does not necessarily require the channel knowledge at the transmitter. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies, which require channel knowledge at the transmitter.
Open-wireless Architecture and Software-defined radio (SDR)
One of the key technologies for 4G and beyond is called Open Wireless Architecture (OWA), supporting multiple wireless air interfaces in an open architecture platform.
"SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence.
History of 4G and pre-4G technologies
The 4G system was originally envisioned by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).["citation needed] The DARPA selected the distributed architecture and end-to-end Internet protocol (IP), and believed at an early stage in peer-to-peer networking in which every mobile device would be both a transceiver and a router for other devices in the network, eliminating the spoke-and-hub weakness of 2G and 3G cellular systems.["page needed] Since the 2.5G GPRS system, cellular systems have provided dual infrastructures: packet switched nodes for data services, and circuit switched nodes for voice calls. In 4G systems, the circuit-switched infrastructure is abandoned and only a "packet-switched network is provided, while 2.5G and 3G systems require both packet-switched and circuit-switched "network nodes, i.e. two infrastructures in parallel. This means that in 4G, traditional voice calls are replaced by IP telephony.
- In 2002, the strategic vision for 4G — which "ITU designated as "IMT Advanced— was laid out.
- In 2005, "OFDMA transmission technology is chosen as candidate for the "HSOPA downlink, later renamed 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) air interface "E-UTRA.
- In November 2005, "KT demonstrated mobile WiMAX service in Busan, South Korea.
- In April 2006, "KT started the world's first commercial mobile WiMAX service in Seoul, South Korea.
- In mid-2006, "Sprint announced that it would invest about US$5 billion in a "WiMAX technology buildout over the next few years ($5.94 billion in "real terms). Since that time Sprint has faced many setbacks that have resulted in steep quarterly losses. On 7 May 2008, "Sprint, "Imagine, "Google, "Intel, "Comcast, "Bright House, and "Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum; Sprint merged its "Xohm WiMAX division with "Clearwire to form a company which will take the name "Clear".
- In February 2007, the "Japanese company "NTT DoCoMo tested a 4G communication system prototype with 4×4 "MIMO called "VSF-OFCDM at 100 "Mbit/s while moving, and 1 "Gbit/s while stationary. NTT DoCoMo completed a trial in which they reached a maximum packet transmission rate of approximately 5 Gbit/s in the downlink with 12×12 MIMO using a 100 MHz frequency bandwidth while moving at 10 km/h, and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010.
- In September 2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power consumption below 100 mW during the test.
- In January 2008, a U.S. "Federal Communications Commission (FCC) "spectrum auction for the 700 MHz former analog TV frequencies began. As a result, the biggest share of the spectrum went to Verizon Wireless and the next biggest to AT&T. Both of these companies have stated their intention of supporting "LTE.
- In January 2008, EU commissioner "Viviane Reding suggested re-allocation of 500–800 MHz spectrum for wireless communication, including WiMAX.
- On 15 February 2008, Skyworks Solutions released a front-end module for e-UTRAN.
- In November 2008, "ITU-R established the detailed performance requirements of IMT-Advanced, by issuing a Circular Letter calling for candidate Radio Access Technologies (RATs) for IMT-Advanced.
- In April 2008, just after receiving the circular letter, the 3GPP organized a workshop on IMT-Advanced where it was decided that LTE Advanced, an evolution of current LTE standard, will meet or even exceed IMT-Advanced requirements following the ITU-R agenda.
- In April 2008, LG and Nortel demonstrated e-UTRA data rates of 50 Mbit/s while travelling at 110 km/h.
- On 12 November 2008, "HTC announced the first WiMAX-enabled mobile phone, the "Max 4G
- On 15 December 2008, "San Miguel Corporation, the largest food and beverage conglomerate in southeast Asia, has signed a memorandum of understanding with Qatar Telecom QSC ("Qtel) to build wireless broadband and mobile communications projects in the Philippines. The joint-venture formed wi-tribe Philippines, which offers 4G in the country. Around the same time "Globe Telecom rolled out the first WiMAX service in the Philippines.
- On 3 March 2009, Lithuania's LRTC announcing the first operational "4G" "mobile WiMAX network in Baltic states.
- In December 2009, Sprint began advertising "4G" service in selected cities in the United States, despite average download speeds of only 3–6 Mbit/s with peak speeds of 10 Mbit/s (not available in all markets).
- On 14 December 2009, the first commercial LTE deployment was in the Scandinavian capitals "Stockholm and "Oslo by the Swedish-Finnish network operator "TeliaSonera and its Norwegian brandname "NetCom (Norway). TeliaSonera branded the network "4G". The modem devices on offer were manufactured by "Samsung (dongle GT-B3710), and the network infrastructure created by "Huawei (in Oslo) and "Ericsson (in Stockholm). TeliaSonera plans to roll out nationwide LTE across Sweden, Norway and Finland. TeliaSonera used spectral bandwidth of 10 MHz, and single-in-single-out, which should provide physical layer "net bitrates of up to 50 Mbit/s downlink and 25 Mbit/s in the uplink. Introductory tests showed a "TCP "throughput of 42.8 Mbit/s downlink and 5.3 Mbit/s uplink in Stockholm.
- On 4 June 2010, "Sprint released the first WiMAX smartphone in the US, the "HTC Evo 4G.
- On November 4, 2010, the "Samsung Galaxy Craft offered by "MetroPCS is the first commercially available LTE smartphone
- On 6 December 2010, at the ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar 2010, the "ITU stated that "LTE, "WiMax and similar "evolved 3G technologies" could be considered "4G".
- In 2011, "Argentina's "Claro launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network in the country.
- In 2011, "Thailand's "Truemove-H launched a pre-4G HSPA+ network with nationwide availability.
- On March 17, 2011, the "HTC Thunderbolt offered by Verizon in the U.S. was the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially.
- In February 2012, "Ericsson demonstrated mobile-TV over LTE, utilizing the new eMBMS service (enhanced "Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service).
Since 2009 the LTE-Standard has strongly evolved over the years, resulting in many deployments by various operators across the globe. For an overview of commercial LTE networks and their respective historic development see: "List of LTE networks. Among the vast range of deployments many operators are considering the deployment and operation of LTE networks. A compilation of planned LTE deployments can be found at: "List of planned LTE networks.
Beyond 4G research
A major issue in 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by "macro-diversity techniques, also known as "group cooperative relay, and also by Beam-Division Multiple Access (BDMA).
"Pervasive networks are an amorphous and at present entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See "vertical handoff, "IEEE 802.21). These access technologies can be "Wi-Fi, "UMTS, "EDGE, or any other future access technology. Included in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as "cognitive radio) technology to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of "mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network.
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"3rd Generation (3G)
|"Mobile Telephony Generations||Succeeded by
"5th Generation (5G)
(currently under formal research & development)