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Main article: "Economy of Turkey European Union–Turkey Customs Union
A view of "Dolmabahçe Palace and the skyline of "Levent business district from the "Bosphorus "strait in "Istanbul, the largest city and economic capital of Turkey, and the former capital of the "Roman (330–395), "Byzantine (395–1204 and 1261–1453), "Latin (1204–1261) and "Ottoman (1453–1922) "Empires.

Turkey has the world's "17th largest GDP-PPP[115] and "18th largest Nominal GDP.[116] The country is a founding member of the "OECD and the "G-20 major economies.

"Beko and "Vestel are among the largest producers of "consumer electronics and "home appliances in Europe.

Turkey has taken advantage of a "customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[117] In 2008, Turkey's exports reached 141.8 billion USD[118] (main export partners: Germany 11.2%, UK 8%, Italy 6.95%, France 5.6%, Spain 4.3%, US 3.88%; total EU exports 56.5%.) However, larger imports amounting to about 204.8 billion USD[118] threaten the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 6%, USA 4.8%, France 4.6%, Iran 3.9%, UK 3.2%; total EU imports 40.4%; total Asia imports 27%).[119][120]

According to "Forbes magazine, "Istanbul had a total of 37 billionaires in 2013, ranking 5th in the world behind "Moscow (84 billionaires), "New York City (62 billionaires), "Hong Kong (43 billionaires) and "London (43 billionaires).[121]

The opening of talks regarding the Economic and Monetary Policy "acquis chapter of Turkey's accession bid was expected to begin in June 2007, but were stalled by "France.[122] "Turkey became the European Union’s fifth-largest "trade partner in 2015 according to data released by "Eurostat.[123]

Turkey is set to receive EUR 9.2bn from the "Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.


Demographics of Turkey
"İstiklal Avenue in "Istanbul's cosmopolitan "Beyoğlu district is visited by an average of 3 million people on weekend days.

As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 71.5 million with a yearly growth rate of 1.5%.[124][125] The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25.5% falling within the 0–15 age bracket.[126]

Turkey's large population would alter the balance of power in the representative European institutions. Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 78 million inhabitants would bestow it the second largest number of "MEPs in the "European Parliament.[127]["not in citation given] Demographic projections indicate that Turkey's population will surpass Germany's by 2020. This means Turkey would get the maximal number of representatives in the European Parliament, equal to Germany's.[127]["not in citation given]["dubious ]

"Istanbul will become the largest "metropolis in the European Union if Turkey successfully completes the accession negotiations.

Foreign relations with EU member states[edit]

Foreign relations of Turkey


Cyprus dispute

"Cyprus was divided when, on 20 July 1974, Turkey "occupied a third of the island in response to an "Athens-engineered coup aimed at "annexing Cyprus to Greece.[128][129] Since then, Turkey has refused to acknowledge the "Republic of Cyprus (an EU member since 2004) as the sole authority on the island, and recognizes the self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus since its establishment in 1983. The Turkish invasion in 1974 and the resulting movement of "refugees along both sides of the "Green Line, and the establishment of the self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, form the core issues which surround the ongoing "Cyprus dispute.

Turkey and the "Turkish Cypriots backed the 2004 "Annan Plan for Cyprus aimed at the reunification of the island, but the plan was subsequently rejected by Greek Cypriots on the grounds that it did not meet their needs. According to Greek Cypriots, the latest proposal included maintained residence rights for the many Anatolian Turks who moved to Cyprus after the invasion (and their descendants who were born on the island after 1974), while the Greek Cypriots who lost their property after the Turkish invasion would be granted only a restricted right of return to the north following the island's proposed reunification.["citation needed] Although the outcome received much criticism in the EU as well, the Republic of Cyprus was admitted into the EU a week after the referendum.

The self-declared "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey since its establishment in 1983. In 2004, the "Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) gave observer status (without voting rights) to the representatives of the Turkish Cypriot community.[130]

The Turkish government has refused to officially recognise the Republic of Cyprus until the removal of the political and economic blockade on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.["citation needed] Turkey's non-recognition of the Republic of Cyprus has led to complications within the "Customs Union. Under the customs agreements which Turkey had already signed as a precondition to start EU membership negotiations in 2005, it is obliged to open its ports to Cypriot planes and vessels, but Turkey has not complied so far;[131] refusing to do so until the EU eases the international isolation of Northern Cyprus.[132] In February 2013, Turkish EU Minister Egemen Bağış told the "Republic of Cyprus, "if you truly want salvation, truly want peace, then remove your blockade of "Ercan Airport to EU member countries and Turkey will open its ports to you."[133]

Turkey’s refusal to implement a trade pact between Turkey and the EU that requires the Turkish government to allow Greek Cypriot vessels to use its air and sea ports has prompted the EU to freeze eight chapters in Turkey's accession talks.[131]

In November 2009, Turkish Deputy Prime Minister "Cemil Çiçek declared that, should Turkey be forced to choose between supporting either EU membership or Turkish Cypriots, "[then] Turkey’s choice will forever be to stand next to the Turkish Cypriots. Everybody should understand this."[131]


Greece–Turkey relations

The issue of Turkish membership has been contentious in Greece. Opinion polls suggest that only 25% of "Greeks believe Turkey has a place in the European Union.[134] The former "Greek Prime Minister "Kostas Karamanlis stated that Turkish membership of the EU could only be predicated upon, "full compliance, full accession" in December 2006.[135] In 2005 the European Commission referred to relations between Turkey and Greece as "continuing to develop positively"[136] while also citing a key barrier to progress being Turkey's ongoing claim of "casus belli over a dispute about territorial waters boundaries.[136]


Religion in Turkey and "Secularism in Turkey
Originally a church, later a mosque, and today (since 1935) a museum, the 6th century "Hagia Sophia (532–537) in "Constantinople ("Istanbul) built by the "Byzantine emperor "Justinian the Great was the largest cathedral ever constructed in the world for nearly a millennium, until the completion of the "Seville Cathedral (1507) in "Spain.

Turkey has a "secular "constitution, with no "official" state religion, although the chief imam (currently "Mehmet Görmez) is a civil servant and head of the Religious Affairs Directorate, or Diyanet.[137] 99% of the Turkish population is "Muslim[138][139] of whom over 70% belong to the "Sunni branch of Islam. A minority is affiliated with the "Shi'a "Alevi branch.[140] The "Christians (Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, Gregorian, Syriac, Protestant) and "Jews (Sephardic, Ashkenazi) were formerly sizable religious minorities in the country, until the genocide of Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians. Turkey would be the first Muslim-majority country to join the European Union.[141][142]

Official population census polls in Turkey do not include information regarding a person's religious belief or ethnic background due to the regulations set by the Turkish constitution, which defines all citizens of the Republic of Turkey as Turkish in terms of nationality, regardless of faith or race.[143]

There is a tradition of "secularism in Turkey. The state has no official religion nor promotes any, and actively monitors the area between the religions.[144] The constitution recognises the "freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.[144] Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of "religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both sexes in government buildings, schools, and universities;[145] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the "European Court of Human Rights as legitimate in the "Leyla Şahin v. Turkey case on 10 November 2005.[146] However, in 2010, the prohibition of wearing headscarfs in universities was lifted.

Cultural differences between Muslim majority Turkey and predominantly Christian majority Europe play an important part in the entire debate on Turkish accession to the "European Union. In an analysis, based on the "World Values Survey, the social scientists "Arno Tausch and "Almas Heshmati came to the conclusion that a robust measurement scale of global economic, political and social values and Turkey's place on them wields only a very qualified picture of Turkey's place on the maps of global values. The study, which is based on 92,289 representative individuals with complete data in 68 countries, representing 56.89% of the global population, looks at hard-core economic values in the countries concerned. From nine dimensions for the determination of the geography of human values, based on a "promax "factor analysis of the available data, six factor analytical scores to calculate a new Global Value Development Index were used, which combines: avoiding economic permissiveness; avoiding racism; avoiding distrust of the army and the press; avoiding the authoritarian character; tolerance and respect; and avoiding the rejection of the market economy and democracy. Turkey is ranked 25, ahead of several EU member countries. But there are still considerable deficits concerning the liberal values components, which are very important for an effective democracy. The deficits, the study argues, suggest that the Turkish state, Turkish civil society and European decision makers would be well advised to continue to support civil society and "secular democracy in Turkey.[147]

Armenian Genocide recognition[edit]

Armenian Genocide recognition § Position of Turkey

In 2004, the French Foreign Minister "Michel Barnier stated that Turkey must recognise the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as a "genocide.[148] However, he insisted that although France did not set a precondition for European Union entry regarding the matter, he stated that France would raise the issue during negotiations. The President of the European Parliament, "Martin Schulz, stated that it must be a precondition for Turkey to recognise the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as genocide.[149]

The government of Turkey rejects such a precondition for EU membership and does not accept it as a part of the "EU membership criteria.

In 2006, the "European Parliament voted against a proposal to formally add the issue as a membership criterion for Turkey.[150] A similar proposal by Greek and Greek Cypriot MEPs was also rejected by the European Parliament in 2011.[151]

In 2013, during the case of "Perinçek v. Switzerland, the "European Court of Human Rights judged that "The existence of a genocide, which was a precisely defined legal concept, was not easy to prove. The Court doubted that there could be a general consensus as to events such as those at issue, given that historical research was by definition open to discussion and a matter of debate, without necessarily giving rise to final conclusions or to the assertion of objective and absolute truths."[152]

LGBT rights[edit]

LGBT rights in Turkey

In contravention of European Union directives on human rights, Turkey banned LGBT pride parades in 2015 and 2016.[153][154][155] Reasons given for the ban were security concerns, and religious sensitivities caused by holding the parade during the month of Ramadan.

Article 301[edit]

Censorship in Turkey and "Article 301

Article 301 states that "a person who publicly insults the Turkish nation, the State of the Republic of Turkey, or the "Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment of between six months and two years" and also that "expressions of thought intended to criticise shall not constitute a crime."

The EU was especially critical of this law during the September 2005 trial of novelist "Orhan Pamuk over comments that recognised the deaths of thirty thousand Kurds "and a million Armenians. Enlargement commissioner Olli Rehn and members of the European Parliament called the case "regrettable", "most unfortunate", and "unacceptable".[156] After the case was dropped three months later, Turkey's Foreign Minister "Abdullah Gül indicated that Turkey may abandon or modify Article 301, stating that "there may be need for a new law".[157] In September 2006, the European Parliament called for the abolition of laws, such as Article 301, "which threaten European free speech norms".[158] On 30 April 2008, the law was reformed.[159] According to the reform, it is now a crime to explicitly insult the "Turkish nation" rather than "Turkishness"; opening court cases based on Article 301 require the approval of the Justice Minister; and the maximum punishment has been reduced to two years in jail.[159]

"Kemal Kerinçsiz, an ultra-nationalist lawyer, and other members of Büyük Hukukçular Birliği (Great Jurists Union) headed by Kerinçsiz, have been "behind nearly all of [Article 301] trials."[160] In January 2008, Kerinçsiz was arrested for participating in an ultra-nationalist underground organisation, "Ergenekon, allegedly behind the attacks on the "Turkish Council of State and "Cumhuriyet newspaper,[161] the "assassination of several Christian missionaries and Armenian-Turkish journalist "Hrant Dink,[162] as well as allegedly plotting the assassination of Nobel laureate "Orhan Pamuk.[163][164]

Women's rights[edit]

Women in Turkey
Eighteen female "MPs joined the "Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections, at a time when women in a significant number of other European countries had "voting rights for the local municipal elections, but not for the national parliamentary elections. In 1993 "Tansu Çiller became the first female "Prime Minister of Turkey.

Turkey gave women "the right to vote in 1930 for municipal elections. In 1934 this right was expanded for the national elections, while women were also given the right to become elected as "MPs in the "Turkish Parliament, or for being appointed as "Ministers, "Prime Minister, "Speaker of the Parliament and "President of the Republic. In 1993 "Tansu Çiller became the first female "Prime Minister of Turkey.

In its second report on women's role in social, economic and political life in Turkey, the "European Parliament emphasised that respecting human rights, including women’s rights, is an essential condition for Turkey's membership of the EU. According to the report, Turkey's legal framework on women's rights "has in general been satisfactory, but its substantive implementation remains flawed."[165]

Conscientious objectors[edit]

Turkey is one of two states (along with "Azerbaijan) among the 47 members of the Council of Europe which refused to recognise the status of "conscientious objectors or give them an alternative to military service.[166]

Public reactions[edit]

In the EU[edit]

Public opinion in EU countries generally opposes Turkish membership, though with varying degrees of intensity. The "Eurobarometer September–October 2006 survey[167] shows that 59% of EU-27 citizens are against Turkey joining the EU, while only about 28% are in favour. Nearly all citizens (about 9 in 10) expressed concerns about "human rights as the leading cause. In the earlier March–May 2006 "Eurobarometer, citizens from the new member states were more in favour of Turkey joining (44% in favour) than the old EU-15 (38% in favour). At the time of the survey, the country whose population most strongly opposed Turkish membership was "Austria (con: 81%), while "Romania was most in favour of the accession (pro: 66%). On a wider political scope, the highest support comes from the "Turkish Cypriot Community (pro: 67%) (which is not recognised as sovereign state and is de facto not EU territory and out of the European institutions). These communities are even more in favour of the accession than the Turkish populace itself (pro: 54%).[168] Opposition in "Denmark to Turkish membership was polled at 60% in October 2007, despite the Danish government's support for Turkey's EU bid.[169]

In Turkey[edit]

The opening of membership talks with the EU in December 2004 was celebrated by Turkey with much fanfare,[170] but the Turkish populace has become increasingly sceptical as negotiations are delayed based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accession to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations particularly with regard to the French and Austrian "referendums. A mid-2006 "Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support an EU constitution.[171]

Moreover, Turks are divided on whether to join at all. A 2007 poll put Turkish support for accession to the EU at 41.9% (up from 32% in 2006), with 27.7% opposed and 24.0% indifferent.[172] A 2009 poll showed that support for accession had risen to 48%, even as negative views of the EU had risen from 28% to 32%.[173] A 2013 poll showed Turkish support for the EU bid at one third of the population, and opposition to double that share.[174]

According to the Transatlantic Trends survey for 2013, 60% of Turks have an unfavourable view of the European Union[175] and most Turks believe that working with Asia is more important to their national interests than working with Europe.[176] 44% of Turks believe EU membership could be good for the economy in contrast with 61% for EU citizens.[177] During an interview with Euractiv, EU Minister Egemen Bağış stated that: "This is what Europe needs to do; they need to say that when Turkey fulfills all requirements, Turkey will become a member of the EU on date X. Then, we will regain the Turkish public opinion support in one day."[178]

Official points of view[edit]

Major current viewpoints[edit]

  • "European Union "2014 EU "Presidential candidates "Jean-Claude Juncker ("EEP) and "Martin Schulz ("S&D) promised that Turkey would never join the European Union while either one of them were President, reasoning that Turkey had turned its back on European democratic values.[179] Juncker won the election and became the new president of the EU as of 1 November 2014. He later reaffirmed his stance:[180]

"... under my "Presidency of the Commission ... no further enlargement will take place over the next five years. As regards Turkey, the country is clearly far away from EU membership. A government that blocks "Twitter is certainly not ready for accession."

  • "Turkey Primary reasons for Turkey's persistent requests to join the EU are, among others, the many "Turks in Europe and the importance of trade between the two. Turkey is, however, also increasingly disappointed with the widespread opposition to its accession among EU member states. In September 2012, Turkish Prime Minister "Erdoğan was asked by CNN if Turkey still wants to join the EU. His response: "There are 5 million Turks in Europe and 3 million "Turks in Germany alone. We are a natural member of the European Union. Germany invited Turkish workers 50 years ago, however 50 years have passed and we have waited at the "European Union's doorstep. No other country has experienced such a thing. We will be patient until a point. However, when we cross that point, we will bring light to the situation and decide accordingly."[181] During a trip to "Yalta, Erdoğan expressed his stern disappointment regarding the EU accession process: "We are still an "EU negotiating candidate. At such a position, I wish EU accession. Otherwise, such a scenario would affect a large region including "Ukraine and Turkey."[182]
  • "Germany German Chancellor "Angela Merkel has repeatedly opposed full membership of Turkey to the EU on German-Turkish summits, advocating instead a "privileged partnership.[183][184][185][186] Some Christian Democrats back fuller support for Turkey, risking the chancellor becoming more isolated in advocating for a "privileged partnership".[187] In September 2011, on the occasion of the visit of the Turkish president "Gül, Merkel said: "We don't want the full membership of Turkey. But we don't want to lose Turkey as an important country", referring to her idea of a strategic partnership.[184] In 2006, Chancellor Merkel said "Turkey could be in deep, deep trouble when it comes to its aspirations to join the European Union" regarding its refusal to open up its ports to European Union member "Cyprus.[188] Again in 2014, when Erdogan urged Merkel to strongly support his country's bid, there was no sign the chancellor had relinquished her skepticism. She revealed after the two had talked: "I personally said that we are in a negotiation process that has certain outcome and no fixed time frame. It is no secret and nothing has changed in my view that I am sceptical about full membership for Turkey."[189]
  • "France Former French President "Nicolas Sarkozy opposed the entrance of Turkey in the European Union, arguing the country was too big, too poor and too culturally different to join the EU. Incumbent President "Francois Hollande, however, reaffirmed support for Turkey in 2012, intending to smooth the way for French companies seeking contracts in Turkey. Franco-Turkish relations remained tense after Turkey imposed a law in 2009 that criminalised "recognition of the "killing of Armenians by Ottoman Turks in 1915 as a "genocide; a move "France's Constitutional Court reversed, in turn causing French firms' share of foreign investment in Turkey to shrink from 6% in 2009 to 3% in 2012. Leaders of French "infrastructure companies are especially eager to enter the Turkish markets for "nuclear security and rail infrastructure, expected to respectively be worth $40 and $50 billion by 2020.[190][191]
  • "United States During the daily press briefing in the "White House of 24 June 2013, State spokesperson Patrick Ventrell mentioned the long-standing American support of Turkey. A journalist began: "U.S. Government was always a supporter of [Turkish accession]"—at which point Ventrell exclaimed 'Yep'—"but some EU members are reluctant to open chapters, new chapters, in this process with Turkey. Do you have a comment on--" Ventrell took over: "I have no change in position in terms of our support for Turkey’s European Union aspirations. That’s something that we’ve long been supporters of and will continue to be supporters of. I’d really have to refer you to other EU members for their position on that. But we do continue to follow events in Turkey closely, but separate and apart from that we’ve been clear that we support Turkey’s EU aspirations."[192]


  • "Greece In September 1999, following a thaw in Greek-Turkish relations after mutual help in earthquake relief, Greek Foreign Minister "George Papandreou told "The Guardian "Greece not only wants to see Turkey in the EU, it wants to be pulling the cart of a European Turkey", and that it was within his nation's interests as a way to avoid "continual conflict and tension with the block and European standards".[193]
  • "European Union The 2005 EU Progress Report stated that:

"On 29 July 2005, Turkey signed the Additional Protocol adapting the EC Turkey Association Agreement to the accession of 10 new countries on 1 May 2004. At the same time, Turkey issued a declaration stating that signature of the Additional Protocol did not amount to recognition of the Republic of Cyprus. On 21 September, the EU adopted a counter-declaration indicating that Turkey’s declaration was unilateral, did not form part of the Protocol and had no legal effect on Turkey’s obligations under the Protocol. The EU declaration stressed that recognition of all Member States was a necessary component of the accession process. It also underlined the need for supporting the efforts of the Secretary General of the UN to bring about a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem which would contribute to peace, stability and harmonious relations in the region."[194]

  • "European Union In November 2006, the European Commission members decided to suspend parts of the talks with Turkey regarding accession, as Turkish officials said that they will not open Turkish ports to traffic from Republic of Cyprus until the EU eases its embargo on Turkish-controlled northern Cyprus.[195]
  • "European Union In 2007, European Commission President "José Manuel Barroso said that Turkey is not ready to join the EU "tomorrow nor the day after tomorrow", but its membership negotiations should continue. He also called on France and other member states to honour the decision to continue accession talks, describing it as a matter of credibility for the Union.[196]
  • "Portugal On 28 June 2007, "Portuguese State Secretary for European Affairs Manuel Lobo Antunes affirmed that "Turkey should join the EU once it has successfully completed membership talks, which are likely to run for at least a decade."[197] "We think it is important and fundamental that Turkey joins the European Union once it fulfils all the conditions and all the criteria," he said, adding that ""Portugal aims in the next six months to 'put the process on track'."[197]
  • "Italy On 5 November 2008, the "Italian "Foreign Minister "Franco Frattini declared that "the Italian government will support the inclusion of Turkey in the European Union with all its strength."[198] He indicated that "the Italian Parliament will give a 'clear word' when necessary with the 'enormous majority' of the "Berlusconi government, but also with 'the opposition' which it knows it can count on."[198] "Turkey's inclusion will not be a problem, but it will be part of the solution for strengthening Europe in relations with other countries, such as the Caucasus region" he added.[198]
  • "Italy On 13 November 2008, the "Italian "Prime Minister "Silvio Berlusconi urged the EU to "accelerate Turkey's membership bid" and pledged to "help Ankara gain accession."[199] Berlusconi pledged to "try and win over those EU members resistant to Turkey’s application."[199] "Regarding the opposition shown by certain countries – some of which are important countries – I am confident we will be able to convince them of the strategic importance of Turkey, within the European framework, as a country bordering the Middle East," Berlusconi declared.[199]
  • "Sweden/"France On 29 May 2009, the French President Nicolas Sarkozy cancelled a visit to "Sweden scheduled for 2 June 2009, in order to avoid a clash on the question of Turkey's EU membership just a few days before the European elections and a month before Stockholm took over the EU's rotating presidency.[200] The French President, who is an outspoken opponent of Turkey's entry to the European Union, did not want to highlight the strong divergence of views on this topic with "Swedish "Prime Minister "Fredrik Reinfeldt, the French newspaper "Le Monde reported on 28 May 2009.[200] Sweden favours further EU enlargement, including to Turkey.[200] Swedish "Foreign Minister "Carl Bildt told the French newspaper "Le Figaro that "the EU has 'a strategic interest' in Turkey's EU integration and warned against 'closing the door' to Ankara."[200] "If we judge Cyprus to be in Europe, although it is an island along Syria's shores, it is hard not to consider that Turkey is in Europe," Mr Bildt said, referring to Mr Sarkozy's repeated statements that Turkey is not a European country and does not belong to Europe.[200] In the Le Figaro interview, Mr Bildt said: "My vision of Europe is not as defensive as I observe it with other people."[200] The French president's trip to Sweden was cancelled the day after the interview was published.[200] "Nicolas Sarkozy cancelled his visit because of the Carl Bildt interview," one French minister told Le Monde.[200] "The president wanted to avoid a clash on Turkey and did not want that his visit to Sweden interferes with the elections [five days later]."[200] In March 2013, King "Carl XVI of Sweden said that "The EU will become stronger with Turkey" [201]
  • "Spain On 5 April 2009, "Spanish "Prime Minister "José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero stated that "Spain firmly supports Turkey’s candidature to enter the EU, provided it meets the necessary requisites."[202] Zapatero told Turkish Prime Minister "Recep Tayyip Erdoğan that "Spain’s position is 'firm, clear and solid' in favour of Turkey’s candidature to enter the European Union."[202] "We must 'open the door' for Turkey to enter 'the EU peace and cooperation project', provided it meets the necessary requisites for integration," Zapatero added;[202] before remarking that "Turkey’s entrance is good both for Turkey and for the EU."[202]
  • "Greece In November 2009 Greek President "Karolos Papoulias stated that he would not support Turkey's accession "as long as Ankara behaves as an occupying force in Cyprus."[203]
  • "United Kingdom On 4 November 2009, "David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey underlined the UK government's support for Turkey's bid to join the European Union, saying: "I am very clear that Turkish accession to the EU is important and will be of huge benefit to both Turkey and the EU."[204]
  • "United Kingdom On 27 July 2010, "David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey has promised to "fight" for Turkey's membership of the European Union, saying he is "angry" at the slow pace of negotiations. He added that "a European Union without Turkey at its heart is not stronger but weaker... not more secure but less... not richer but poorer."[205]
  • "United States In a 2010 meeting with the Austrian Foreign Minister, United States Secretary of State "Hillary Clinton said “With respect to Turkey, the United States, along with many other countries in Europe, support the membership of Turkey inside the EU. I know that it is an issue that divides the European Union. We don’t have a vote, but if we were a member, we would be strongly in favour of it.”[206]
  • "Germany On 3 July 2013, at an election rally of Christian Democrat Party in "Düsseldorf, German Finance Minister "Wolfgang Schäuble stated that Turkey should not join the European Union as it is not part of Europe.[207][208]
  • "Turkey On 7 June 2013 Turkey’s Undersecretary of the Ministry of EU Affairs Haluk Ilıcak said “The process means more than the accession. Once the necessary levels are achieved, Turkey is big enough to continue its development without the accession. Our aim is to achieve a smooth accession process.”[209]
  • "Czech Republic In 2013, "Czech Republic Prime Minister "Petr Nečas said: "We continue to believe that Turkey should be given the chance to become a full-fledged member of the European Union after it meets all accession criteria". He described Turkey as an important partner to the EU and praised the constructive role it plays in the Middle East region.[210]

Impact of joining[edit]

Member countries Population Area (km²) Nominal GDP
(billion US$)
Nominal GDP
per capita (US$)
"Turkey "Turkey 80,417,526 783,562 861 11,014 "Turkish
EU27 444,708,416 4,381,376 17,782 39,858 27
EU27+1 522,404,320

See also[edit]


  1. ^ European Commission: Accession negotiations with Turkey
  2. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  3. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". "Central Intelligence Agency. 
  4. ^ "EU-Turkey relations". European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours. EurActiv.com. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2008. 
  5. ^ In 1948, Turkey became one of the original 18 members of 'Organisation for European Economic Co-operation' OEEC which became OECD in 1961 OECD convention
  6. ^ "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM" (PDF). "European Commission. 15 October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2006. 
  7. ^ Phinnemore and İçener, David and Erhan (14 May 2016). "Never mind Brexit scaremongering – Turkey is a long way from joining the EU". blogs.lse.ac.uk. LSE. Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "Fifty Years On, Turkey Still Pines to Become European". TIME. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  9. ^ {{Cite news| url=http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21708693-two-cheers-hypocrisy-turkeys-bid-join-eu-bad-joke-dont-kill-it
  10. ^ a b "Cecilia Malmström signs the Readmission Agreement and launches the Visa Liberalisation Dialogue with Turkey". "European Commission. 6 November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "European Commission opens way for decision by June on visa-free travel for citizens of Turkey". European Commission. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  12. ^ "Freeze EU accession talks with Turkey until it halts repression, urge MEPs". "European Parliament. 
  13. ^ "EU parliament votes overwhelmingly in favour of scrapping Turkey accession talks". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-12-08. 
  14. ^ a b "EU says won't expand Turkey membership talks". Yahoo. 13 December 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Marc Pierini (12 December 2016). "Turkey's Impending Estrangement From the West". Carnegie Europe. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Turkey and EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey (Washington, DC). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007. 
  17. ^ "Turkey and the Council of Europe". "Council of Europe. 27 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006. 
  18. ^ "Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization". NATO Media Library. NATO. 18 February 1952. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006. 
  19. ^ Ahıska, Meltem (2003) “Occidentalism: The Historical Fantasy of the Modern” South Atlantic Quarterly 102/2-3, Spring-Summer 2003 (Special Issue on Turkey: “Relocating the Fault Lines. Turkey Beyond the East-West Divide”), pp. 351–379.
  20. ^ "About Turkey and the EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in London. Retrieved 4 July 2007. 
  21. ^ a b European Council: EU would open accession negotiations with Turkey
  22. ^ "Independent Commission on Turkey". Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  23. ^ Today's Zaman: Turkey Starts Full Membership Negotiations with EU
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External links[edit]

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