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Union with Scotland Act 1706[1]
Act of Parliament
"Long title An Act for a Union of the Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland
"Citation 1706 c. 11
Territorial extent "Kingdom of England (inc. "Wales); subsequently, United Kingdom
Status: Current legislation
Revised text of statute as amended
Union with England Act 1707
Act of Parliament
"Long title Act Ratifying and Approving the Treaty of Union of the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England
"Citation 1707 c. 7
Territorial extent "Kingdom of Scotland; subsequently, United Kingdom
Status: Current legislation
Revised text of statute as amended
Constitutional documents relevant to the status of the "United Kingdom and legislative unions "of its constituent countries
""Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
"Treaty of Union 1706
Acts of Union 1707
"Personal Union of 1714 1714
"Wales and Berwick Act 1746
"Irish Constitution 1782
"Acts of Union 1800
"Government of Ireland Act 1920
"Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921
"Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927
"N. Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972
"European Communities Act 1972
"Local Government Act 1972
"Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973
"Northern Ireland Assembly 1973
"N. Ireland Constitution Act 1973
"Referendum Act 1975
"Scotland Act 1978
"Wales Act 1978
"Local Government (Wales) Act 1994
"Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994
"Referendums (Scotland & Wales) Act 1997
"Good Friday Agreement 1998
"Northern Ireland Act 1998
"Government of Wales Act 1998
"Scotland Act 1998
"Government of Wales Act 2006
"Northern Ireland Act 2009
"European Union Act 2011
"Scotland Act 2012
"Edinburgh Agreement 2012
"Wales Act 2014
"European Union Referendum Act 2015
"Scotland Act 2016
"Wales Act 2017

The Acts of Union were two "Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the "Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the "Parliament of Scotland. They put into effect the terms of the "Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between commissioners representing the parliaments of the two countries. By the two Acts, the "Kingdom of England and the "Kingdom of Scotland—which at the time were separate "states with separate legislatures, but "with the same monarch—were, in the words of the Treaty, "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain".[2]

The two countries had shared a monarch since the "Union of the Crowns in 1603, when "King James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne from his "double first cousin twice removed, "Queen Elizabeth I. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head (as opposed to the implied creation of a single Crown and a single Kingdom, exemplified by the later "Kingdom of Great Britain). There had been three attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689 to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that both political establishments came to support the idea, albeit for different reasons.

The Acts took effect on 1 May 1707. On this date, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament united to form the "Parliament of Great Britain, based in the "Palace of Westminster in London, the home of the English Parliament.[3] Hence, the Acts are referred to as the Union of the Parliaments. On the Union, the historian "Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world ... it was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history."[4]

Contents

Historical background[edit]

Previous attempts at union[edit]

England and "Scotland were separate states for several centuries before eventual union, and English attempts to take over Scotland by military force in the late 13th and early 14th centuries were ultimately unsuccessful (see the "Wars of Scottish Independence). The first attempts at Union surrounded the foreseen unification["clarification needed] of the Royal lines of Scotland and England. In pursuing the English throne in the 1560s, "Mary, Queen of Scots pledged herself to a peaceful union between the two kingdoms.[5]

England and Scotland were ruled by the same king for the first time in 1603 when James VI of Scotland also became the king of England. However they remained two separate states until 1 May 1707.

Early Stuart union[edit]

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The first "Union flag, created by James VI and I, symbolising the uniting of England and Scotland under one Crown (A "separate version was used in Scotland during the 17th Century)

The first attempt to unite the parliaments of England and Scotland was by Mary's son, King James VI and I. On his accession to the English throne in 1603 King James announced his intention to unite his two realms so that he would not be "guilty of bigamy". James used his "royal prerogative powers to take the style of "King of Great Britain"[6] and to give an explicitly British character to his court and person.[7] Whilst James assumed the creation of a full union was a foregone conclusion, the "Parliament of England was concerned that the formation of a new state would deprive England of its ancient liberties, taking on the more "absolutist monarchical structure James had previously enjoyed in Scotland.[8] In the meantime, James declared that Great Britain be viewed "as presently united, and as one realm and kingdom, and the subjects of both realms as one people".[9]

The Scottish and English parliaments "established a commission to negotiate a union, formulating an instrument of union between the two countries. However, the idea of political union was unpopular, and when James dropped his policy of a speedy union, the topic quietly disappeared from the legislative agenda. When the House of Commons attempted to revive the proposal in 1610, it was met with a more open hostility.[10]

Union during the interregnum[edit]

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Rare "Commonwealth-era flag depicting the union between England and Scotland

The "Solemn League and Covenant 1643 sought a forced union of the "Church of England into the "Church of Scotland, and although the covenant referred repeatedly to union between the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, a political union was not spelled out.

In the aftermath of the "Civil War, in which the "Covenanters had fought for the King, "Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland and began a process of creating a "Godly Britannic" Union between the former Kingdoms.[11] In 1651, the Parliament of England issued the "Tender of Union declaration supporting Scotland's incorporation into the Commonwealth and sent Commissioners to Scotland with the express purpose of securing support for Union, which was assented to by the Commissioners (Members of Parliament) in Scotland. On 12 April 1654, Cromwell – styling himself "Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland – enacted An Ordinance by the Protector for the Union of England and Scotland, which created "one Commonwealth and under one Government" to be known as the "Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.[12] The ordinance was ratified by the "Second Protectorate Parliament, as an "Act of Union, on 26 June 1657.[13] One united Parliament sat in Westminster, with 30 representatives from Scotland and 30 from Ireland joining the existing members from England. Whilst free trade was brought about amongst the new Commonwealth, the economic benefits were generally not felt as a result of heavy taxation used to fund Cromwell's "New Model Army.[11]

This republican union was dissolved automatically with the "restoration of "King Charles II to the thrones of England and Scotland. Scottish members expelled from the Commonwealth "Parliament petitioned unsuccessfully for a continuance of the union. Cromwell's union had simultaneously raised interest in and suspicion of the concept of union and when "Charles II attempted to recreate the union and fulfil the work of his grandfather in 1669, negotiations between Commissioners ground to a halt.[14]

Later attempts[edit]

An abortive scheme for union occurred in Scotland in 1670.[15]

Following the "Glorious Revolution of 1688, the records of the Parliament of Scotland show much discussion of possible union. "William III and "Mary II, whilst supportive of the idea, had no interest in allowing it to delay their enthronement. Impetus for this incorporating union came almost entirely from King William, who feared leaving Scotland open to a French invasion. In the 1690s, the economic position of Scotland worsened, and relations between Scotland and England became strained.[16] In the following decade, however, union again became a significant topic of political debate.

Treaty and passage of the Acts of 1707[edit]

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"Articles of Union otherwise known as Treaty of Union", 1707

Deeper political integration had been a key policy of "Queen Anne from the time she acceded to the throne in 1702. Under the aegis of the Queen and her ministers in both kingdoms, the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed to participate in fresh negotiations for a union treaty in 1705.

Both countries appointed 31 commissioners to conduct the negotiations. Most of the Scottish commissioners favoured union, and about half were government ministers and other officials. At the head of the list was Queensberry, and the "Lord Chancellor of Scotland, the "Earl of Seafield.[17] The English commissioners included the "Lord High Treasurer, the "Earl of Godolphin, the "Lord Keeper, "Baron Cowper, and a large number of Whigs who supported union. Tories were not in favour of union and only one was represented among the commissioners.[17]

Negotiations between the English and Scottish commissioners took place between 16 April and 22 July 1706 at the "Cockpit in London. Each side had its own particular concerns. Within a few days, England gained a guarantee that the "Hanoverian dynasty would succeed Queen Anne to the Scottish crown, and Scotland received a guarantee of access to colonial markets, in the hope that they would be placed on an equal footing in terms of trade.[18]

After negotiations ended in July 1706, the acts had to be ratified by both Parliaments. In Scotland, about 100 of the 227 members of the "Parliament of Scotland were supportive of the "Court Party. For extra votes the pro-court side could rely on about 25 members of the "Squadrone Volante, led by the "Marquess of Montrose and the "Duke of Roxburghe. Opponents of the court were generally known as the "Country party, and included various factions and individuals such as the "Duke of Hamilton, "Lord Belhaven and "Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun, who spoke forcefully and passionately against the union. The Court party enjoyed significant funding from England and the Treasury and included many who had accumulated debts following the "Darien Disaster.[19]

In Scotland, the "Duke of Queensberry was largely responsible for the successful passage of the Union act by the "Scottish Parliament. In Scotland, he received much criticism from local residents, but in England he was cheered for his action. He had received around half of the funding awarded by the Westminster treasury for himself. In April 1707, he travelled to London to attend celebrations at the royal court, and was greeted by groups of noblemen and gentry lined along the road. From "Barnet, the route was lined with crowds of cheering people, and once he reached London a huge crowd had formed. On 17 April, the Duke was gratefully received by the Queen at "Kensington Palace.[20]

Political motivations[edit]

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Portrait of Queen Anne in 1702, the year she became queen, from the school of "John Closterman

English perspective[edit]

The English purpose was to ensure that Scotland would not choose a monarch different from the one on the English throne. The two countries had shared a king for much of the previous century, but the English were concerned that an independent Scotland with a different king, even if he were a Protestant, might make alliances against England. The English succession was provided for by the English "Act of Settlement 1701, which ensured that the monarch of England would be a Protestant member of the "House of Hanover. Until the Union of Parliaments, the Scottish throne might be inherited by a different successor after "Queen Anne: the Scottish "Act of Security 1704 granted parliament the right to choose a successor and explicitly required a choice different from the English monarch unless the English were to grant free trade and navigation. Many people in England were unhappy about the prospect, however. "English overseas possessions made England very wealthy in comparison to Scotland, a poor country with few roads, very little industry and almost no Navy.["citation needed] This made some view unification as a markedly unequal relationship.

Scottish perspective[edit]

In Scotland, some claimed that union would enable Scotland to recover from the financial disaster wrought by the "Darien scheme through English assistance and the lifting of measures put in place through the "Alien Act to force the Scottish Parliament into compliance with the Act of Settlement.[21]

The combined votes of the Court party with a majority of the "Squadrone Volante were sufficient to ensure the final passage of the treaty through the House.

Personal financial interests were also allegedly involved. Many Commissioners had invested heavily in the Darien scheme and they believed that they would receive compensation for their losses; Article 15 granted "£398,085 10"s sterling to Scotland, a sum known as "The Equivalent, to offset future liability towards the English national debt. In essence it was also used as a means of compensation for investors in the Company of Scotland's Darien scheme, as 58.6% was allocated to its shareholders and creditors.[22]

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18thC French illustration of an opening of the Scottish Parliament

Even more direct bribery was also said to be a factor.[23] £20,000 (£240,000 "Scots) was dispatched to Scotland for distribution by the "Earl of Glasgow. "James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, the "Queen's Commissioner in Parliament, received £12,325, more than 60% of the funding. (Some contend that all of this money was properly accounted for as compensation for loss of office, pensions and so forth not outwith the usual run of government. It is perhaps a debate that will never be set to rest. However, modern research has shown that payments were made to supporters of union that appear not to have been overdue salaries. At least four payments were made to people who were not even members of the Scottish Parliament.) "Robert Burns referred to this:

We're bought and sold for English Gold,
Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation.

Some of the money was used to hire spies, such as "Daniel Defoe; his first reports were of vivid descriptions of violent demonstrations against the Union. "A Scots rabble is the worst of its kind," he reported, "for every Scot in favour there is 99 against". Years later, "Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, originally a leading "Unionist, wrote in his memoirs that Defoe "was a spy among us, but not known as such, otherwise the Mob of Edinburgh would pull him to pieces."

The Treaty could be considered very unpopular at the time. Popular unrest occurred in Edinburgh, as mentioned above, with some lesser but still substantial riots in Glasgow. The people of Edinburgh demonstrated against the treaty, and their apparent leader in opposition to the Unionists was "James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton. However, Hamilton was actually on the side of the English Government. Demonstrators in Edinburgh were opposed to the Union for many reasons: they feared the Kirk would be Anglicised; that Anglicisation would remove democracy from the only really elementally democratic part of the Kingdom; and they feared that tax rises would come.[24]

"Sir George Lockhart of Carnwath, the only member of the Scottish negotiating team against union, noted that "The whole nation appears against the Union"[25] and even Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, an ardent pro-unionist and Union negotiator, observed that the treaty was "contrary to the inclinations of at least three-fourths of the Kingdom".[25] Public opinion against the Treaty as it passed through the Scottish Parliament was voiced through petitions from shires, burghs, presbyteries and parishes. The "Convention of Royal Burghs also petitioned against the Union as proposed:

That it is our indispensable duty to signify to your grace that, as we are not against an honourable and safe union with England far less can we expect to have the condition of the people of Scotland, with relation to these great concerns, made better and improved without a Scots Parliament.[26]

Not one petition in favour of an incorporating union was received by Parliament. On the day the treaty was signed, the "carilloner in "St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, rang the bells in the tune Why should I be so sad on my wedding day?[27] Threats of widespread civil unrest resulted in Parliament imposing "martial law.

Provisions of the Acts[edit]

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"Royal heraldic badge of Queen Anne, depicting the "Tudor rose and the "Scottish thistle growing out of the same stem.

The "Treaty of Union, agreed between representatives of the "Parliament of England and the "Parliament of Scotland in 1706, consisted of 25 articles, 15 of which were economic in nature. In Scotland, each article was voted on separately and several clauses in articles were delegated to specialised subcommittees. Article 1 of the treaty was based on the political principle of an incorporating union and this was secured by a majority of 116 votes to 83 on 4 November 1706. To minimise the opposition of the "Church of Scotland, an Act was also passed to secure the "Presbyterian establishment of the Church, after which the Church stopped its open opposition, although hostility remained at lower levels of the clergy. The treaty as a whole was finally ratified on 16 January 1707 by a majority of 110 votes to 69.[28]

The two Acts incorporated provisions for Scotland to send "representative peers from the "Peerage of Scotland to sit in the "House of Lords. It guaranteed that the "Church of Scotland would remain the "established church in Scotland, that the "Court of Session would "remain in all time coming within Scotland", and that "Scots law would "remain in the same force as before". Other provisions included the restatement of the "Act of Settlement 1701 and the ban on "Roman Catholics from taking the throne. It also created a "customs union and "monetary union.

The Act provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Act would "cease and become void".

Soon after the Union, the Act 6 Anne c.40—later infelicitously named the "Union with Scotland (Amendment) Act 1707—united the English and Scottish "Privy Councils and decentralised Scottish administration by appointing justices of the peace in each shire to carry out administration. In effect it took the day-to-day government of Scotland out of the hands of politicians and into those of the "College of Justice.

Evaluations[edit]

Scotland benefited, says historian G.N. Clark, gaining "freedom of trade with England and the colonies" as well as "a great expansion of markets". The agreement guaranteed the permanent status of the Presbyterian church in Scotland, and the separate system of laws and courts in Scotland. Clark argued that in exchange for the financial benefits and bribes that England bestowed, what it gained was

of inestimable value. Scotland accepted the Hanoverian succession and gave up her power of threatening England's military security and complicating her commercial relations ... The sweeping successes of the eighteenth-century wars owed much to the new unity of the two nations.[29]

By the time "Samuel Johnson and "James Boswell made their tour in 1773, recorded in "A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Johnson noted that Scotland was "a nation of which the commerce is hourly extending, and the wealth increasing" and in particular that "Glasgow had become one of the greatest cities of Britain.[30]

300th anniversary[edit]

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The £2 coin issued in the United Kingdom in 2007 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Acts of Union

A commemorative "two-pound coin was issued to mark the tercentennial—300th anniversary—of the Union, which occurred two days before the "Scottish Parliament general election on 3 May 2007.[31]

The "Scottish Executive held a number of commemorative events through the year including an education project led by the "Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, an exhibition of Union-related objects and documents at the "National Museums of Scotland and an exhibition of portraits of people associated with the Union at the "National Galleries of Scotland.[32]

Scottish voting records[edit]

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Map of commissioner voting on the ratification of the Treaty of Union.
Voting Records for 16 January 1707 ratification of the Treaty of Union
Commissioner Constituency/Position Party Vote
"James Graham, 1st Duke of Montrose "Lord President of the Council of Scotland/"Stirlingshire Court Party Yes
"John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll Court Party Yes
"John Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale "Squadrone Volante Yes
"William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian Court Party Yes
"John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar Court Party Yes
"John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland Court Party Yes
"John Hamilton-Leslie, 9th Earl of Rothes "Squadrone Volante Yes
"James Douglas, 11th Earl of Morton Yes
"William Cunningham, 12th Earl of Glencairn Yes
"James Hamilton, 6th Earl of Abercorn Yes
"John Ker, 1st Duke of Roxburghe "Squadrone Volante Yes
"Thomas Hamilton, 6th Earl of Haddington Yes
"John Maitland, 5th Earl of Lauderdale Yes
"David Wemyss, 4th Earl of Wemyss Yes
"William Ramsay, 5th Earl of Dalhousie Yes
"James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater "Banffshire Yes
"David Leslie, 3rd Earl of Leven Yes
"David Carnegie, 4th Earl of Northesk Yes
"Earl of Belcarras Yes
"Archibald Douglas, 1st Earl of Forfar Yes
"William Boyd, 3rd Earl of Kilmarnock Yes
"John Keith, 1st Earl of Kintore Yes
"Patrick Hume, 1st Earl of Marchmont "Squadrone Volante Yes
"George Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Cromartie Yes
"Archibald Primrose, 1st Earl of Rosebery Yes
"David Boyle, 1st Earl of Glasgow Yes
"Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun LIKELY "Linlithgowshire Yes
"Henry Scott, 1st Earl of Deloraine Yes
"Archibald Campbell, Earl of Illay Yes
"William Hay, Viscount Dupplin Yes
"William Forbes, 12th Lord Forbes Yes
"John Elphinstone, 8th Lord Elphinstone Yes
"William Ross, 12th Lord Ross Yes
"James Sandilands, 7th Lord Torphichen Yes
"Lord Fraser Yes
"George Ogilvy, 3rd Lord Banff Yes
"Alexander Murray, 4th Lord Elibank Yes
"Kenneth Sutherland, 3rd Lord Duffus Yes
"Robert Rollo, 4th Lord Rollo "Stirlingshire Yes
James Murray, Lord Philiphaugh "Lord Clerk Register/"Selkirkshire Yes
"Adam Cockburn, Lord Ormiston "Lord Justice Clerk Yes
Sir Robert Dickson of Inverask "Edinburghshire Yes
William Nisbet of Dirletoun "Haddingtonshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
"John Cockburn, younger, of Ormestoun "Haddingtonshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
Sir John Swintoun of that ilk "Berwickshire Court Party Yes
Sir Alexander Campbell of Cessnock "Berwickshire Yes
Sir William Kerr of Greenhead "Roxburghshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
"Archibald Douglas of Cavers "Roxburghshire Court Party Yes
William Bennet of Grubbet "Roxburghshire Court Party Yes
"Mr John Murray of Bowhill "Selkirkshire Court Party Yes
Mr John Pringle of Haining "Selkirkshire Court Party Yes
William Morison of Prestongrange "Peeblesshire Court Party Yes
Alexander Horseburgh of that ilk "Peeblesshire Yes
"George Baylie of Jerviswood "Lanarkshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
"Sir John Johnstoun of Westerhall "Dumfriesshire Court Party Yes
William Dowglass of Dornock "Dumfriesshire Yes
Mr William Stewart of Castlestewart "Wigtownshire Yes
"Mr John Stewart of Sorbie "Wigtownshire Court Party Yes
Mr Francis Montgomery of Giffan "Ayrshire Court Party Yes
Mr William Dalrymple of Glenmuir "Ayrshire Court Party Yes
Mr Robert Stewart of Tillicultrie "Buteshire Yes
Sir Robert Pollock of that ilk "Renfrewshire Court Party Yes
Mr John Montgomery of Wrae "Linlithgowshire Yes
John Halden of Glenagies "Perthshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
Mongo Graham of Gorthie "Perthshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
"Sir Thomas Burnet of Leyes "Kincardineshire Court Party Yes
William Seton, younger, of Pitmedden "Aberdeenshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
Alexander Grant, younger, of that ilk "Inverness-shire Court Party Yes
"Sir William Mackenzie Yes
Mr Aeneas McLeod of Cadboll "Cromartyshire Yes
Mr John Campbell of Mammore "Argyllshire Court Party Yes
"Sir James Campbell of Auchinbreck "Argyllshire Court Party Yes
"James Campbell, younger, of Ardkinglass "Argyllshire Court Party Yes
Sir William Anstruther of that ilk "Fife Yes
James Halyburton of Pitcurr "Forfarshire "Squadrone Volante Yes
Alexander Abercrombie of Glassoch "Banffshire Court Party Yes
Mr James Dunbarr, younger, of Hemprigs "Caithness Yes
"Alexander Douglas of Eagleshay "Orkney and Shetland Court Party Yes
"Sir John Bruce, 2nd Baronet "Kinross-shire "Squadrone Volante Yes
John Scrimsour "Dundee Yes
Lieutenant Colonel John Areskine Yes
John Mure Likely "Ayr Yes
"James Scott "Montrose Court Party Yes
"Sir John Anstruther, 1st Baronet, of Anstruther "Anstruther Easter Yes
James Spittle "Inverkeithing Yes
Mr Patrick Moncrieff "Kinghorn Court Party Yes
Sir Andrew Home "Kirkcudbright "Squadrone Volante Yes
Sir Peter Halket "Dunfermline "Squadrone Volante Yes
Sir James Smollet "Dumbarton Court Party Yes
Mr William Carmichell "Lanark Yes
Mr William Sutherland "Elgin Yes
Captain Daniel McLeod "Tain Yes
"Sir David Dalrymple, 1st Baronet "Culross Court Party Yes
Sir Alexander Ogilvie "Banff Yes
"Mr John Clerk "Whithorn Court Party Yes
John Ross Yes
"Hew Dalrymple, Lord North Berwick "North Berwick Yes
Mr Patrick Ogilvie "Cullen Court Party Yes
George Allardyce "Kintore Court Party Yes
William Avis Yes
Mr James Bethun "Kilrenny Yes
Mr Roderick McKenzie "Fortrose Yes
John Urquhart "Dornoch Yes
"Daniel Campbell "Inveraray Court Party Yes
Sir Robert Forbes "Inverurie Yes
Mr Robert Dowglass "Kirkwall Yes
Mr Alexander Maitland "Inverbervie Court Party Yes
Mr George Dalrymple "Stranraer Yes
"Mr Charles Campbell "Campbeltown Yes
Total Ayes 106
"James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton No
"William Johnstone, 1st Marquess of Annandale "Annan No
"Charles Hay, 13th Earl of Erroll No
"William Keith, 9th Earl Marischal No
David Erskine, 9th Earl of Buchan No
Alexander Sinclair, 9th Earl of Caithness No
John Fleming, 6th Earl of Wigtown No
James Stewart, 5th Earl of Galloway No
"David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont No
William Livingston, 3rd Viscount of Kilsyth No
"William Fraser, 12th Lord Saltoun No
Francis Sempill, 10th Lord Sempill No
Charles Oliphant, 7th Lord Oliphant No
John Elphinstone, 4th Lord Balmerino No
Walter Stuart, 6th Lord Blantyre "Linlithgow No
"William Hamilton, 3rd Lord Bargany "Queensferry No
"John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven and Stenton No
"Lord Colvill No
"Patrick Kinnaird, 3rd Lord Kinnaird No
"Sir John Lawder of Fountainhall "Haddingtonshire No
"Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun "Haddingtonshire No
"Sir Robert Sinclair, 3rd Baronet "Berwickshire No
Sir Patrick Home of Rentoun "Berwickshire No
Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto "Roxburghshire No
William Bayllie of Lamingtoun "Lanarkshire No
John Sinclair, younger, of Stevensone "Lanarkshire No
James Hamilton of Aikenhead "Lanarkshire No
Mr Alexander Fergusson of Isle "Dumfriesshire No
Sir Hugh Cathcart of Carletoun "Ayrshire No
John Brisbane, younger, of Bishoptoun "Ayrshire No
Mr William Cochrane of Kilmaronock "Dumbartonshire No
Sir Humphray Colquhoun of Luss "Dumbartonshire No
"Sir John Houstoun of that ilk "Renfrewshire No
Robert Rollo of Powhouse No
Thomas Sharp of Houstoun "Linlithgowshire No
"John Murray of Strowan No
Alexander Gordon of Pitlurg "Aberdeenshire No
John Forbes of Colloden "Nairnshire No
David Bethun of Balfour "Fife No
Major Henry Balfour of Dunboog "Fife No
Mr Thomas Hope of Rankeillor No
"Mr Patrick Lyon of Auchterhouse "Forfarshire No
"Mr James Carnagie of Phinhaven "Forfarshire No
David Graham, younger, of Fintrie "Forfarshire No
William Maxwell of Cardines "Kirkcudbrightshire No
Alexander McKye of Palgown "Kirkcudbrightshire No
James Sinclair of Stempster "Caithness No
"Sir Henry Innes, younger, of that ilk "Elginshire No
Mr George McKenzie of Inchcoulter "Ross-shire No
"Robert Inglis "Edinburgh No
Alexander Robertson "Perth No
Walter Stewart No
Hugh Montgomery "Glasgow Court Party No
Alexander Edgar "Haddington No
Alexander Duff "Banffshire No
Francis Molison "Brechin No
Walter Scott "Jedburgh No
Robert Scott "Selkirk No
Robert Kellie "Dunbar No
John Hutchesone "Arbroath No
Archibald Scheills "Peebles No
Mr John Lyon "Forfar No
George Brodie "Forres No
George Spens "Rutherglen No
"Sir David Cuningham "Lauder No
Mr John Carruthers "Lochmaben No
George Home "New Galloway No
John Bayne "Dingwall No
Mr Robert Fraser "Wick No
Total Noes 69
Total Votes 175
Sources: Records of the Parliament of Scotland, Parliamentary Register, p.598

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The citation of this Act by this "short title was authorised by section 1 of, and Schedule 1 to, the "Short Titles Act 1896. Due to the repeal of those provisions, it is now authorised by section 19(2) of the Interpretation Act 1978.
  2. ^ Article I of the Treaty of Union
  3. ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 3
  4. ^ "Simon Schama (presenter) (22 May 2001). "Britannia Incorporated". "A History of Britain. Episode 10. 3 minutes in. "BBC One. 
  5. ^ ABDN.ac.uk
  6. ^ Larkin, James F.; Hughes, Paul L., eds. (1973). Stuart Royal Proclamations: Volume I. Clarendon Press. p. 19. 
  7. ^ Lockyer, R. (1998). James VI and I. London: Addison Wesley Longman. pp. 51–52. "ISBN "0-582-27962-3. 
  8. ^ Lockyer, op. cit., pp. 54–59
  9. ^ Parliament.uk Archived 10 December 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Lockyer, op. cit., p.59
  11. ^ a b Parliament.uk Archived 12 October 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Constitution.org
  13. ^ The 1657 Act's long title was An Act and Declaration touching several Acts and Ordinances made since 20 April 1653, and before 3 September 1654, and other Acts
  14. ^ C. Whatley, op. cit., p.95
  15. ^ C. Whatley, op. cit., p.30
  16. ^ Whatley, C. (2006). The Scots and the Union. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 91. "ISBN "0-7486-1685-3. 
  17. ^ a b "The commissioners". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  18. ^ "The course of negotiations". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "Ratification". UK parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "1 May 1707 – the Union comes into effect". UK Parliament website. 2007. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  21. ^ Whatley, C. A. (2001). Bought and sold for English Gold? Explaining the Union of 1707. East Linton: Tuckwell Press. p. 48. "ISBN "1-86232-140-X. 
  22. ^ Watt, Douglas. The Price of Scotland: Darien, Union and the wealth of nations. Luath Press 2007.
  23. ^ Parliament.uk Archived 25 September 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Bambery, Chris (2014). A People's History of Scotland. Verso. 
  25. ^ a b "Scottish Referendums". BBC. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  26. ^ The Humble Address of the Commissioners to the General Convention of the Royal Burrows of this Ancient Kingdom Convened the Twenty-Ninth of October 1706, at Edinburgh
  27. ^ Notes by "John Purser to CD Scotland's Music, Facts about Edinburgh.
  28. ^ Riley, P. J. W. (1969). "The Union of 1707 as an Episode in English Politics". The English Historical Review. 84 (332): 498–527 [pp. 523–524]. "doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxiv.cccxxxii.498. "JSTOR 562482. 
  29. ^ G.N. Clark, The Later Stuarts, 1660–1714 (2nd ed. 1956) pp 290–93.
  30. ^ Gordon Brown (2014). My Scotland, Our Britain: A Future Worth Sharing. Simon & Schuster UK. p. 150. 
  31. ^ House of Lords – Written answers, 6 November 2006, TheyWorkForYou.com
  32. ^ Announced by the Scottish Culture Minister, Patricia Ferguson, 9 November 2006

Further reading[edit]

Other books[edit]

External links[edit]

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