Gore campaigned for the "Democratic Party nomination for "President of the United States against "Joe Biden, "Gary Hart, "Dick Gephardt, "Paul Simon, "Jesse Jackson, and "Michael Dukakis (who eventually won the Democratic nomination). Gore carried seven states in the primaries, finishing third overall.
Although Gore initially denied that he intended to run, his candidacy was the subject of speculation: "National analysts make Sen. Gore a long-shot for the Presidential nomination, but many believe he could provide a natural complement for any of the other candidates: a young, attractive, moderate Vice Presidential nominee from the South. He currently denies any interest, but he carefully does not reject the idea out of hand." At the time, he was 39 years old, making him the "youngest serious Presidential candidate since John F. Kennedy."
CNN noted that, "in 1988, for the first time, 12 Southern states would hold their primaries on the same day, dubbed "Super Tuesday". Gore thought he would be the only serious Southern contender; he had not counted on Jesse Jackson." Jackson defeated Gore in the "South Carolina Primary, winning, "more than half the total vote, three times that of his closest rival here, Senator Albert Gore Jr. of Tennessee." Gore next placed great hope on "Super Tuesday where they split the Southern vote: Jackson winning Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Virginia; Gore winning Arkansas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Nevada, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. Gore was later endorsed by "New York City Mayor "Ed Koch who made statements in favor of "Israel and against Jackson. These statements cast Gore in a negative light, leading voters away from Gore who received only 10% of the vote in the New York Primary. Gore then dropped out of the race. "The New York Times said that Gore also lost support due to his attacks against Jackson, Dukakis, and others.
Gore was eventually able to mend fences with Jackson, who supported the Clinton-Gore ticket in 1992 and 1996, and campaigned for the Gore-Lieberman ticket during the "2000 presidential election. Gore's policies changed substantially in 2000, reflecting his eight years as Vice President.
1992 presidential election
Gore was initially hesitant to accept a position as "Bill Clinton's running mate for the "1992 United States presidential election, but after clashing with the "George H. W. Bush administration over "global warming issues, he decided to accept the offer. Clinton stated that he chose Gore due to his foreign policy experience, work with the environment, and commitment to his family.
Clinton's choice was criticized as unconventional because rather than picking a running mate who would "diversify the ticket, Clinton chose a fellow Southerner who shared his political ideologies and who was nearly the same age as Clinton. The Washington Bureau Chief for "The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, later suggested that, "Al Gore revolutionized the way Vice Presidents are made. When he joined Bill Clinton's ticket, it violated the old rules. Regional diversity? Not with two Southerners from neighboring states. Ideological balance? A couple of left-of-center moderates. [...] And yet, Gore has come to be regarded by strategists in both parties as the best vice presidential pick in at least 20 years."
Clinton and Gore accepted the nomination at the "Democratic National Convention on July 17, 1992. Known as the "Baby Boomer Ticket and the "Fortysomething Team, "The New York Times noted that if elected, Clinton and Gore, at ages 45 and 44 respectively, would be the "youngest team to make it to the White House in the country's history." Theirs was the first ticket since 1972 to try to capture the youth vote. Gore called the ticket "a new generation of leadership".
The ticket increased in popularity after the candidates traveled with their wives, Hillary and Tipper, on a "six-day, 1,000-mile bus ride, from New York to St. Louis." Gore also debated the other vice presidential candidates, "Dan Quayle, and "James Stockdale. The Clinton-Gore ticket beat the Bush-Quayle ticket, 43%-38%.
Vice Presidency (1993–2001)
Al Gore served as Vice President during the "Clinton Administration. Clinton and Gore were inaugurated on January 20, 1993. At the beginning of the first term, Clinton and Gore developed a "two-page agreement outlining their relationship." Clinton committed himself to regular lunch meetings, recognized Gore as a principal adviser on nominations, and appointed some of Gore's chief advisers to key White House staff positions [...] Clinton involved Gore in decision-making to an unprecedented degree for a Vice President. Through their weekly lunches and daily conversations, Gore became the president's "indisputable chief adviser."
However, Gore had to compete with Hillary, the First Lady, for President Clinton's influence, starting when she was appointed health-care task force without Gore being consulted. Vanity Fair wrote that President Clinton's "failure to confide in his vice president was a telling sign of the real pecking order", and reported "it was an open secret that some of Hillary's advisers...nurtured dreams that Hillary, not Gore, would follow Bill in the presidency".
Gore had a particular interest in reducing "waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal government and advocated trimming the size of the bureaucracy and the number of regulations." During the Clinton Administration, the U.S. economy expanded, according to David Greenberg (professor of history and media studies at "Rutgers University) who said that "by the end of the Clinton presidency, the numbers were uniformly impressive. Besides the record-high surpluses and the record-low poverty rates, the economy could boast the longest economic expansion in history; the lowest unemployment since the early 1970s; and the lowest poverty rates for single mothers, black Americans, and the aged."
According to Leslie Budd, author of E-economy: Rhetoric or Business Reality, this economic success was due, in part, to Gore's continued role as an "Atari Democrat, promoting the development of "information technology, which led to the "dot-com boom (c. 1995-2001). Clinton and Gore entered office planning to finance research that would "flood the economy with innovative goods and services, lifting the general level of prosperity and strengthening American industry." Their overall aim was to fund the development of, "robotics, smart roads, biotechnology, machine tools, magnetic-levitation trains, fiber-optic communications and national computer networks. Also earmarked [were] a raft of basic technologies like digital imaging and data storage." Critics claimed that the initiatives would "backfire, bloating Congressional pork and creating whole new categories of Federal waste."
During the election and his term as Vice President, Gore popularized the term "Information Superhighway, which became synonymous with the "Internet, and he was involved in the creation of the "National Information Infrastructure. Gore first discussed his plans to emphasize information technology at "UCLA on January 11, 1994, in a speech at "The Superhighway Summit. He was involved in a number of projects including "NetDay'96 and "24 Hours in Cyberspace. The Clinton–Gore administration also launched the first official "White House website in 1994 and subsequent versions through 2000. The "Clipper Chip, which "Clinton inherited from a multi-year National Security Agency effort", was a method of hardware encryption with a government "backdoor. It met with strong opposition from civil liberty groups and was abandoned by 1996.
Gore was also involved in environmental initiatives. He launched the "GLOBE program on "Earth Day '94, an education and science activity that, according to "Forbes magazine, "made extensive use of the Internet to increase student awareness of their environment". In 1998, Gore began promoting a "NASA "satellite ("Deep Space Climate Observatory) that would provide a constant view of the Earth, marking the first time such an image would have been made since "The Blue Marble photo from the 1972 "Apollo 17 mission. During this time, he also became associated with "Digital Earth.
Gore negotiated and strongly supported the "Kyoto Protocol to reduce "greenhouse gasses, but said upon his return that the administration would not submit the treaty to the Senate for ratification until it was amended to include "meaningful participation by key developing nations", The Senate had previously passed unanimously (95–0) the "Byrd–Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98), which declared opposition to any greenhouse gas treaty which would limit US emissions without similar limits on third-world countries such as China. The Clinton administration left office three years later without having submitted the treaty for ratification.
In 1996, Gore became involved in a "finance controversy over his attendance at an event at the "Buddhist "Hsi Lai Temple in "Hacienda Heights, California. In an interview on "NBC's "Today the following year, Gore said, "I did not know that it was a fund-raiser. I knew it was a political event, and I knew there were finance people that were going to be present, and so that alone should have told me, 'This is inappropriate and this is a mistake; don't do this.' And I take responsibility for that. It was a mistake." In March 1997, Gore had to explain phone calls which he made to solicit funds for Democratic Party for the 1996 election. In a news conference, Gore stated that, "all calls that I made were charged to the Democratic National Committee. I was advised there was nothing wrong with that. My counsel tells me there is no controlling legal authority that says that is any violation of any law." The phrase "no controlling legal authority" was criticized by columnist "Charles Krauthammer, who stated: "Whatever other legacies Al Gore leaves behind between now and retirement, he forever bequeaths this newest weasel word to the lexicon of American political corruption." "Robert Conrad Jr. was the head of a Justice Department task force appointed by "Attorney General "Janet Reno to investigate Gore's fund-raising controversies. In Spring 2000, Conrad asked Reno to appoint an "independent counsel to continue the investigation. After looking into the matter, Reno judged that the appointment of an independent counsel was unwarranted.
During the 1990s, Gore spoke out on a number of issues. In a 1992 speech on the "Gulf War, Gore stated that he twice attempted to get the U.S. government to pull the plug on support to "Saddam Hussein, citing Hussein's use of poison gas, support of terrorism, and his burgeoning nuclear program, but was opposed both times by the Reagan and Bush administrations. In the wake of the "Al-Anfal Campaign, during which Hussein staged deadly mustard and nerve gas attacks on Kurdish Iraqis, Gore cosponsored the "Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988, which would have cut all assistance to Iraq. The bill was defeated in part due to intense lobbying of Congress by the Reagan-Bush White House and a veto threat from President Reagan. In 1998, at a conference of "APEC hosted by "Malaysia, Gore objected to the indictment, arrest and jailing of President "Mahathir Mohammad's longtime second-in-command "Anwar Ibrahim, a move which received a negative response from leaders there. Ten years later, Gore again protested when Ibrahim was arrested a second time, a decision condemned by Malaysian foreign minister Datuk Seri Dr "Rais Yatim.
Soon afterwards, Gore also had to contend with the "Lewinsky scandal, involving an affair between President Clinton and an intern, "Monica Lewinsky. Gore initially defended Clinton, whom he believed to be innocent, stating, "He is the president of the country! He is my friend [...] I want to ask you now, every single one of you, to join me in supporting him." After "Clinton was impeached, Gore continued to defend him stating, "I've defined my job in exactly the same way for six years now [...] to do everything I can to help him be the best president possible."
Second presidential run (2000)
There was talk of a potential run in the "2000 presidential race by Gore as early as January 1998. Gore discussed the possibility of running during a March 9, 1999, interview with CNN's "Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. In response to "Wolf Blitzer's question: "Why should Democrats, looking at the Democratic nomination process, support you instead of "Bill Bradley", Gore responded:
- I'll be offering my vision when my campaign begins. And it will be comprehensive and sweeping. And I hope that it will be compelling enough to draw people toward it. I feel that it will be. But it will emerge from my dialogue with the American people. I've traveled to every part of this country during the last six years. During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet. I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to our country's economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our educational system.
Former UCLA professor of "information studies "Philip E. Agre and journalist "Eric Boehlert argued that three articles in "Wired News led to the creation of the widely spread "urban legend that Gore claimed to have "invented the Internet", which followed this interview. In addition, computer professionals and congressional colleagues argued in his defense. Internet pioneers "Vint Cerf and "Bob Kahn stated that "we don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he 'invented' the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet." Cerf would later state: "Al Gore had seen what happened with the "National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which his father introduced as a military bill. It was very powerful. Housing went up, suburban boom happened, everybody became mobile. Al was attuned to the power of networking much more than any of his elective colleagues. His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve credit." In a speech to the American Political Science Association, former Republican "Speaker of the United States House of Representatives "Newt Gingrich also stated: "In all fairness, it's something Gore had worked on a long time. Gore is not the Father of the Internet, but in all fairness, Gore is the person who, in the Congress, most systematically worked to make sure that we got to an Internet, and the truth is—and I worked with him starting in 1978 when I got [to Congress], we were both part of a "futures group"—the fact is, in the Clinton administration, the world we had talked about in the '80s began to actually happen." Finally, Wolf Blitzer (who conducted the original 1999 interview) stated in 2008 that: "I didn't ask him about the Internet. I asked him about the differences he had with Bill Bradley [...] Honestly, at the time, when he said it, it didn't dawn on me that this was going to have the impact that it wound up having, because it was distorted to a certain degree and people said they took what he said, which was a carefully phrased comment about taking the initiative and creating the Internet to—I invented the Internet. And that was the sort of shorthand, the way his enemies projected it and it wound up being a devastating setback to him and it hurt him, as I'm sure he acknowledges to this very day."
Gore himself would later poke fun at the controversy. In 2000, while on the "Late Show with David Letterman he read "Letterman's Top 10 List (which for this show was called, "Top Ten Rejected Gore – "Lieberman Campaign Slogans") to the audience. Number nine on the list was: "Remember, America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it away!" In 2005 when Gore was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award "for three decades of contributions to the Internet" at the "Webby Awards he joked in his acceptance speech (limited to five words according to Webby Awards rules): "Please don't recount this vote." He was introduced by Vint Cerf who used the same format to joke: "We all invented the Internet." Gore, who was then asked to add a few more words to his speech, stated: "It is time to reinvent the Internet for all of us to make it more robust and much more accessible and use it to reinvigorate our democracy."
Gore formally announced his candidacy for president in a speech on June 16, 1999, in "Carthage, Tennessee, with his major theme being the need to strengthen the American family. He was introduced by his eldest daughter, "Karenna Gore Schiff. In making the speech, Gore also distanced himself from Bill Clinton, who he stated had lied to him. Gore was "briefly interrupted" by "AIDS protesters claiming Gore was working with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent access to generic medicines for poor nations and chanting "Gore's greed kills." Additional speeches were also interrupted by the protesters. Gore responded, "I love this country. I love the "First Amendment [...] Let me say in response to those who may have chosen an inappropriate way to make their point, that actually the crisis of AIDS in Africa is one that should command the attention of people in the United States and around the world." Gore also issued a statement saying that he supported efforts to lower the cost of the AIDS drugs, provided that they "are done in a way consistent with international agreements."
While Bill Clinton's job-approval ratings were around 60%, an April 1999 study by the "Pew Research Center for the People found that respondents suffered from "Clinton fatigue" where they were "tired of all the problems associated with the Clinton administration" including the Lewinsky scandal and impeachment. Texas Governor and likely Republican presidential nominee "George W. Bush was leading Gore 54% to 41% in polls during that time. Gore's advisers believed that the "Lewinsky scandal and Bill's past womanizing...alienated independent voters—especially the "soccer moms, who stood for "traditional values". Consequently, Gore's presidential campaign "veered too far in differentiating himself from Bill and his record and had difficulty taking advantage of the Clinton administration's legitimate successes". In addition, Hillary's candidacy for the open Senate seat in New York exacerbated the "three-way tensions evident in the White House since 1993", as "not only was Hillary unavailable as a campaigner, she was poaching top Democratic fund-raisers and donors who would normally concentrate on the vice president". In one instance "Hillary insisted on being invited [to a Los Angeles fundraiser for the vice president]—over the objections of the event's organizers", where the First Lady "shocked the vice president's supporters by soliciting donations for herself in front of Tipper".
Gore faced an early challenge by former New Jersey senator "Bill Bradley. Bradley was the only candidate to oppose Gore and was considered a "fresh face" for the White House. Gore challenged Bradley to a series of debates which took the form of "town hall" meetings. Gore went on the offensive during these debates leading to a drop in the polls for Bradley. In the Iowa caucus the unions pledged their support to Gore, despite Bradley spending heavily in that state, and Bradley was much embarrassed by his two to one defeat there. Gore went on to capture the New Hampshire primary 53-47%, which had been a must-win state for Bradley. Gore then swept all of the primaries on Super Tuesday while Bradley finished a distant second in each state. On March 9, 2000, after failing to win any of the first 20 primaries and caucuses in the election process, Bradley withdrew his campaign and endorsed Gore. Gore eventually went on to win every primary and caucus and, in March 2000 even won the first primary election ever held over the Internet, the Arizona Presidential Primary. By then, he secured the Democratic nomination.
On August 13, 2000, Gore announced that he had selected Senator "Joe Lieberman of Connecticut as his vice presidential running mate. Lieberman became "the first person of the "Jewish faith to run for the nation's second-highest office." Many pundits saw Gore's choice of Lieberman as further distancing him from the scandals of the Clinton White House. Gore's daughter, Karenna, together with her father's former Harvard roommate "Tommy Lee Jones, officially nominated Gore as the Democratic presidential candidate during the "2000 Democratic National Convention in "Los Angeles, California. Gore accepted his party's nomination and spoke about the major themes of his campaign, stating in particular his plan to extend "Medicare to pay for "prescription drugs and to work for a sensible "universal health-care system. Soon after the convention, Gore hit the campaign trail with running mate Joe Lieberman. Gore and Bush were deadlocked in the polls. Gore and Bush participated in three televised debates. While both sides claimed victory after each, Gore was critiqued as either too stiff, too reticent, or too aggressive in contrast to Bush.
On election night, news networks first called Florida for Gore, later retracted the projection, and then called Florida for Bush, before finally retracting that projection as well. Florida's "Republican "Secretary of State, "Katherine Harris, eventually certified Florida's vote count. This led to the "Florida election recount, a move to further examine the "Florida results.
The Florida recount was stopped a few weeks later by the "U.S. Supreme Court. In the ruling, "Bush v. Gore, the Justices held that the Florida recount was unconstitutional and that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline, effectively ending the recounts. This 7–2 vote ruled that the standards the "Florida Supreme Court provided for a recount were unconstitutional due to violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the "Fourteenth Amendment, and further ruled 5–4 that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline. This case ordered an end to recounting underway in selected Florida counties, effectively giving George W. Bush a 537 vote victory in Florida and consequently Florida's 25 "electoral votes and the presidency. The results of the decision led to Gore winning the "popular vote by approximately 500,000 votes nationwide, but receiving 266 electoral votes to Bush's 271 (one "District of Columbia elector abstained). On December 13, 2000, Gore conceded the election. Gore strongly disagreed with the Court's decision, but in his concession speech stated that, "for the sake of our unity as a people and the strength of our democracy, I offer my concession."
After maintaining an informal public distance for eight years, Bill Clinton and Gore reunited for the media in August 2009 after Clinton arranged for the release of two journalists who were being "held hostage in North Korea. The two women were employees of Gore's "Current TV.
Criticism of Bush
Beginning in late 2002, Gore began to publicly criticize the "Bush administration. In a September 23, 2002, speech given before the "Commonwealth Club of California, Gore criticized President George W. Bush and Congress for the rush to war prior to the outbreak of hostilities in "Iraq. He compared this decision to the "Persian Gulf War (which Gore had voted for) stating, "Back in 1991, I was one of a handful of Democrats in the United States Senate to vote in favor of the resolution endorsing the Persian Gulf War [...] But look at the differences between the resolution that was voted on in 1991 and the one this administration is proposing that the Congress vote on in 2002. The circumstances are really completely different. To review a few of them briefly: in 1991, Iraq had crossed an international border, invaded a neighboring sovereign nation and annexed its territory. Now by contrast in 2002, there has been no such invasion." In a speech given in 2004, during the "presidential election, Gore accused George W. Bush of betraying the country by using the "9/11 attacks as a justification for the invasion of Iraq. The next year, Gore gave a speech which covered many topics, including what he called "religious zealots" who claim special knowledge of God's will in American politics. Gore stated: "They even claim that those of us who disagree with their point of view are waging war against people of faith." After "Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Gore chartered two planes to evacuate 270 people from "New Orleans and criticized the Bush administration's response to the hurricane. In 2006, Gore criticized Bush's use of domestic "wiretaps without a warrant. One month later, in a speech given at the "Jeddah Economic Forum, Gore criticized the treatment of "Arabs in the U.S. after 9/11 stating, "Unfortunately there have been terrible abuses and it's wrong [...] I do want you to know that it does not represent the desires or wishes or feelings of the majority of the citizens of my country." Gore's 2007 book, "The Assault on Reason, is an analysis of what Gore refers to as the "emptying out of the "marketplace of ideas" in civic discourse during the Bush administration. He attributes this phenomenon to the influence of television and argues that it endangers American democracy. By contrast, Gore argues, the Internet can revitalize and ultimately "redeem the integrity of representative democracy." In 2008, Gore argued against the ban of same-sex marriage on his Current TV website, stating, "I think that gay men and women ought to have the same rights as heterosexual men and women to make contracts, have hospital visiting rights, and join together in marriage." In a 2009 interview with "CNN, Gore commented on former Vice President "Dick Cheney's criticism of the "Obama administration. Referring to his own previous criticism of the Bush administrations, Gore stated: "I waited two years after I left office to make statements that were critical, and then of the policy [...] You know, you talk about somebody that shouldn't be talking about making the country less safe, invading a country that did not attack us and posed no serious threat to us at all."
While Gore has criticized Bush for his Katrina response,he has not spoken publicly about his part in the evacuation of 270 patients on September 3 & 4, 2005, from Charity Hospital in New Orleans to Tennessee. On September 1, Gore was contacted by Charity Hospital's Neurosurgeon Dr. David Kline,who had operated on his son Albert, through Greg Simon of "FasterCures. Kline informed Gore and Simon of the desperate conditions at the hospital and asked Gore and Simon to arrange relief. On Gore's personal financial commitment, two airlines each provided a plane with one flight latter underwritten by "Larry Flax. The flights were flown by volunteer airline crews and medically staffed by Gore's cousin, retired Col. Dar LaFon, and family physician Dr. Anderson Spickard and were accompanied by Gore and Albert III. Gore used his political influence to expedite landing rights in New Orleans.
Presidential run speculation
Gore was a speculated candidate for the "2004 Presidential Election (a bumper sticker, "Re-elect Gore in 2004!" was popular). On December 16, 2002, however, Gore announced that he would not run in 2004. Despite Gore taking himself out of the race, a handful of his supporters formed a national campaign to "draft him into running. One observer concluded it was "Al Gore who has the best chance to defeat the incumbent president", noting that "of the 43 Presidents, only three have been direct descendents of former Presidents:" "John Quincy Adams, "Benjamin Harrison, and "George W. Bush, that "all three won the office only after... anomalies in the "Electoral College", that the first two were defeated for re-election in a populist backlash, and finally that "the men who first lost to the presidential progeny and then beat them" (i.e. "Andrew Jackson and "Grover Cleveland) "each won a sort of immortality--having his image placed on a unit of US currency", and that Gore should answer this call of history. The draft movement, however, failed to convince Gore to run.
The prospect of a Gore candidacy arose again between 2006 and early 2008 in light of the upcoming "2008 presidential election. Although Gore frequently stated that he had "no plans to run", he did not reject the possibility of future involvement in politics which led to speculation that he might run. This was due in part to his increased popularity after the release of the 2006 documentary, An Inconvenient Truth. The director of the film, "Davis Guggenheim, stated that after the release of the film, "Everywhere I go with him, they treat him like a rock star." After An Inconvenient Truth was nominated for an "Academy Award, "Donna Brazile (Gore's campaign chairwoman from his 2000 campaign) speculated that Gore might announce a possible presidential candidacy during the Oscars. During the "79th Academy Awards ceremony, Gore and actor "Leonardo DiCaprio shared the stage to speak about the ""greening" of the ceremony itself. Gore began to give a speech that appeared to be leading up to an announcement that he would run for president. However, background music drowned him out and he was escorted offstage, implying that it was a rehearsed gag, which he later acknowledged. After An Inconvenient Truth won the "Academy Award for Best Documentary, speculation increased about a possible presidential run. Gore's popularity was indicated in polls which showed that even without running, he was coming in second or third among possible Democratic candidates "Hillary Clinton, "Barack Obama, and "John Edwards. "Grassroots "draft campaigns also developed with the hope that they could encourage Gore to run. Gore, however, remained firm in his decision and declined to run for the presidency.
Interest in having Gore run for the "2016 Presidential election arose in 2014 and again in 2015, although he did not declare any intention to do so.
Involvement in presidential campaigns
After announcing he would not run in the "2004 U.S. presidential election, Gore endorsed "Vermont governor "Howard Dean in December 2003, weeks before the first primary of the election cycle. He was criticized for this endorsement by eight Democratic contenders particularly since he did not endorse his former running mate Joe Lieberman (Gore preferred Dean over Lieberman because Lieberman supported the "Iraq War and Gore did not). Dean's campaign soon became a target of attacks and eventually failed, with Gore's early endorsement being credited as a factor. In The New York Times, Dean stated: "I actually do think the endorsement of Al Gore began the decline." The Times further noted that "Dean instantly amplified his statement to indicate that the endorsement from Mr. Gore, a powerhouse of the establishment, so threatened the other Democratic candidates that they began the attacks on his candidacy that helped derail it." Dean's former campaign manager, "Joe Trippi, also stated that after Gore's endorsement of Dean, "alarm bells went off in every newsroom in the country, in every other campaign in the country", indicating that if something did not change, Dean would be the nominee. Later, in March 2004, Gore endorsed "John Kerry and gave Kerry $6 million in funds left over from his own unsuccessful 2000 bid. Gore also opened the "2004 Democratic National Convention.
During the "2008 primaries, Gore remained neutral toward all of the candidates which led to speculation that he would come out of a brokered 2008 Democratic National Convention as a "compromise candidate" if the party decided it could not nominate one. Gore responded by stating that these events would not take place because a candidate would be nominated through the primary process. Senator "Ted Kennedy had urged Gore to endorse Senator "Barack Obama though Gore declined. When Obama became the presumptive Democratic nominee for president on June 3, 2008, speculation began that Gore might be tapped for the vice presidency. On June 16, 2008, one week after Hillary Clinton had suspended her campaign, Gore endorsed Obama in a speech given in "Detroit, Michigan which renewed speculation of an Obama-Gore ticket. Gore stated, however, that he was not interested in being Vice President again. On the timing and nature of Gore's endorsement, some argued that Gore waited because he did not want to repeat his calamitous early endorsement of "Howard Dean during the "2004 Presidential Election. On the final night of the "2008 Democratic National Convention, shortly before Obama delivered his acceptance address, Gore gave a speech offering his full support. Such support led to new speculation after Obama was elected President during the "2008 Presidential election that Gore would be named a member of the Obama administration. This speculation was enhanced by a meeting held between Obama, Gore, and "Joe Biden in "Chicago on December 9, 2008. However, Democratic officials and Gore's spokeswoman stated that during the meeting the only subject under discussion was the climate crisis, and Gore would not be joining the Obama administration. On December 19, 2008, Gore described Obama's environmental administrative choices of "Carol Browner, "Steven Chu, and "Lisa Jackson as "an exceptional team to lead the fight against the climate crisis."
Gore repeated his neutrality eight years later during the "Democratic presidential primaries of 2016 until endorsing Hillary Clinton on July 25, 2016, the first day of "that year's Democratic National Convention. Gore appeared with her at a rally on Miami Dade College's Kendall Campus on October 11, 2016.
Gore has been involved with environmental issues since 1976, when as a freshman congressman, he held the "first congressional hearings on the climate change, and co-sponsor[ed] hearings on toxic waste and global warming." He continued to speak on the topic throughout the 1980s, and is still prevalent in the environmental community. He was known as one of the "Atari Democrats, later called the "Democrats' Greens, politicians who see issues like clean air, clean water and global warming as the key to future victories for their party."
In 1990, Senator Gore presided over a three-day conference with legislators from over 42 countries which sought to create a "Global Marshall Plan, "under which industrial nations would help less developed countries grow economically while still protecting the environment." In the late 1990s, Gore strongly pushed for the passage of the "Kyoto Protocol, which called for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. He was opposed by the Senate, which passed unanimously (95–0) the "Byrd–Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98), which stated the sense of the Senate was that the United States should not be a signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and timetables for developing as well as industrialized nations or "would result in serious harm to the economy of the United States".
In 2004, he co-launched "Generation Investment Management, a company for which he serves as Chair. A few years later, Gore also founded The "Alliance for Climate Protection, an organization which eventually founded the "We Campaign. Gore also became a partner in the venture capital firm, "Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading that firm's climate change solutions group. He also helped to organize the "Live Earth benefit concerts.
In 2013, Gore became a "vegan. He had earlier admitted that "it's absolutely correct that the growing meat intensity of diets across the world is one of the issues connected to this global crisis -- not only because of the [carbon dioxide] involved, but also because of the water consumed in the process" and some speculate that his adoption of the new diet is related to his environmentalist stance. In a 2014 interview, Gore said "Over a year ago I changed my diet to a vegan diet, really just to experiment to see what it was like. ... I felt better, so I've continued with it and I'm likely to continue it for the rest of my life."
At the "2017 Sundance Film Festival, Gore released "An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power, a sequel to his 2006 film, An Inconvenient Truth, which documents his continuing efforts to battle climate change.
A "Climate and Health Summit" which was originally going to be held by the "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was cancelled without warning in late January, 2017. A few days later, Gore revived the summit, which he will hold without the CDC.
Gore's involvement in environmental issues "has been criticized. For example, he has been labeled a "carbon billionaire" and accused of profiting from his advocacy; a charge which he has denied, by saying, among other things, that he has not been "working on this issue for 30 years... because of greed". A conservative Washington D.C. think tank, and a Republican member of Congress, among others, have claimed that Gore has a conflict-of-interest for advocating for taxpayer subsidies of green-energy technologies in which he has a personal investment. Additionally, he has been criticized for his above-average energy consumption in using private jets, and in owning multiple, very large homes, one of which was reported in 2007 as using high amounts of electricity. Gore's spokesperson responded by stating that the Gores use "renewable energy which is more expensive than regular energy and that the Tennessee house in question has been retrofitted to make it more energy-efficient.
Data in "An Inconvenient Truth have been questioned. In a 2007 "court case, a British judge said that while he had "no doubt ...the film was broadly accurate" and its "four main scientific hypotheses ...are supported by a vast quantity of research", he upheld nine of a "long schedule" of alleged errors presented to the court. He ruled that the film could be shown to schoolchildren in the UK if guidance notes given to teachers were amended to balance out the film's one-sided political views. Gore's spokeswoman responded in 2007 that the court had upheld the film's fundamental thesis and its use as an educational tool. In 2009, Gore described the British court ruling as being "in my favor."
In the late 1980s and 1990s, Gore was criticized for his involvement in asking the "EPA for less strict pollution controls for the "Pigeon River.
Organizations including "People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) criticized Gore for not advocating "vegetarianism as a way for individuals to reduce their "carbon footprint. Gore agreed that "meat production contributes to increased carbon emissions, but did not want to "go quite as far as ... saying everybody should become a vegetarian". He said that although he was not a vegetarian, he had "cut back sharply" on his consumption of meat.
When asked by "Bjørn Lomborg to debate whether spending on health and education should take priority over limiting carbon emissions, Gore responded that he would not debate because the "scientific community has gone through this chapter and verse. We have long since passed the time when we should pretend this is a 'on the one hand, on the other hand' issue ... It's not a matter of theory or conjecture."
Meeting with Ivanka and Donald Trump
President-elect "Donald Trump's daughter, "Ivanka, reported that she intended to make climate change one of her signature issues, while her father served as President of the United States. She therefore contacted Al Gore, and he met with her and her father on December 5, 2016, at Trump Tower. Following his visit, Gore spoke briefly to the media standing outside the elevator of Trump Tower. Gore related that: "I had a lengthy and very productive session with the president-elect. It was a sincere search for areas of common ground. I had a meeting beforehand with Ivanka Trump. The bulk of the time was with the president-elect, Donald Trump. I found it an extremely interesting conversation, and to be continued, and I'm just going to leave it at that." This was a significant milestone, as Trump once "tweeted that "[t]he concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive."
Awards and honors
Gore is the recipient of a number of awards, including the "Nobel Peace Prize (together with the "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in 2007, a "Primetime Emmy Award for "Current TV in 2007, a "Webby Award in 2005 and the "Prince of Asturias Award in 2007 for International Cooperation. He also starred in the 2006 documentary "An Inconvenient Truth, which won an "Academy Award for Best Documentary in 2007 and wrote the book "An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It, which won a "Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 2009.
President Obama praised Gore for advancing the cause of peace.
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Over a year ago I changed my diet to a vegan diet, really just to experiment to see what it was like. ... I felt better, so I've continued with it and I'm likely to continue it for the rest of my life.
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