In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the city's population was reported to be 2,112,737, of whom 1,023,452 were men and 1,089,285 were women. At that time not all of the population were urban inhabitants; only 2,084,588 or 98.7% were. For the entire administrative council there were 404,783 households in 376,568 housing units with an average of 5.2 persons per household. The major ethnic groups included the "Amhara (48.3%), "Oromo (19.2%), "Gurage (13.5%; 2.3% "Sebat Bet, and 0.8% "Sodo), "Tigray 7.64%, "Silt'e 3.98%, and foreigners from "Eritrea 1.33%. Languages spoken included "Amharic (72.6%), "Oromiffa (10.0%), "Gurage (6.54%), "Tigrinya (5.41%), and "Silt'e 2.29%. In 1994 the predominant religion was also "Ethiopian Orthodox with 82.0% of the population, while 12.7% were "Muslim, 3.87% "Protestant, and 0.78% "Catholic.
Standard of living
According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa had access to "safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities. In 2014, there were 63 public toilets in the city, with plans to build more. Values for other reported common indicators of the "standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005[update] include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic "infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants' first month of life.
The City is partially powered by water at the "Koka Reservoir.
The economic activities in Addis Ababa are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 homemakers of different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education, health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated.["citation needed] It is a relatively clean and safe city, with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary. The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labelled the city, "the spa capital of Africa."
"Ethiopian Airlines has its headquarters on the grounds of "Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.
Tourism is a growing industry within Addis Ababa and Ethiopia as a whole. The country has seen a 10% increase in tourism over the last decade, subsequently bringing an influx of tourists to Addis Ababa. In 2015, the European Council on Tourism and Trade named Ethiopia the #1 tourist spot in the world.
Law and government
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Pursuant to the Ethiopian Constitution of 1995, the city of Addis Ababa is one of the two federal cities that are accountable to the Federal Government of Ethiopia. The other city with the same status is Dire Dawa in the east of the country and both federal cities are located within the State of "Oromia. Earlier, following the establishment of the federal structure in 1991 under the Transitional Charter of Ethiopia, the City Government of Addis Ababa was one of the then new 14 regional governments. However, that structure was changed by the federal constitution in 1995 and as a result Addis Ababa does not have statehood status.
The administration of Addis Ababa city consists of the Mayor, who leads the executive branch, and the City Council, which enacts city regulations. However, as part of the Federal Government, the federal legislature enacts laws that are binding in Addis Ababa. Members of the City Council are directly elected by the residents of the city and the Council, in turn, elects the Mayor among its members. Term of office for elected officials is five years. However, the Federal Government, when it deems necessary, can dissolve the City Council and the entire administration and replace it by a temporary administration until elections take place next. Residents of Addis Ababa are represented in the federal legislature, the House of Peoples' Representatives. However, the city is not represented in the House of Federation, which is the federal upper house constituted by the representatives of the member states. The executive branch under the Mayor comprises the City Manager and various branches of civil service offices.
The current Mayor of Addis Ababa is Mr. Diriba Kuma from the Oromo People Democratic Organisation (OPDO), which is member of the ruling coalition Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Mr. Diriba Kuma took office on 9 July 2013. His predecessor, Mr. Kuma Demeksa (also from the OPDO party), served a five-year term from 30 October 2008. Before that, the Federal Government appointed Mr. Berhane Deressa to lead the temporary caretaker administration that served from 9 May 2006 to 30 October 2008 following the 2005 election crisis. In the 2005 national election, the ruling EPRDF party suffered a major defeat in Addis Ababa. However, the opposition who won in Addis Ababa did not take part in the government both on regional and federal level. This situation forced the EPRDF-led Federal Government to assign a temporary administration until a new election was carried out. As a result, Mr. Berhane Deressa, an independent citizen, was appointed.
Some of the notable past mayors of Addis Ababa are Arkabe Oqubay (2003–06), Zewde Teklu (1985–89), Alemu Abebe (1977–85) and Zewde Gebrehiwot (1960–69).
Addis Ababa is considered to be extremely safe in comparison to the other cities in the region. On a crime index, Addis Ababa scores a 44.28, putting it at a crime level of moderate. Pickpocketing and petty unarmed thefts are more common within the city. Corruption and bribery are extremely common crimes in Addis Ababa. Violent crimes are very unlikely to happen in the city.
High rise, architecture and skyline
A financial district is currently under construction in Addis Ababa, that will include many high-rise buildings.
Mayor "Kuma Demeksa embarked on a quest to improve investment for the buildings in the city. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the "United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the "African Union.["citation needed] The fossilized skeleton, and a plaster replica of the early hominid "Lucy (known in Ethiopia as Dinkinesh) is preserved at the "Ethiopian National Museum in Addis Ababa. "Meskel Square is one of the noted squares in the city and is the site for the annual "Meskel at the end of September annually when thousands gather in celebration.
The city is home to the "Ethiopian National Library, the "Ethiopian Ethnological Museum (and "former Guenete Leul Palace), the "Addis Ababa Museum, the "Ethiopian Natural History Museum, the Ethiopian Railway Museum and National Postal Museum.
Notable taller architecture in Addis Ababa includes the Huda Tower, Nani Tower, Bank Misr Building, as well as the approved Angola World Trade Center Tower, Abyssinia Bank Tower, Mexico Square Tower and the 200 million dollar "AU Conference Center and Office Complex.
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Notable buildings include "St George's Cathedral (founded in 1896 and also home to a museum), "Holy Trinity Cathedral (once the largest "Ethiopian Orthodox Cathedral and the location of "Sylvia Pankhurst's tomb) as well as the burial place of Emperor "Haile Selassie and the Imperial family, and those who fought the Italians during the "World War II. There is also "Menelik's old "Imperial palace which remains the official seat of government, and the "National Palace formerly known as the Jubilee Palace (built to mark Emperor Haile Selassie's Silver Jubilee in 1955) which is the residence of the President of Ethiopia. Jubilee Palace was also modeled after Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom. "Africa Hall is located across Menelik II avenue from this Palace and is where the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa is headquartered as well as most UN offices in Ethiopia. It is also the site of the founding of the "Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which eventually became the "African Union. The African Union is now housed in a new headquarters built on the site of the demolished Akaki Prison, on land donated by Ethiopia for this purpose in the south western part of the city. The "Hager Fikir Theatre, the oldest theatre in Ethiopia, is located at the Piazza district. Near Holy Trinity Cathedral is the art deco Parliament building, built during the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie, with its clock tower. It continues to serve as the seat of Parliament today. Across from the Parliament is the Shengo Hall, built by the "Derg regime of "Mengistu Haile Mariam as its new parliament hall. The Shengo Hall was the world's largest pre-fabricated building, which was constructed in "Finland before being assembled in Addis Ababa. It is used for large meetings and conventions. "Itegue Taitu Hotel, built in 1898 (Ethiopian Calendar) in the middle of the city (Piazza), was the first hotel in Ethiopia.
In the Merkato district, which happens to be the largest open market in Africa, is the impressive Grand Anwar Mosque, the biggest mosque in Ethiopia built during the Italian occupation. A few metres to the southwest of the Anwar Mosque is the Raguel Church built after the liberation by Empress Menen. The proximity of the mosque and the church has symbolised the long peaceful relations between Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family is also in the Merkato district. Near "Bole International Airport is the new Medhane Alem (Savior of the World) Orthodox Cathedral, which is the second largest in Africa.
Other features of the city include the large "Mercato market, the Jan Meda "racecourse, Bihere Tsige Recreation Centre and a railway line to "Djibouti. Sport facilities include "Addis Ababa and "Nyala Stadiums. The "2008 African Championships in Athletics were held in Addis Ababa. The "Entoto Mountains start among the northern suburbs. Suburbs of the city include Shiro Meda and "Entoto in the north, Urael and "Bole (home to Bole International Airport) in the east, "Nifas Silk in the south-east, Mekanisa in the south, and "Keraniyo and "Kolfe in the west. Kolfe was mentioned in "Nelson Mandela's Autobiography "A Long Walk to Freedom", as the place he got military training.
Addis Ababa has a distinct architectural style. Unlike many African cities, Addis Ababa was not built as a colonial settlement. This means that the city did not have a European style of architecture. This changed with the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1936. The Piazza district in the city center is the most evident indicator of Italian influence. The buildings are very much Italian in style and there are many Italian restaurants, as well as small cafes, and European-style shopping centers.
Parks include "Africa Park, situated along Menelik II Avenue.
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The city hosts the We Are the Future centre, a child care centre that provides children with a higher standard of living. The centre is managed under the direction of the mayor's office, and the international NGO "Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and programme planner and coordinator for the WAF child centre in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition.
Launched in 2004, the programme is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the "Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr. Hani Masri, with the support of the "World Bank, UN agencies and major companies.
"Addis Ababa University was founded in 1950 and was originally named "University College of Addis Ababa", then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor "Haile Selassie I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the university's main campus in the previous year. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous public universities and private colleges including "Ethiopian Civil Service University, "Admas University College, "St. Mary's University and "Unity University. A massive new university solely dedicated to science and technology is under construction in the east of the city.
Public transport is through public buses from "Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise or blue and white "share taxis. The taxis are usually "minibuses that can seat at most twelve people. Two people are responsible for each taxi, the driver and a "weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination.
The construction of the Addis Ababa Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa with all other regions ("Jimma, "Debre Zeit, "Mekelle, "Gojjam and "Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA). The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city traffic.
Intercity bus service is provided by the "Selam Bus Line Share Company.
The city is served by "Addis Ababa Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003. The old Lideta Airport in the western "Old Airport" district is used mostly by small craft and military planes and helicopters.["dubious ]
Addis Ababa originally had a "railway connection with "Djibouti City, with a picturesque French style railway station, but this route has been abandoned. The new "Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway started operation in September 2016, running parallel to the route of the original railway line.
Addis Ababa opened its "light rail system to the public on 20 September 2015. The system is the first of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Ethiopian Railway Corporation reached a funding agreement worth millions of dollars with the "Export and Import Bank of China in September 2010 and the light rail project was completed in January 2015. The route is a 34.25 km network with two lines; the operational line running from the center to the south of the city. Upon completion, the east-west line will run from Ayat to the Torhailoch ringroad, and from Menelik Square to Merkato Bus Station, Meskel Square and Akaki.
Twin towns – Sister cities
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