|History of Al-Andalus|
|"Umayyads of "Córdoba
|"First Taifa period
|"Second Taifa period
|"Third Taifa period
|"Emirate of Granada
Al-Andalus ("Arabic: الأنْدَلُس, "trans. al-ʼAndalus; "Spanish: al-Ándalus; "Portuguese: al-Ândalus; "Catalan: al-Àndalus; "Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a "medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, southern France—"Septimania—was briefly under its control. The name more generally describes parts of the "Iberian Peninsula governed by "Muslims (given the generic name of "Moors) at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian "Reconquista progressed, eventually shrinking to the south around modern-day "Andalusia and then to the "Emirate of Granada.
Following the "Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus, then at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding roughly to modern "Andalusia, Portugal and "Galicia, "Castile and "León, "Navarre, "Aragon, the "County of Barcelona, and "Septimania. As a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the "Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph "Al-Walid I (711–750); the "Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the "Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's "taifa (successor) kingdoms. Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and "Christians. "Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called "Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers.
Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of "Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the "Mediterranean Basin, Europe, and the Islamic world. A number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry ("Geber), astronomy ("Arzachel), surgery ("Abulcasis), pharmacology ("Avenzoar), and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture and science between the Islamic and Christian worlds.
For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into a number of minor states and principalities. Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under "Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct "Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the "Almoravids and "Almohads, both based in "Marrakesh.
Ultimately, the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured "Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule and the "Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the "Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the "Algarve by "Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, on January 2, 1492, Emir "Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen "Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula. Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule which preceded and accompanied the early formation of the Spanish nation-state and identity has left a profound effect on the country's culture and language, particularly in "Andalusia.
The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called "dinars, were inscribed in both "Latin and "Arabic. The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the "Vandals; however, a number of proposals since the 1980s have challenged this contention. In 1986, Joaquín Vallvé proposed that "al-Andalus" was a corruption of the name "Atlantis, Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, and in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate.
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph "Al-Walid I, the commander "Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at "Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a "Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King "Roderic at the "Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor "Musa ibn Nusayr of "Ifriqiya, brought most of the "Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign. They crossed the "Pyrenees and occupied Visigothic "Septimania in southern France.
Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding "Umayyad Empire, under the name of al-Andalus. It was organized as a province subordinate to "Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the "governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of "Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. The regional capital was set at "Córdoba, and the first influx of Muslim settlers was widely distributed.
The small army Tariq led in the initial conquest consisted mostly of Berbers, while Musa's largely Arab force of over 12,000 soldiers was accompanied by a group of "mawālī (Arabic, موالي), that is, non-Arab Muslims, who were clients of the Arabs. The Berber soldiers accompanying Tariq were garrisoned in the centre and the north of the peninsula, as well as in the Pyrenees, while the "Berber colonists who followed settled in all parts of the country – north, east, south and west. Visigothic lords who agreed to recognize Muslim suzerainty were allowed to retain their fiefs (notably, in Murcia, Galicia, and the Ebro valley). Resistant Visigoths took refuge in the "Cantabrian highlands, where they carved out a rump state, the "Kingdom of Asturias.
In the 720s, the al-Andalus governors launched several sa'ifa raids into "Aquitaine, but were severely defeated by Duke "Odo the Great of Aquitaine at the "Battle of Toulouse (721). However, after crushing Odo's Berber ally "Uthman ibn Naissa on the eastern Pyrenees, "Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi led an expedition north across the western Pyrenees and defeated the Aquitanian duke, who in turn appealed to the "Frankish leader "Charles Martel for assistance, offering to place himself under Carolingian sovereignty. At the "Battle of Poitiers in 732, the al-Andalus raiding army was defeated by Charles Martel. In 734, the Andalusi launched raids to the east, capturing "Avignon and "Arles and overran much of "Provence. In 737, they climbed up the "Rhône valley, reached as far as "Burgundy. Charles Martel of the Franks, with the assistance of "Liutprand of the "Lombards, invaded Burgundy and Provence and expelled the raiders by 739.
Relations between Arabs and "Berbers in al-Andalus had been tense in the years after the conquest. Berbers heavily outnumbered the Arabs in the province, had done the bulk of the fighting, and were assigned the harsher duties (e.g. garrisoning the more troubled areas). Although some Arab governors had cultivated their Berber lieutenants, others had grievously mistreated them. Mutinies by Berber soldiers were frequent; e.g., in 729, the Berber commander Munnus had revolted and managed to carve out a rebel state in "Cerdanya for a while.
In 740, a "Berber Revolt erupted in the "Maghreb (North Africa). To put down the rebellion, the Umayyad Caliph "Hisham dispatched a large Arab army, composed of regiments ("Junds) of "Bilad Ash-Sham, to North Africa. But the great Syrian army was crushed by the Berber rebels at the "Battle of Bagdoura (in Morocco). Heartened by the victories of their North African brethren, the Berbers of al-Andalus quickly raised their own revolt. Berber garrisons in northern Spain mutinied, deposed their Arab commanders, and organized a large rebel army to march against the strongholds of Toledo, Cordoba, and Algeciras.
In 741, Balj b. Bishr led a detachment of some 10,000 of the Arabic-speaking troops referred to as "the Syrians" across the "straits. The Arab governor of al-Andalus, joined by this force, crushed the Berber rebels in a series of ferocious battles in 742. However, a quarrel immediately erupted between the Syrian commanders and the Andalusi, the so-called "original Arabs" of the earlier contingents. The Syrians defeated them at the hard-fought Battle of Aqua Portora in August 742 but were too few to impose themselves on the province.
The quarrel was settled in 743 when "Abū l-Khaṭṭār al-Ḥusām, the new governor of al-Andalus, assigned the Syrians to regimental fiefs across al-Andalus – the Damascus jund was established in Elvira ("Granada), the Jordan jund in Rayyu ("Málaga and "Archidona), the Jund Filastin in "Medina-Sidonia and "Jerez, the Emesa (Hims) jund in "Seville and "Niebla, and the Qinnasrin jund in "Jaén. The Egypt jund was divided between "Beja ("Alentejo) in the west and Tudmir ("Murcia) in the east. The arrival of the Syrians substantially increased the Arab element in the Iberian peninsula and helped strengthen the Muslim hold on the south. However, at the same time, unwilling to be governed, the Syrian junds carried on an existence of autonomous feudal anarchy, severely destabilizing the authority of the governor of al-Andalus.
A second significant consequence of the revolt was the expansion of the "Kingdom of the Asturias, hitherto confined to enclaves in the Cantabrian highlands. After the rebellious Berber garrisons evacuated the northern frontier fortresses, the Christian king "Alfonso I of Asturias set about immediately seizing the empty forts for himself, quickly adding the northwestern provinces of "Galicia and "León to his fledgling kingdom. The Asturians evacuated the Christian populations from the towns and villages of the Galician-Leonese lowlands, creating an empty buffer zone in the "Douro River valley (the ""Desert of the Duero"). This newly emptied frontier remained roughly in place for the next few centuries as the boundary between the Christian north and the Islamic south. Between this frontier and its heartland in the south, the al-Andalus state had three large "march territories ("thughur): the "Lower March (capital initially at "Mérida, later "Badajoz), the Middle March (centered at Toledo), and the "Upper March (centered at "Zaragoza).
These disturbances and disorders also allowed the Franks, now under the leadership of "Pepin the Short, to invade the strategic strip of "Septimania in 752, hoping to deprive al-Andalus of an easy launching pad for raids into "Francia. After a lengthy siege, the last Arab stronghold, the citadel of "Narbonne, finally "fell to the Franks in 759. Al-Andalus was sealed off at the Pyrenees.
The third consequence of the Berber revolt was the collapse of the authority of the "Damascus Caliphate over the western provinces. With the Umayyad Caliphs distracted by the challenge of the "Abbasids in the east, the western provinces of the Maghreb and al-Andalus spun out of their control. From around 745, the "Fihrids, an illustrious local Arab clan descended from "Oqba ibn Nafi al-Fihri, seized power in the western provinces and ruled them almost as a private family empire of their own – "Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri in Ifriqiya and "Yūsuf al-Fihri in al-Andalus. The Fihrids welcomed the fall of the Umayyads in the east, in 750, and sought to reach an understanding with the Abbasids, hoping they might be allowed to continue their autonomous existence. But when the Abbasids rejected the offer and demanded submission, the Fihrids declared independence and, probably out of spite, invited the deposed remnants of the Umayyad clan to take refuge in their dominions. It was a fateful decision that they soon regretted, for the Umayyads, the sons and grandsons of caliphs, had a more legitimate claim to rule than the Fihrids themselves. Rebellious-minded local lords, disenchanted with the autocratic rule of the Fihrids, conspired with the arriving Umayyad exiles.
In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince "Abd al-Rahman I (nicknamed al-Dākhil, the 'Immigrant') ousted Yūsuf al-Fihri to establish himself as the "Emir of "Córdoba. He refused to submit to the Abbasid caliph, as Abbasid forces had killed most of his family. Over a thirty-year reign, he established a tenuous rule over much of al-Andalus, overcoming partisans of both the al-Fihri family and of the Abbasid caliph.
For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Córdoba with nominal control over the rest of al-Andalus and sometimes parts of western "North Africa, but with real control, particularly over the marches along the Christian border, vacillating depending on the competence of the individual emir. Indeed, the power of emir "Abdallah ibn Muhammad (circa 900) did not extend beyond Córdoba itself. But his grandson "Abd-al-Rahman III, who succeeded him in 912, not only rapidly restored Umayyad power throughout al-Andalus but extended it into western North Africa as well. In 929 he proclaimed himself "Caliph, elevating the emirate to a position competing in prestige not only with the "Abbasid caliph in "Baghdad but also the "Fatimid caliph in "Tunis—with whom he was competing for control of North Africa.
The period of the Caliphate is seen as the "golden age of al-Andalus. Crops produced using irrigation, along with food imported from the Middle East, provided the area around Córdoba and some other Andalusī cities with an agricultural economic sector that was the most advanced in Europe by far. Among European cities, Córdoba under the Caliphate, with a population of perhaps 500,000, eventually overtook "Constantinople as the largest and most prosperous city in Europe. Within the Islamic world, Córdoba was one of the leading cultural centres. The work of its most important philosophers and scientists (notably "Abulcasis and "Averroes) had a major influence on the intellectual life of medieval Europe.
Muslims and non-Muslims often came from abroad to study in the famous libraries and universities of al-Andalus, mainly after the reconquest of Toledo in 1085 and the establishment of translation institutions such as the "Toledo School of Translators. The most noted of those was "Michael Scot (c. 1175 to c. 1235), who took the works of "Ibn Rushd ("Averroes") and "Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") to Italy. This transmission of ideas remains one of the greatest in history, significantly affecting the formation of the European "Renaissance.
The Córdoba Caliphate effectively collapsed during a "ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013, although it was not finally abolished until 1031 when al-Andalus broke up into a number of mostly independent mini-states and principalities called "taifas. These were generally too weak to defend themselves against repeated raids and demands for tribute from the Christian states to the north and west, which were known to the Muslims as "the Galician nations", and which had spread from their initial strongholds in "Galicia, "Asturias, "Cantabria, the Basque country, and the "Carolingian "Marca Hispanica to become the Kingdoms of "Navarre, "León, "Portugal, "Castile and "Aragon, and the "County of Barcelona. Eventually raids turned into conquests, and in response the Taifa kings were forced to request help from the "Almoravids, Muslim Berber rulers of the "Maghreb. Their desperate maneuver would eventually fall to their disadvantage, however, as the Almoravids they had summoned from the south went on to conquer and annex all the Taifa kingdoms.
In 1086 the "Almoravid ruler of Morocco, "Yusuf ibn Tashfin, was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against "Alfonso VI, King of "Castile and "León. In that year, Tashfin crossed the straits to "Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the "Battle of Sagrajas. By 1094, ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and had annexed their states, except for the one at "Zaragoza. He also regained "Valencia from the Christians.
The Almoravids were succeeded by the "Almohads, another Berber dynasty, after the victory of "Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian "Alfonso VIII at the "Battle of Alarcos in 1195. In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of the Castilian Alfonso VIII defeated the Almohads at the "Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohads continued to rule Al-Andalus for another decade, though with much reduced power and prestige. The civil wars following the death of "Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II rapidly led to the re-establishment of taifas. The taifas, newly independent but now weakened, were quickly conquered by Portugal, Castile, and Aragon. After the fall of "Murcia (1243) and the "Algarve (1249), only the "Emirate of Granada survived as a Muslim state, and only as a tributary of Castile until 1492. Most of its tribute was paid in gold that was carried to Iberia from present-day "Mali and "Burkina Faso through the merchant routes of the "Sahara.
The last Muslim threat to the Christian kingdoms was the rise of the "Marinids in Morocco during the 14th century. They took Granada into their sphere of influence and occupied some of its cities, like "Algeciras. However, they were unable to take "Tarifa, which held out until the arrival of the Castilian Army led by "Alfonso XI. The Castilian king, with the help of "Afonso IV of Portugal and "Peter IV of Aragon, decisively defeated the Marinids at the "Battle of Río Salado in 1340 and took Algeciras in 1344. "Gibraltar, then under Granadian rule, was "besieged in 1349–50. Alfonso XI and most of his army perished by the "Black Death. His successor, "Peter of Castile, made peace with the Muslims and turned his attention to Christian lands, starting a period of almost 150 years of rebellions and wars between the Christian states that secured the survival of Granada.
From the mid 13th to the late 15th century, the only remaining domain of al-Andalus was the "Emirate of Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in the Iberian Peninsula. The emirate was established by "Mohammed I ibn Nasr in 1230 and was ruled by the "Nasrid dynasty, the longest reigning dynasty in the history of al-Andalus. Although surrounded by Castilian lands, the emirate was wealthy through being tightly integrated in Mediterranean trade networks and enjoyed a period of considerable cultural and economic prosperity. However, for most of its existence Granada was a tributary state, with Nasrid emirs paying tribute to Castilian kings. Granada's status as a tributary state and its favorable geographic location, with the "Sierra Nevada as a natural barrier, helped to prolong Nasrid rule and allowed the emirate to prosper as a regional "entrepôt with the "Maghreb and the rest of Africa. The city of Granada also served as a refuge for Muslims fleeing during the "Reconquista, accepting numerous Muslims expelled from Christian controlled areas, doubling the size of the city and even becoming one of the largest in Europe throughout the 15th century in terms of population.
In 1469, the marriage of "Ferdinand of Aragon and "Isabella of Castile signaled the launch of the final assault on the emirate. The King and Queen convinced Pope "Sixtus IV to declare their war a crusade. The "Catholic Monarchs crushed one center of resistance after another until finally on January 2, 1492, after a long siege, the emirate's last sultan "Muhammad XII surrendered the city and the fortress palace, the renowned "Alhambra (see "Fall of Granada).
By this time Muslims in "Castile numbered half a million. After the fall, "100,000 had died or been enslaved, 200,000 emigrated, and 200,000 remained as the residual population. Many of the Muslim elite, including "Muhammad XII, who had been given the area of the "Alpujarras mountains as a principality, found life under Christian rule intolerable and passed over into North Africa." Under the conditions of the Capitulations of 1492, the Muslims in Granada were to be allowed to continue to practice their religion.
Mass "forced conversions of Muslims in 1499 led to a "revolt that spread to Alpujarras and the mountains of "Ronda; after this uprising the capitulations were revoked. In 1502 the Catholic Monarchs decreed the forced conversion of all Muslims living under the rule of the Crown of Castile, although in the kingdoms of "Aragon and "Valencia (both now part of Spain) the open practice of Islam was allowed until 1526. Descendants of the Muslims were subject to expulsions from Spain between 1609 and 1614 (see "Expulsion of the Moriscos). The last mass prosecution against "Moriscos for "crypto-Islamic practices occurred in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving relatively light sentences. From then on, indigenous Islam is considered to have been extinguished in Spain.
The society of al-Andalus was made up of three main religious groups: Muslims, Christians, and Jews. The Muslims, although united on the religious level, had several ethnic divisions, the main being the distinction between the Arabs and the "Berbers. The Arab elite regarded non-Arab Muslims as second-class citizens; and they were particularly scornful of the Berbers.
The ethnic structure of al-Andalus consisted of Arabs at the top of the social scale followed by, in descending order, Berbers, "Muladies, "Mozarabes, and Jews. Each of these communities inhabited distinct neighborhoods in the cities. In the 10th century a massive conversion of Christians took place, and "muladies (Muslims of native "Iberian origin), formed the majority of Muslims. The Muladies had spoken in a "Romance dialect of Latin called "Mozarabic while increasingly adopting the Arabic language, which eventually evolved into the "Andalusi Arabic in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians became monolingual in the last surviving Muslim state in the Iberian Peninsula, the "Emirate of Granada (1230-1492). Eventually, the Muladies, and later the Berber tribes, adopted an Arabic identity like the majority of subject people in "Egypt, the "Levant, "Mesopotamia, and "North Africa. Muladies, together with other Muslims, comprised eighty percent of the population of al-Andalus by 1100. "Mozarabs were Christians who had long lived under Muslim and Arab rule, adopting many Arab customs, art, and words, while still maintaining their Christian and Latin rituals and their own Romance languages.
The Jewish population worked mainly as tax collectors, in "trade, or as doctors or ambassadors. At the end of the 15th century there were about 50,000 "Jews in Granada and roughly 100,000 in the whole of Islamic Iberia.
Non-Muslims were given the status of "ahl al-dhimma (the people under protection), with adult males paying a ""Jizya" tax, equal to one dinar per year with exemptions for the elderly, women, children, and the disabled. Those who were neither Christians nor Jews, such as pagans, were given the status of "Majus. The treatment of non-Muslims in the "Caliphate has been a subject of considerable debate among scholars and commentators, especially those interested in drawing parallels to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims in the modern world.
"Jews constituted more than five percent of the population. Al-Andalus was a key centre of Jewish life during the early "Middle Ages, producing important scholars and one of the most stable and wealthy Jewish communities.
The Caliphate treated non-Muslims differently at different times. The longest period of relative tolerance began after 912 with the reign of "Abd-ar-Rahman III and his son, "Al-Hakam II, when the Jews of al-Andalus prospered, devoting themselves to the service of the "Caliphate of Córdoba, to the study of the sciences, and to commerce and industry, especially trading in "silk and "slaves, in this way promoting the prosperity of the country. Southern Iberia became an asylum for the oppressed Jews of other countries.
Under the "Almoravids and the "Almohads there may have been intermittent persecution of Jews, but sources are extremely scarce and do not give a clear picture, though the situation appears to have deteriorated after 1160. Muslim pogroms against Jews in al-Andalus occurred in Córdoba (1011) and in "Granada (1066). However, massacres of "dhimmis are rare in Islamic history.
The "Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusi territories by 1147, far surpassed the "Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the non-Muslims harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated. Some, such as the family of "Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands.
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Many ethnicities, religions, and races coexisted in al-Andalus, each contributing to its intellectual prosperity. Literacy in Islamic Iberia was far more widespread than in many other nations in the West at the time.
From the earliest days, the Umayyads wanted to be seen as intellectual rivals to the "Abbasids, and for Córdoba to have libraries and educational institutions to rival "Baghdad's. Although there was a clear rivalry between the two powers, there was freedom to travel between the two caliphates,["citation needed] which helped spread new ideas and innovations over time.
The "Alhambra palace and fortress best reflects the culture and art of the last centuries of Moorish rule of Al-Andalus. The complex was completed towards the end of the Muslim rule of Spain by "Yusuf I (1333–1353) and "Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada (1353–1391). Artists and intellectuals took refuge at Alhambra after the Reconquista began to roll back Muslim territory. The site integrates natural qualities with constructed structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and to the skills of the Muslim artisans, craftsmen, and builders of their era.
The decoration within the palace comes from the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada, with little of the Byzantine influence of contemporary Abbasid architecture. Artists endlessly reproduced the same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the course of the Nasrid Dynasty using elements created and developed during the centuries of Muslim rule on the Peninsula, including the Caliphate "horseshoe arch, the Almohad sebka (a grid of "rhombuses), the Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of these, as well as innovations such as stilted arches and "muqarnas (stalactite ceiling decorations). Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of numerous palaces are decorated with "arabesques and "calligraphy. The arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans, Yusuf I, Muhammed V, and "Ismail I, Sultan of Granada.
The historian "Said al-Andalusi wrote that Caliph "Abd-ar-Rahman III had collected libraries of books and granted patronage to scholars of "medicine and "ancient sciences". Later, al-Mustansir ("Al-Hakam II) went yet further, building a university and libraries in Córdoba. Córdoba became one of the world's leading centres of medicine and philosophical debate.
When Al-Hakam's son "Hisham II took over, real power was ceded to the hajib, "al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir. Al-Mansur was a distinctly religious man and disapproved of the sciences of "astronomy, "logic, and especially of "astrology, so much so that many books on these subjects, which had been preserved and collected at great expense by "Al-Hakam II, were "burned publicly. With Al-Mansur's death in 1002, interest in philosophy revived. Numerous scholars emerged, including Abu Uthman Ibn Fathun, whose masterwork was the philosophical treatise "Tree of Wisdom". "Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (died 1008) was an outstanding scholar in astronomy and astrology; he was an intrepid traveller who journeyed all over the Islamic world and beyond and kept in touch with the "Brethren of Purity. He is said to have brought the 51 ""Epistles of the Brethren of Purity" to al-Andalus and added the compendium to this work, although it is quite possible that it was added later by another scholar with the name al-Majriti. Another book attributed to al-Majriti is the Ghayat al-Hakim, "The Aim of the Sage", which explored a synthesis of "Platonism with "Hermetic philosophy. Its use of incantations led the book to be widely dismissed in later years, although the "Sufi communities continued to study it.
A prominent follower of al-Majriti was the philosopher and geometer "Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani who was followed, in turn, by Abu Bakr Ibn al-Sayigh, usually known in the Arab world as "Ibn Bajjah, ""Avempace".
The al-Andalus philosopher "Averroes (1126–1198) was the founder of the "Averroism school of philosophy, and his works and commentaries influenced medieval thought in Western Europe["citation needed]. Another influential al-Andalus philosopher was "Ibn Tufail.
As "Jewish thought in Babylonia declined, the tolerance of al-Andalus made it the new centre of Jewish intellectual endeavours. Poets and commentators like "Judah Halevi (1086–1145) and "Dunash ben Labrat (920–990) contributed to the cultural life of al-Andalus, but the area was even more important to the development of Jewish philosophy. A stream of Jewish philosophers, cross-fertilizing with Muslim philosophers (see "joint Jewish and Islamic philosophies), culminated with the widely celebrated Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, "Maimonides (1135–1205), though he did not actually do any of his work in al-Andalus, his family having fled persecution by the "Almohads when he was 13.
In the book Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia Daniel Eisenberg describes homosexuality as "a key symbolic issue throughout the Middle Ages in Iberia", stating that "in al-Andalus homosexual pleasures were much indulged in by the intellectual and political elite. Evidence includes the behaviour of rulers, such as Abd al-Rahmn III, Al-Hakam II, Hisham II, and Al Mu'tamid, who openly kept male harems; the memoirs of "Abdallah ibn Buluggin, last Zirid king of Granada, makes references to male prostitutes, who charged higher fees and had a higher class of clientele than did their female counter-parts: the repeated criticisms of Christians; and especially the abundant poetry. Both pederasty and love between adult males are found. Although homosexual practices were never officially condoned, prohibitions against them were rarely enforced, and usually there was not even a pretense of doing so." Male homosexual relations allowed nonprocreative sexual practices and were not seen as a form of identity. Very little is known about the homosexual behaviour of women.
"Los arabes y musulmanes de la Edad Media aplicaron el nombre de Al-Andalus a todas aquellas tierras que habian formado parte del reino visigodo: la Peninsula Ibérica y la Septimania ultrapirenaica." ("The Arabs and Muslims from the Middle Ages used the name of al-Andalus for all those lands that were formerly part of the Visigothic kingdom: the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania")
Only a few years after the Islamic conquest of Spain, Al-Andalus appears in coin inscriptions as the Arabic equivalent of Hispania. The traditionally held view that the etymology of this name has to do with the Vandals is shown to have no serious foundation. The phonetic, morphosyntactic, and also historical problems connected with this etymology are too numerous. Moreover, the existence of this name in various parts of central and northern Spain proves that Al-Andalus cannot be derived from this "Germanic tribe. It was the original name of the Punta Marroquí cape near Tarifa; very soon, it became generalized to designate the whole Peninsula. Undoubtedly, the name is of Pre-Indo-European origin. The parts of this compound (anda and luz) are frequent in the indigenous toponymy of the Iberian Peninsula.
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