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"Horn of Africa, "North Africa, "Sahel, "West Asia
"Linguistic classification One of the world's primary "language families
Proto-language "Proto-Afroasiatic
"ISO 639-2 / "5 afa
"Glottolog afro1255[2]
Distribution of the Afro-Asiatic languages; pale yellow signifies areas without any languages in that family

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic)[3] or Semito-Hamitic,[4] is a large "language family of about 300 languages and dialects.[5] It includes languages spoken predominantly in "West Asia, "North Africa, the "Horn of Africa and parts of the "Sahel.

Afroasiatic languages have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after "Indo-European, "Sino-Tibetan and "Niger–Congo).[6] The phylum has six branches: "Berber, "Chadic, "Cushitic, "Egyptian, "Omotic and "Semitic.

By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is "Arabic. A language within the Semitic branch, it includes "Modern Standard Arabic as well as spoken "colloquial varieties. Arabic has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.[7]

Other widely spoken Afroasiatic languages include:

In addition to languages spoken today, Afroasiatic includes several important ancient languages, such as "Ancient Egyptian, "Akkadian, "Biblical Hebrew and "Old Aramaic. It is debated when and where the "original homeland of the Afroasiatic family existed. Proposed locations include North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Eastern Sahara and the "Levant.



During the early 1800s, linguists grouped the "Berber, "Cushitic and "Egyptian languages within a "Hamitic" phylum, in acknowledgement of these languages' genetic relation with each other and with those in the "Semitic phylum.[13] The terms "Hamitic" and "Semitic" were etymologically derived from the "Book of Genesis, which describes various Biblical tribes descended from "Ham and "Shem, two sons of "Noah.[14] By the 1860s, the main constituent elements within the broader Afroasiatic family had been worked out.[13]

The scholar "Friedrich Müller introduced the name "Hamito-Semitic" for the entire family in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft (1876).[15] "Maurice Delafosse (1914) later coined the term "Afroasiatic" (often now spelled "Afro-Asiatic"). However, it did not come into general use until "Joseph Greenberg (1950) formally proposed its adoption. In doing so, Greenberg sought to emphasize the fact that Afroasiatic spanned the continents of both Africa and Asia.[15]

Individual scholars have also called the family "Erythraean" (Tucker 1966) and "Lisramic" (Hodge 1972). In lieu of "Hamito-Semitic", the Russian linguist "Igor Diakonoff later suggested the term "Afrasian", meaning "half African, half Asiatic", in reference to the geographic distribution of the family's constituent languages.[16]

The term "Hamito-Semitic" remains in use in the academic traditions of some European countries.

Distribution and branches[edit]

Interrelations between branches of Afroasiatic (Lipiński 2001)
Some linguists' proposals for grouping within Afroasiatic

The Afroasiatic language family is usually considered to include the following branches:

Although there is general agreement on these six families, there are some points of disagreement among "linguists who study Afroasiatic. In particular:

Classification history[edit]

In the 9th century, the Hebrew grammarian "Judah ibn Quraysh of "Tiaret in "Algeria was the first to link two branches of Afroasiatic together; he perceived a relationship between Berber and Semitic. He knew of Semitic through his study of Arabic, Hebrew, and "Aramaic.

In the course of the 19th century, Europeans also began suggesting such relationships. In 1844, "Theodor Benfey suggested a language family consisting of Semitic, Berber, and Cushitic (calling the latter "Ethiopic"). In the same year, T.N. Newman suggested a relationship between Semitic and Hausa, but this would long remain a topic of dispute and uncertainty.

"Friedrich Müller named the traditional Hamito-Semitic family in 1876 in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft ("Outline of Linguistics"), and defined it as consisting of a Semitic group plus a "Hamitic" group containing Egyptian, Berber, and Cushitic; he excluded the Chadic group. It was the "Egyptologist "Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884) who restricted Hamitic to the non-Semitic languages in Africa, which are characterized by a grammatical "gender system. This "Hamitic language group" was proposed to unite various, mainly North-African, languages, including the Ancient "Egyptian language, the "Berber languages, the "Cushitic languages, the "Beja language, and the "Chadic languages. Unlike Müller, Lepsius considered that "Hausa and "Nama were part of the Hamitic group. These classifications relied in part on non-linguistic anthropological and racial arguments. Both authors used the skin-color, mode of subsistence, and other characteristics of native speakers as part of their arguments that particular languages should be grouped together.[18]

Distribution of the Afroasiatic/Hamito-Semitic languages in Africa

In 1912, "Carl Meinhof published Die Sprachen der Hamiten ("The Languages of the Hamites"), in which he expanded Lepsius's model, adding the "Fula, "Maasai, "Bari, "Nandi, "Sandawe and "Hadza languages to the Hamitic group. Meinhof's model was widely supported into the 1940s.[18] Meinhof's system of classification of the Hamitic languages was based on a belief that "speakers of Hamitic became largely coterminous with cattle herding peoples with essentially Caucasian origins, intrinsically different from and superior to the 'Negroes of Africa'."[19] But, in the case of the so-called "Nilo-Hamitic languages (a concept he introduced), it was based on the typological feature of gender and a "fallacious theory of "language mixture." Meinhof did this although earlier work by scholars such as Lepsius and Johnston had substantiated that the languages which he would later dub "Nilo-Hamitic" were in fact Nilotic languages, with numerous similarities in vocabulary to other Nilotic languages.[20]

Leo Reinisch (1909) had already proposed linking Cushitic and Chadic, while urging their more distant affinity with Egyptian and Semitic. However, his suggestion found little acceptance. "Marcel Cohen (1924) rejected the idea of a distinct "Hamitic" subgroup, and included "Hausa (a Chadic language) in his comparative Hamito-Semitic vocabulary. Finally, "Joseph Greenberg's 1950 work led to the widespread rejection of "Hamitic" as a language category by linguists. Greenberg refuted Meinhof's linguistic theories, and rejected the use of racial and social evidence. In dismissing the notion of a separate "Nilo-Hamitic" language category in particular, Greenberg was "returning to a view widely held a half century earlier." He consequently rejoined Meinhof's so-called Nilo-Hamitic languages with their appropriate Nilotic siblings.[13] He also added (and sub-classified) the Chadic languages, and proposed the new name Afroasiatic for the family. Almost all scholars have accepted this classification as the new and continued consensus.

Greenberg's model was fully developed in his book "The Languages of Africa (1963), in which he reassigned most of Meinhof's additions to Hamitic to other language families, notably "Nilo-Saharan. Following "Isaac Schapera and rejecting Meinhof, he classified the "Hottentot language as a member of the Central "Khoisan languages. To Khoisan he also added the Tanzanian "Hadza and "Sandawe, though this view remains controversial since some scholars consider these languages to be "linguistic isolates.[21][22] Despite this, Greenberg's model remains the basis for modern classifications of languages spoken in Africa, and the Hamitic category (and its extension to Nilo-Hamitic) has no part in this.[22]

Since the three traditional branches of the Hamitic languages (Berber, Cushitic and Egyptian) have not been shown to form an exclusive ("monophyletic) phylogenetic unit of their own, separate from other Afroasiatic languages, linguists no longer use the term in this sense. Each of these branches is instead now regarded as an independent subgroup of the larger Afroasiatic family.[23]

In 1969, "Harold Fleming proposed that what had previously been known as Western Cushitic is an independent branch of Afroasiatic, suggesting for it the new name "Omotic. This proposal and name have met with widespread acceptance.

Several scholars, including Harold Fleming and "Robert Hetzron, have since questioned the traditional inclusion of Beja in Cushitic.

"Glottolog does not accept that the inclusion or even unity of Omotic has been established, nor that of Ongota or the unclassified Kujarge. It therefore splits off the following groups as small families: "South Omotic, "Mao, "Dizoid, "Gonga–Gimojan (North Omotic apart from the preceding), "Ongota, "Kujarge.


Proposed Afroasiatic sub-divisions
Greenberg (1963) Newman (1980) Fleming (post-1981) Ehret (1995)
  • Semitic
  • Egyptian
  • Berber
  • Cushitic
    • Northern Cushitic
      (equals Beja)
    • Central Cushitic
    • Eastern Cushitic
    • Western Cushitic
      (equals Omotic)
    • Southern Cushitic
  • Chadic
  • Berber–Chadic
  • Egypto-Semitic
  • Cushitic

(excludes Omotic)

  • Omotic
  • Erythraean
    • Cushitic
    • Ongota
    • Non-Ethiopian
      • Chadic
      • Berber
      • Egyptian
      • Semitic
      • Beja
  • Omotic
    • North Omotic
    • South Omotic
  • Erythrean
    • Cushitic
      • Beja
      • Agaw
      • East–South Cushitic
        • Eastern Cushitic
        • Southern Cushitic
    • North Erythrean
      • Chadic
      • Boreafrasian
        • Egyptian
        • Berber
        • Semitic
Orel & Stobova (1995) Diakonoff (1996) Bender (1997) Militarev (2000)
  • Berber–Semitic
  • Chadic–Egyptian
  • Omotic
  • Beja
  • Agaw
  • Sidamic
  • East Lowlands
  • Rift
  • East–West Afrasian
    • Berber
    • Cushitic
    • Semitic
  • North–South Afrasian
    • Chadic
    • Egyptian

(excludes Omotic)

  • Omotic
  • Chadic
  • Macro-Cushitic
    • Berber
    • Cushitic
    • Semitic
  • North Afrasian
    • African North Afrasian
      • Chado-Berber
      • Egyptian
    • Semitic
  • South Afrasian
    • Omotic
    • Cushitic

Little agreement exists on the "subgrouping of the five or six branches of Afroasiatic: Semitic, Egyptian, Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, and Omotic. However, "Christopher Ehret (1979), Harold Fleming (1981), and Joseph Greenberg (1981) all agree that the Omotic branch split from the rest first.


Position among the world's languages[edit]

Afroasiatic is one of the four major "language families spoken in Africa identified by Joseph Greenberg in his book "The Languages of Africa (1963). It is one of the few whose speech area is transcontinental, with languages from Afroasiatic's Semitic branch also spoken in the Middle East and Europe.

There are no generally accepted relations between Afroasiatic and any other language family. However, several proposals grouping Afroasiatic with one or more other language families have been made. The best-known of these are the following:

Date of Afroasiatic[edit]

Speech sample in the Semitic "Neo-Aramaic language, a descendant of "Old Aramaic

The earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an "Ancient Egyptian inscription dated to c. 3400 BC (5,400 years ago).[25] Symbols on "Gerzean (Naqada II) pottery resembling "Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting an earlier possible dating. This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic. However, Ancient Egyptian is highly divergent from "Proto-Afroasiatic (Trombetti 1905: 1–2), and considerable time must have elapsed in between them. Estimates of the date at which the Proto-Afroasiatic language was spoken vary widely. They fall within a range between approximately 7,500 BC (9,500 years ago), and approximately 16,000 BC (18,000 years ago). According to "Igor M. Diakonoff (1988: 33n), Proto-Afroasiatic was spoken "c. 10,000 BC. Christopher Ehret (2002: 35–36) asserts that Proto-Afroasiatic was spoken c. 11,000 BC at the latest, and possibly as early as c. 16,000 BC. These dates are older than those associated with other "proto-languages.

Afroasiatic Urheimat[edit]

Map showing one of the proposed Afroasiatic Urheimat

The term Afroasiatic Urheimat (Urheimat meaning "original homeland" in German) refers to the hypothetical place where "Proto-Afroasiatic language speakers lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into distinct languages. Afroasiatic languages are today primarily spoken in "West Asia, "North Africa, the "Horn of Africa, and parts of the "Sahel. Their distribution seems to have been influenced by the "Sahara pump operating over the last 10,000 years.

There is no agreement when or where the original homeland of this language family existed. Proposed locations include North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Eastern Sahara,[26][27][28][29][30] and the Levant.[31][32]

Similarities in grammar and syntax[edit]

Verbal paradigms in several Afroasiatic languages:
↓ "Number Language → "Arabic "Coptic "Kabyle "Somali "Beja "Hausa
Verb → katab mou afeg
Meaning → write die fly come eat drink
singular 1 ʼaktubu timou ttafgeɣ imaadaa tamáni ina shan
2f taktubīna temou tettafgeḍ timaadaa tamtínii kina shan
2m taktubu kmou tamtíniya kana shan
3f smou tettafeg tamtíni tana shan
3m yaktubu fmou yettafeg yimaadaa tamíni yana shan
dual 2 taktubāni
3m yaktubāni
plural 1 naktubu tənmou nettafeg nimaadnaa támnay muna shan
2m taktubūna tetənmou tettafgem timaadaan támteena kuna shan
2f taktubna tettafgemt
3m yaktubūna semou ttafgen yimaadaan támeen suna shan
3f yaktubna ttafgent

Widespread (though not universal) features of the Afroasiatic languages include:

One of the most remarkable shared features among the Afroasiatic languages is the prefixing verb conjugation (see the table at the start of this section), with a distinctive pattern of prefixes beginning with /ʔ t n y/, and in particular a pattern whereby third-singular masculine /y-/ is opposed to third-singular feminine and second-singular /t-/.

According to Ehret (1996), "tonal languages appear in the Omotic and Chadic branches of Afroasiatic, as well as in certain Cushitic languages. The Semitic, Berber and Egyptian branches generally do not use tones "phonemically.

Shared vocabulary[edit]

Speech sample in "Shilha ("Berber branch)
Speech sample in "Somali ("Cushitic branch)
Speech sample in "Arabic ("Semitic branch)

The following are some examples of Afroasiatic "cognates, including ten "pronouns, three "nouns, and three "verbs.

Source: Christopher Ehret, Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
Note: Ehret does not make use of Berber in his etymologies, stating (1995: 12): "the kind of extensive reconstruction of proto-Berber lexicon that might help in sorting through alternative possible etymologies is not yet available." The Berber cognates here are taken from previous version of table in this article and need to be completed and referenced.
Abbreviations: NOm = 'North Omotic', SOm = 'South Omotic'. MSA = 'Modern South Arabian', PSC = 'Proto-Southern Cushitic', PSom-II = 'Proto-Somali, stage 2'. masc. = 'masculine', fem. = 'feminine', sing. = 'singular', pl. = 'plural'. 1s. = 'first person singular', 2s. = 'second person singular'.
Symbols: Following Ehret (1995: 70), a "caron ˇ over a vowel indicates rising "tone, and a "circumflex ^ over a vowel indicates falling tone. V indicates a "vowel of unknown quality. Ɂ indicates a "glottal stop. * indicates "reconstructed forms based on "comparison of related languages.
Proto-Afroasiatic Omotic Cushitic Chadic Egyptian Semitic Berber
*Ɂân- / *Ɂîn- or *ân- / *în- ‘I’ (independent pronoun) *in- ‘I’ ("Maji ("NOm)) *Ɂâni ‘I’ *nV ‘I’ ink, *ʲānak 'I' *Ɂn ‘I’ nek / nec ‘I, me’
*i or *yi ‘me, my’ ("bound) i ‘I, me, my’ ("Ari ("SOm)) *i or *yi ‘my’ *i ‘me, my’ ("bound) -i, *-aʲ (1s. suffix) *-i ‘me, my’ inu / nnu / iw ‘my’
*Ɂǎnn- / *Ɂǐnn- or *ǎnn- / *ǐnn- ‘we’ *nona / *nuna / *nina (NOm) *Ɂǎnn- / *Ɂǐnn- ‘we’ inn, *ʲānan ‘we’ *Ɂnn ‘we’ nekni / necnin / neccin ‘we’
*Ɂânt- / *Ɂînt- or *ânt- / *înt- ‘you’ (sing.) *int- ‘you’ (sing.) *Ɂânt- ‘you’ (sing.) nt-, *ʲānt- ‘you’ (sing.) *Ɂnt ‘you’ (sing.) netta "he" (keyy / cek "you" (masc. sing.))
*ku, *ka ‘you’ (masc. sing., "bound) *ku ‘your’ (masc. sing.) ("PSC) *ka, *ku (masc. sing.) -k (2s. masc. suffix) -ka (2s. masc. suffix) ("Arabic) inek / nnek / -k "your" (masc. sing.)
*ki ‘you’ (fem. sing., "bound) *ki ‘your’ (fem. sing.) *ki ‘you’ (fem. sing.) -ṯ (fem. sing. suffix, < *ki) -ki (2s. fem. sing. suffix) (Arabic) -m / nnem / inem "your" (fem. sing.)
*kūna ‘you’ (plural, "bound) *kuna ‘your’ (pl.) (PSC) *kun ‘you’ (pl.) -ṯn, *-ṯin ‘you’ (pl.) *-kn ‘you, your’ (fem. pl.) -kent, kennint "you" (fem. pl.)
*si, *isi ‘he, she, it’ *is- ‘he’ *Ɂusu ‘he’, *Ɂisi ‘she’ *sV ‘he’ sw, *suw ‘he, him’, sy, *siʲ ‘she, her’ *-šɁ ‘he’, *-sɁ ‘she’ ("MSA) -s / nnes / ines "his/her/its"
*ma, *mi ‘what?’ *ma- ‘what?’ (NOm) *ma, *mi (interr. root) *mi, *ma ‘what?’ m ‘what?’, ‘who?’ (Arabic, Hebrew) / mu? (Assyrian) ‘what?’ ma? / mayen? / min? "what?"
*wa, *wi ‘what?’ *w- ‘what?’ *wä / *wɨ ‘what?’ ("Agaw) *wa ‘who?’ wy ‘how ...!’ mamek? / mamec? / amek? "how?
*dîm- / *dâm- ‘blood’ *dam- ‘blood’ ("Gonga) *dîm- / *dâm- ‘red’ *d-m- ‘blood’ ("West Chadic) i-dm-i ‘red linen’ *dm / dǝma (Assyrian) / dom (Hebrew) ‘blood’ idammen "bloods"
*îts ‘brother’ *itsim- ‘brother’ *itsan or *isan ‘brother’ *sin ‘brother’ sn, *san ‘brother’ aẖ (Hebrew) "brother" uma / gʷma "brother"
*sǔm / *sǐm- ‘name’ *sum(ts)- ‘name’ (NOm) *sǔm / *sǐm- ‘name’ *ṣǝm ‘name’ smi ‘to report, announce’ *ism (Arabic) / shǝma (Assyrian) ‘name’ isen / isem "name"
*-lisʼ- ‘to lick’ litsʼ- ‘to lick’ ("Dime (SOm)) *alǝsi ‘tongue’ ns, *nīs ‘tongue’ *lsn ‘tongue’ iles "tongue"
*-maaw- ‘to die’ *-umaaw- / *-am-w(t)- ‘to die’ ("PSom-II) *mǝtǝ ‘to die’ mwt ‘to die’ *mwt / mawta (Assyrian) ‘to die’ mmet "to die"
*-bǐn- ‘to build, to create; house’ bin- ‘to build, create’ (Dime (SOm)) *mǐn- / *mǎn- ‘house’; man- ‘to create’ ("Beja) *bn ‘to build’; *bǝn- ‘house’ *bnn / bani (Assyrian) / bana (Hebrew) ‘to build’ *bn(?) (esk "to build")

There are two etymological dictionaries of Afroasiatic, one by Christopher Ehret, and one by Vladimir Orel and Olga Stolbova. The two dictionaries disagree on almost everything.["citation needed] The following table contains the thirty roots or so (out of thousands) that represent a fragile consensus of present research:

Number Proto-Afroasiatic Form Meaning Berber Chadic Cushitic Egyptian Omotic Semitic
1 *ʔab father
2 (ʔa-)bVr bull
3 (ʔa-)dVm red, blood
4 *(ʔa-)dVm land, field, soil
5 ʔa-pay- mouth
6 ʔigar/ *ḳʷar- house, enclosure
7 *ʔil- eye
8 (ʔi-)sim- name
9 *ʕayn- eye
10 *baʔ- go
11 *bar- son
12 *gamm- mane, beard
13 *gVn cheek, chin
14 *gʷarʕ- throat
15 *gʷinaʕ- hand
16 *kVn- co-wife
17 *kʷaly kidney
18 *ḳa(wa)l-/ *qʷar- to say, call
19 *ḳas- bone
20 *libb heart
21 *lis- tongue
22 *maʔ- water *aman *aman
23 *mawVt- to die
24 *sin- tooth
25 *siwan- know
26 *inn- I, we
27 *-k- thou
28 *zwr seed
29 *ŝVr root
30 *šun to sleep, dream

Etymological bibliography[edit]

Some of the main sources for Afroasiatic etymologies include:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Sands, Bonny (2009). "Africa’s Linguistic Diversity". Language and Linguistics Compass 3/2 (2009): 559–580, 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00124.x
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Afro-Asiatic". "Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Katzner, Kenneth (2002). The Languages of the World. Routledge. p. 27. "ISBN "1134532881. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  4. ^ Robert Hetzron, "Afroasiatic Languages" in Bernard Comrie, The World's Major Languages, 2009, "ISBN "113426156X, p. 545
  5. ^ Ethnologue family tree for Afroasiatic languages
  6. ^ Summary by language family
  7. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/ara
  8. ^ Ethnologue - Hausa
  9. ^ Dekel, Nurit (2014). Colloquial Israeli Hebrew: A Corpus-based Survey. De Gruyter. "ISBN "978-3-11-037725-5. 
  10. ^ "Tamazight, Central Atlas". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  11. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northeastern Neo-Aramaic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  12. ^ Beyer, Klaus; John F. Healey (trans.) (1986). The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. "ISBN "3-525-53573-2.
  13. ^ a b c Merritt, Ruhlen (1991). A Guide to the World's Languages: Classification. Stanford University Press. pp. 76 & 87. "ISBN "0804718946. 
  14. ^ Gregersen, Edgar A. (1977). Language in Africa: An Introductory Survey. Taylor & Francis. p. 116. "ISBN "0677043805. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Lipiński, Edward (2001). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Peeters Publishers. pp. 21–22. "ISBN "90-429-0815-7. 
  16. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 8; Volume 22. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1998. p. 722. "ISBN "0-85229-633-9. 
  17. ^ Harrassowitz Verlag - The Harrassowitz Publishing House
  18. ^ a b Merritt Ruhlen, A Guide to the World's Languages: Classification, Stanford University Press, 1991, pp. 80–1
  19. ^ Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History, CRC Press, 2005, p.797
  20. ^ Merritt Ruhlen, A Guide to the World's Languages, (Stanford University Press: 1991), p.109
  21. ^ Sands, Bonny E. (1998) 'Eastern and Southern African Khoisan: evaluating claims of distant linguistic relationships.' Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 14. Köln: Köppe.
  22. ^ a b Ruhlen, p.117
  23. ^ Everett Welmers, William (1974). African Language Structures. University of California Press. p. 16. "ISBN "0520022106. 
  24. ^ Is Omotic Afroasiatic? (In Norwegian)
  25. ^ Earliest Egyptian Glyphs
  26. ^ Blench R (2006) Archaeology, Language, and the African Past, Rowman Altamira, "ISBN "0-7591-0466-2, "ISBN "978-0-7591-0466-2, https://books.google.com/books?id=esFy3Po57A8C
  27. ^ Ehret C, Keita SOY, Newman P (2004) The Origins of Afroasiatic a response to Diamond and Bellwood (2003) in the Letters of SCIENCE 306, no. 5702, p. 1680 "doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1680c
  28. ^ Bernal M (1987) Black Athena: the Afroasiatic roots of classical civilization, Rutgers University Press, "ISBN "0-8135-3655-3, "ISBN "978-0-8135-3655-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=yFLm_M_OdK4C
  29. ^ Bender ML (1997), Upside Down Afrasian, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 50, pp. 19-34
  30. ^ Militarev A (2005) Once more about glottochronology and comparative method: the Omotic-Afrasian case, Аспекты компаративистики - 1 (Aspects of comparative linguistics - 1). FS S. Starostin. Orientalia et Classica II (Moscow), p. 339-408.
  31. ^ Quantitative Approaches to Linguistic Diversity: Commemorating the Centenary of the Birth of Morris Swadesh. p. 73. 
  32. ^ John A. Hall, I. C. Jarvie (2005). Transition to Modernity: Essays on Power, Wealth and Belief. p. 27. 
  33. ^ Carsten Peust, "On the subgrouping of Afroasiatic", LingAeg 20 (2012), 221-251 (p. 243).


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