By 1874, Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" (a rented facility) and at his family home in Canada a big success.[N 14] While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a ""phonautograph", a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations. Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulating currents back into sound. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of "Western Union President "William Orton, had become "the nervous system of commerce". Orton had contracted with inventors "Thomas Edison and "Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines. When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell's experiments. Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard's "patent attorney, "Anthony Pollok.
In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist "Joseph Henry, who was then director of the "Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph. Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!" That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas. However, a chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and "Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant,[N 15] and the two of them experimented with "acoustic telegraphy. On June 2, 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech. That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" "sound-powered telephone, which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
The race to the patent office
In 1875, Bell developed an "acoustic telegraph and drew up a "patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, "George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).
Meanwhile, "Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter. On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a "caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter. That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent. Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February 26.
Bell's patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the "U.S. Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically ... by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound"[N 16] Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray's patent caveat.
On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design. Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the "electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the famous sentence "Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter, Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray, Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a "proof of concept scientific experiment, to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" (Bell's words) could be electrically transmitted. After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray's liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in Bell's previous application in which Bell described a cup of mercury, not water. Bell had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, 1875, long before Elisha Gray described the water device. In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, 1876. Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The "patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an "affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, "Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War. He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray's caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details. Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.
Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone. On August 3, 1876, from the telegraph office in "Mount Pleasant five miles (eight km) away from Brantford, Bell sent a tentative telegram indicating that he was ready. With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles (six km) distant, along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel. This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. These experiments clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.
Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent. Bell's investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point had assets of nearly one million dollars.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the "scientific community as well as the general public. A short time later, "his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the 1876 "Centennial Exposition in "Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention. Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor "Pedro II of Brazil. Later, Bell had the opportunity to demonstrate the invention personally to "Sir William Thomson (later, Lord Kelvin), a renowned Scottish scientist, as well as to "Queen Victoria, who had requested a private audience at "Osborne House, her "Isle of Wight home. She called the demonstration "most extraordinary". The enthusiasm surrounding Bell's public displays laid the groundwork for universal acceptance of the revolutionary device.
The "Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, more than 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever. In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the "carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January 1915, Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental "telephone call. Calling from the "AT&T head office at 15 Dey Street in New York City, Bell was heard by "Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco. The New York Times reported:
On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston. It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco. Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone. Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced 587 court challenges to its patents, including five that went to the "U.S. Supreme Court, but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage. Bell's laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments. The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off myriad lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and "Amos Dolbear. In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.
On January 13, 1887, the U.S. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided. By the time that the trial wound its way through nine years of legal battles, the U.S. prosecuting attorney had died and the two Bell patents (No. 174,465 dated March 7, 1876, and No. 186,787 dated January 30, 1877) were no longer in effect, although the presiding judges agreed to continue the proceedings due to the case's importance as a "precedent. With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest (on both sides) arising from the original trial, the "US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, 1897, leaving several issues undecided "on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the 1887 trial, Italian inventor "Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in 1834. In 1886, in the first of three cases in which he was involved, Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hopes of establishing his invention's priority. Meucci's evidence in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of "American District Telegraph (ADT) of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in 1901. Meucci's work, like many other inventors of the period, was based on earlier acoustic principles and despite evidence of earlier experiments, the final case involving Meucci was eventually dropped upon Meucci's death. However, due to the efforts of Congressman "Vito Fossella, the "U.S. House of Representatives on June 11, 2002, stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged", even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.[N 17] Some modern scholars do not agree with the claims that Bell's work on the telephone was influenced by Meucci's inventions.[N 18]
The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and patent applications were made in most major countries, but when Bell delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of "Siemens & Halske (S&H) set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent. The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The establishment of the "International Bell Telephone Company in Brussels, Belgium in 1880, as well as a series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.[N 19]
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On July 11, 1877, a few days after the "Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married "Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in "Cambridge, Massachusetts. His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company. Shortly thereafter, the newlyweds embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying. Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897. One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use "Alec" rather than the family's earlier familiar name of "Aleck". From 1876, he would sign his name "Alec Bell". They had four children:
- Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married "Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor of "National Geographic fame.
- Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as "Daisy". Married "David Fairchild.[N 20]
- Two sons who died in infancy (Edward in 1881 and Robert in 1883).
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until 1880 when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.C.; in 1882 he bought a home in the same city for Bell's family, so they could be with him while he attended to the numerous court cases involving patent disputes.
Bell was a "British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until 1882 when he became a "naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1915, he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries." Despite this declaration, Bell has been proudly claimed as a "native son" by all three countries he resided in: the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. That summer, the Bells had a vacation on "Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of "Baddeck. Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking "Bras d'Or Lake. By 1889, a large house, christened The Lodge was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings, including a new laboratory, were begun that the Bells would name "Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain) after Bell's ancestral "Scottish highlands.[N 21] Bell also built the "Bell Boatyard on the estate, employing up to 40 people building experimental craft as well as wartime lifeboats and workboats for the "Royal Canadian Navy and pleasure craft for the Bell family. He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake, ordering additional vessels from the "H.W. Embree and Sons boatyard in "Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia. In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D.C., where he and his family initially resided for most of the year, and at Beinn Bhreagh where they spent increasing amounts of time.
Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened. Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own".[N 22] The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the "Halifax Explosion occurred on December 6, 1917. Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.
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Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied. According to one of his biographers, "Charlotte Gray, Bell's work ranged "unfettered across the scientific landscape" and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopædia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest. The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the "photophone, one for the "phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for "selenium cells. Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the "audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding "alternative fuels.
Bell worked extensively in "medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his "Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a "magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound. Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype. They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the "tape recorder, the "hard disc and "floppy disc drive, and other "magnetic media.
Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution. "Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with "composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere. In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using "solar panels to heat houses.
Bell and his assistant "Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a "photophone, which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of "light. Both men later became full associates in the "Volta Laboratory Association.
On June 21, 1880, Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the "Franklin School in Washington, D.C., to Bell at the window of his laboratory, some 213 metres (700 ft) away, 19 years before the first voice radio transmissions.
Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone". The photophone was a precursor to the "fiber-optic communication systems which achieved popular worldwide usage in the 1980s. Its master patent was issued in December 1880, many decades before the photophone's principles came into popular use.
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a "metal detector in 1881. The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S. President "James Garfield. According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin's bullet partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static. The president's surgeons, who were skeptical of the device, ignored Bell's requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs. Alternatively, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have been lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.
Bell's own detailed account, presented to the "American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1882, differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, most notably by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet. Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning ... to ascertain from the surgeons whether they were perfectly sure that all metal had been removed from the neighborhood of the bed. It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires. Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect." In a footnote, Bell adds, "The death of President Garfield and the subsequent post-mortem examination, however, proved that the bullet was at too great a distance from the surface to have affected our apparatus."
The March 1906 "Scientific American article by American pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of "hydrofoils and "hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement. Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant "Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor "Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.
During his world tour of 1910–11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over "Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag (Scottish Gaelic for little devil), the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil. The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial "HD-4, powered by "Renault engines. A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability, and steering, along with the ability to take waves without difficulty. In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud's Yacht Yard in "Westmount, Nova Scotia to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell's estate near "Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell's report to the "U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kilowatts) engines in July 1919. On September 9, 1919, the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 kilometres per hour), a record which stood for ten years.
In 1891, Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of 60.
In 1898, Bell experimented with "tetrahedral "box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound "tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.[N 23] The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II, and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell's kites are on display at the "Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.
Bell was a supporter of "aerospace engineering research through the "Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of his wife "Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate. The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American "Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the "Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the "Western hemisphere, and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant "Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the U.S. Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; "Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in "Hammondsport, New York, and J. A .D. McCurdy–Baldwin and McCurdy being new engineering graduates from the "University of Toronto.
The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the "Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small "air-cooled engine. On March 12, 1908, over "Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[N 24][N 25] The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and "tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control). One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the "aileron, was to become a standard component on all aircraft. [N 26] The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished. However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a "$15,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments. Lt. Selfridge had also become the first person killed in a powered heavier-than-air flight in a crash of the "Wright Flyer at "Fort Myer, "Virginia, on September 17, 1908.
Their final aircraft design, the "Silver Dart, embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines. On February 23, 1909, Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J. A. D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or made the first aircraft flight in Canada. Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the "Canadian Army.
Bell was connected with the "eugenics movement in the United States. In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the "National Academy of Sciences on November 13, 1883, he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry. However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist "David Starr Jordan's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the "American Breeders' Association. The committee unequivocally extended the principle to humans. From 1912 until 1918, he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the "Eugenics Record Office associated with "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings. In 1921, he was the honorary president of the "Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the "American Museum of Natural History in New York. Organizations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the "compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and California's compulsory sterilization law was used as a model for that of "Nazi Germany.
Legacy and honors
Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his most famous invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew. Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities to the point that the requests almost became burdensome. During his life, he also received dozens of major awards, medals, and other tributes. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, notably the "Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in "Brantford, Ontario, in 1917.
A large number of Bell's writings, personal correspondence, notebooks, papers, and other documents reside in both the United States "Library of Congress Manuscript Division (as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers), and at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute, "Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia; major portions of which are available for online viewing.
A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies in the United States and Canada. Among the major sites are:
- The "Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site, maintained by "Parks Canada, which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in "Baddeck, Nova Scotia, close to the Bell estate "Beinn Bhreagh
- The "Bell Homestead National Historic Site, includes the Bell family home, "Melville House", and farm overlooking Brantford, Ontario and the "Grand River. It was their first home in North America;
- Canada's first telephone company building, the "Henderson Home" of the late 1870s, a predecessor of the "Bell Telephone Company of Canada (officially chartered in 1880). In 1969, the building was carefully moved to the historic Bell Homestead National Historic Site in "Brantford, Ontario, and was refurbished to become a telephone museum. The Bell Homestead, the Henderson Home telephone museum, and the National Historic Site's reception centre are all maintained by the Bell Homestead Society;
- The Alexander Graham Bell Memorial Park, which features a broad neoclassical monument built in 1917 by public subscription. The monument graphically depicts mankind's ability to span the globe through telecommunications;
- The Alexander Graham Bell Museum (opened in 1956), part of the "Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which was completed in 1978 in "Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Many of the museum's artifacts were donated by Bell's daughters;
In 1880, Bell received the "Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately US$260,000 in today's dollars) for the invention of the telephone from the "Académie française, representing the French government. Among the luminaries who judged were "Victor Hugo and "Alexandre Dumas. The Volta Prize was conceived by "Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801, and named in honor of "Alessandro Volta, with Bell receiving the third grand prize in its history. Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the 'Volta Fund') and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' (1880), also known as the "Volta Laboratory and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in "Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year it improved Edison's phonograph by substituting wax for tinfoil as the recording medium and incising the recording rather than indenting it, key upgrades that Edison himself later adopted. The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his "proudest achievement", "the "photophone", the "optical telephone" which presaged "fibre optical telecommunications while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the "Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and "pedagogy of deafness.
In partnership with "Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell helped establish the publication "Science during the early 1880s. In 1898, Bell was elected as the second president of the "National Geographic Society, serving until 1903, and was primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine. he also became a Regent of the "Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922). The French government conferred on him the decoration of the "Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honor); the "Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the "Albert Medal in 1902; the "University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a PhD, and he was awarded the "Franklin Institute's "Elliott Cresson Medal in 1912. He was one of the founders of the "American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1884 and served as its president from 1891–92. Bell was later awarded the AIEE's "Edison Medal in 1914 "For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone".
The bel (B) and the smaller decibel (dB) are "units of measurement of "sound intensity invented by "Bell Labs and named after him. [N 28] Since 1976, the "IEEE's "Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been awarded to honor outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.
In 1936, the "US Patent Office declared Bell first on its list of the country's greatest inventors, leading to the "US Post Office issuing a commemorative stamp honoring Bell in 1940 as part of its "'Famous Americans Series'. The First Day of Issue ceremony was held on October 28 in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where Bell spent considerable time on research and working with the deaf. The Bell stamp became very popular and sold out in little time. The stamp became and remains to this day, the most valuable one of the series.
The 150th anniversary of Bell's birth in 1997 was marked by a special issue of commemorative £1 banknotes from the "Royal Bank of Scotland. The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio "wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics. Additionally, the Government of Canada honored Bell in 1997 with a "C$100 gold coin, in tribute also to the 150th anniversary of his birth, and with a silver dollar coin in 2009 in honor of the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada. That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart. Bell's image, and also those of his many inventions have graced paper money, coinage, and postal stamps in numerous countries worldwide for many dozens of years.
Alexander Graham Bell was ranked 57th among the "100 Greatest Britons (2002) in an official BBC nationwide poll, and among the "Top Ten Greatest Canadians (2004), and "the 100 Greatest Americans (2005). In 2006, Bell was also named as one of the 10 greatest Scottish scientists in history after having been listed in the "National Library of Scotland's 'Scottish Science Hall of Fame'. Bell's name is still widely known and used as part of the names of dozens of educational institutes, corporate namesakes, street and place names around the world.
Alexander Graham Bell, who could not complete the university program of his youth, received at least a dozen honorary degrees from academic institutions, including eight honorary "LL.D.s (Doctorate of Laws), two Ph.D.s, a D.Sc., and an M.D.:
- "Gallaudet College (then named National Deaf-Mute College) in Washington, D.C. (Ph.D.) in 1880
- "University of Würzburg in Würzburg, Bavaria (Ph.D.) in 1882
- "Heidelberg University in Heidelberg, Germany (M.D.) in 1886
- "Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts (LL.D.) in 1896
- "Illinois College, in Jacksonville, Illinois (LL.D.) in 1896, possibly 1881
- "Amherst College in Amherst, Massachusetts (LL.D.) in 1901
- "St. Andrew's University in St Andrews, Scotland (LL.D) in 1902
- "University of Oxford in Oxford, England (D.Sc.) in 1906
- "University of Edinburgh in Edinburgh, Scotland (LL.D.) in 1906
- "George Washington University in Washington, D.C. (LL.D.) in 1913
- "Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada (LL.D.) in 1908
- "Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire (LL.D.) in 1913, possibly 1914
Innovators awarded in his name
- Aegis Graham Bell Award are consistuted to recognise good work by innovators in India. Since 2010 awards are being given to innovators in IT and Telecom sector. Companies like Mahendra Tech, Data Infosys, CDOT, Infosys etc. have been awarded for the same.
Portrayal in film and television
- The 1939 film "The Story of Alexander Graham Bell was based on his life and works.
- The 1992 film "The Sound and the Silence was a TV film.
- "Biography aired an episode Alexander Graham Bell: Voice of Invention on 6 August 1996.
Bell died of complications arising from "diabetes on August 2, 1922, at his private estate in Cape Brenton, Nova Scotia, at age 75. Bell had also been afflicted with "pernicious anemia. His last view of the land he had inhabited was by moonlight on his mountain estate at 2:00 a.m.[N 29][N 30] While tending to him after his long illness, Mabel, his wife, whispered, "Don't leave me." By way of reply, Bell signed "no...", lost consciousness, and died shortly after.
On learning of Bell's death, the "Canadian Prime Minister, "Mackenzie King, cabled Mrs. Bell, saying:
My colleagues in the Government join with me in expressing to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband. It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.
Bell's coffin was constructed of Beinn Bhreagh pine by his laboratory staff, lined with the same red silk fabric used in his tetrahedral kite experiments. To help celebrate his life, his wife asked guests not to wear black (the traditional funeral color) while attending his service, during which soloist Jean MacDonald sang a verse of "Robert Louis Stevenson's "Requiem":
- Under a wide and starry sky,
- Dig the grave and let me lie.
- Glad did I live and gladly die
- And I laid me down with a will.
Upon the conclusion of Bell's funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".
Dr. Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake. He was survived by his wife "Mabel, his two daughters, Elsie May and Marian, and nine of his grandchildren.
- "Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- "Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
- "Bell Boatyard
- "Bell Homestead National Historic Site
- "Bell Telephone Memorial
- "Berliner, Emile
- "Bourseul, Charles
- "Canadian Parliamentary Motion on Alexander Graham Bell
- "IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
- "John Peirce, submitted telephone ideas to Bell
- "Manzetti, Innocenzo
- "Meucci, Antonio
- "Oriental Telephone Company
- "Pioneers, a Volunteer Network
- "Reis, Philipp
- "The Story of Alexander Graham Bell, a 1939 movie of his life
- "The Telephone Cases
- "Volta Laboratory and Bureau
- "William Francis Channing, submitted telephone ideas to Bell
- Bell and his parents immigrated to Canada in 1870, but "Canadian citizenship did not exist formally until 1910; all immigrants from the UK remained ""British subjects". Canada was Bell's domicile from 1870 to 1871 and, although sent by his father to teach in Boston, Massachusetts, perhaps beyond. He became a U.S. citizen in 1882.
- [Is the following a quote from the source referenced?:] While Bell worked in many scientific, technical, professional and social capacities throughout his life he would remain fondest of his earliest vocation. To the end of his days, when discussing himself, Bell would always add with pride "I am a teacher of the deaf".
- Bell was a British citizen for most of his early life. When he moved to Canada in 1870, Canadian and British citizenship were functionally identical, with "Canadian citizenship only becoming a formal classification in 1910. He applied for American citizenship after 1877, gained it in 1882, and referred to himself as an American citizen from that point on. Quote from Bell speaking to his wife: "you are a citizen because you can't help it – you were born one, but I chose to be one." Aside from Bell's own view of his citizenship, many, if not most Canadians considered him also as one of theirs as evidenced in an address by the Governor General of Canada. On October 24, 1917, in Brantford, Ontario, the Governor General spoke at the unveiling of the "Bell Telephone Memorial to an audience numbering in the thousands, saying: "Dr. Bell is to be congratulated upon being able to receive the recognition of his fellow citizens and fellow countrymen".
- From Black (1997), p. 18: "He thought he could harness the new "electronic technology by creating a machine with a transmitter and receiver that would send sounds telegraphically to help people hear."
- After Bell's death his wife Mabel wrote to "John J. Carty, an AT&T vice-president, and commented on her husband's reluctance to have a phone in his study, saying "[of the statements in the newspapers] ...publishing of Mr. Bell's dislike of the telephone. Of course, he never had one in his study. That was where he went when he wanted to be alone with his thoughts and his work. The telephone, of course, means intrusion by the outside world. And the little difficulties and delays often attending the establishment of conversation... did irritate him, so that as a rule he preferred having others send and receive messages. But all really important business over the telephone he transacted himself. There are few private houses more completely equipped with telephones than ours... and there was nothing that Mr. Bell was more particular about than our telephone service... We never could have come here [to Beinn Bhreagh] in the first place or continued here, but for the telephone which kept us in close touch with doctors and neighbors and the regular telegraph office... Mr. Bell did like to say in fun, "Why did I ever invent the Telephone," but no one had a higher appreciation of its indispensableness or used it more freely when need was—either personally or by deputy —and he was really tremendously proud of it and all it was accomplishing."
- Bell typically signed his name in full on his correspondence.
- Helmholtz's The Sensations of Tone is credited with inspiring Bell, at the age of 23, to further his studies of electricity and electromagnetism.
- The family pet was given to his brother's family.
- The estate, dating from 1858, is in the present day located at 94 Tutela Heights Road, Brantford, and is now known as the "Bell Homestead", and formally as the "Bell Homestead National Historic Site of Canada. It received its historical designation from the Government of Canada on 1 June 1996.
- Bell would later write that he had come to Canada a "dying man".
- Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited.
- In later years, Bell described the invention of the telephone and linked it to his "dreaming place".
- Eber (1991), p. 43 claimed that Mabel suffered scarlet fever in New York "...shortly before her fifth birthday..."; however, Toward (1984) provided a detailed chronology of the event claiming "... shortly after their arrival in New York [in January 1863]" when Mabel would have been at least five years and five weeks of age. Mabel's exact age when she became deaf would later play a part in the debate on the effectiveness of "manual versus oral education for deaf children, as children who are older at the onset of deafness retain greater vocalization skills and are thus more successful in oral education programs. Some of the debate centred on whether Mabel had to relearn oral speech from scratch, or whether she never lost it.
- From Alexander Graham Bell (1979), p. 8: "Brantford is justified in calling herself 'The Telephone City' because the telephone originated there. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of 1874."
- Hubbard's financial support to the research efforts fell far short of the funds needed, necessitating Bell to continue teaching while conducting his experiments. Bell was so short of funds at times that he had to borrow money from his own employee, "Thomas Watson. Bell also sought an additional CAD$150 from the former "Premier of Canada, "George Brown, in exchange for 50% of the patent rights in the British Empire (Brown later retracted his offer to patent the telephone in the U.K. for fear of being ridiculed). The "Bell Patent Association, composed of Hubbard, Sanders and Bell and which would become the precursor of the Bell Telephone Company (and later, "AT&T), would later assign an approximate 10% interest of its shares to Watson, in lieu of salary and for his earlier financial support to Bell while they worked together creating their first functional telephone.
- A copy of a draft of the patent application is shown, described as "probably the most valuable patent ever."
- Meucci was not involved in the final trial.
- Tomas Farley also writes that "Nearly every scholar agrees that Bell and Watson were the first to transmit intelligible speech by electrical means. Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand."
- Many of the lawsuits became rancorous with Elisha Gray becoming particularly bitter over Bell's ascendancy in the telephone debate but Bell refused to launch counter actions for libel.
- Marian was born only days after Bell and his assistant "Sumner Tainter had successfully tested their new wireless telecommunication invention at their "Volta Laboratory, one which Bell would name as his greatest achievement. Bell was so ecstatic that he wanted to jointly name his new invention and his new daughter "Photophone (Greek: "light–sound"), Bell wrote: "Only think!—Two babies in one week! Mabel's baby was light enough at birth but mine was LIGHT ITSELF! Mabel's baby screamed inarticulately but mine spoke with distinct enunciation from the first." Bell's suggested scientific name for their new infant daughter did not go over well with Marian's mother, "Mabel Gardiner Hubbard Bell.
- Under the direction of the Boston architects, "Cabot, Everett & Mead, a Nova Scotia company, Rhodes, Curry & Company, carried out the actual construction.
- In one memorable incident, the newly arrived Bells were walking down one of Baddeck's central streets when Bell peered into a storefront window and saw a frustrated shopkeeper fiddling with his problematic telephone. Bell quickly disassembled it and effected a repair, to the owner's amazement. When asked how he was able to do so Bell only needed to introduce himself.
- Bell was inspired in part by Australian aeronautical engineer "Lawrence Hargrave's work with man-carrying box kites. Hargrave declined to take patents on his inventions, similar to Bell's decision not to file patents on some of his inventions. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.
- "Selfridge Aerodrome Sails Steadily for 319 feet (97 m)." "Washington Post May 13, 1908.
- At 25 to 30 Miles an Hour. First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America. Professor Alexander Graham Bell's New Machine, Built After Plans by Lieutenant Selfridge, Shown to Be Practicable by Flight Over "Keuka Lake. Portion of Tail Gives Way, Bringing the Test to an End. Views of an Expert. "Hammondsport, New York, March 12, 1908.
- The aileron had been conceived of as early as 1868 by British inventor "M.P.W. Boulton and was also created independently by "Robert Esnault-Pelterie and several others.
- The "Charles Fleetford Sise Chapter of the "Telephone Pioneers of America commissioned and dedicated the large bronze statue of Bell in the front portico of "Brantford, Ontario's new Bell Telephone Building plant on June 17, 1949. Attending the formal ceremony were Bell's daughter, Mrs. Gillbert Grosvenor, "Frederick Johnson, President of the "Bell Telephone Company of Canada, T.N. Lacy, President of the Telephone Pioneers, and Brantford Mayor Walter J. Dowden. To each side of the portico facing the monument are the engraved inscriptions "In Grateful Recognition of the Inventor of the Telephone". Its dedication was broadcast live nationally by the "Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
- The decibel is defined as one tenth of a bel.
- In the last years of his life, as his final projects wound down, Bell and his wife, their extended family and friends, lived exclusively at their beloved Beinn Bhreagh.
- From Bethune (2009), p. 119: "[his end came] at 2:00 am... His wife, Mabel, daughter Daisy, and son-in-law David Fairchild had gathered around him. His last view was of the moon rising above the mountain he loved".
- Gray, Charlotte (2006). Reluctant Genius: The Passionate Life and Inventive Mind of Alexander Graham Bell. New York: Arcade. p. 419. "ISBN "1-55970-809-3.
- Boileau, John (2004). Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. p. 12. "ISBN "0-88780-621-X.
- "We Had No Idea What Alexander Graham Bell Sounded Like. Until Now". "Smithsonian. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- "The Bell Family". Bell Homestead National Historic Site. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Gray 2006, p. 228.
- Reville, F. Douglas (1920). History of the County of Brant: Illustrated With Fifty Half-Tones Taken From Miniatures And Photographs (PDF). Brantford, Ontario: Brantford Historical Society & Hurley Printing. p. 319. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
- Rory Carroll (June 17, 2002). "Bell did not invent telephone, US rules". The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Bruce, Robert V. (1990). Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 419. "ISBN "0-8014-9691-8.
- MacLeod, Elizabeth (1999). Alexander Graham Bell: An Inventive Life. Toronto, Ontario: Kids Can Press. p. 19. "ISBN "1-55074-456-9.
- Bell, Mabel (October 1922). "Dr. Bell's Appreciation of the Telephone Service". Bell Telephone Quarterly. 1 (3): 65. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "National Geographic founders". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
- Howley, Andrew (May 26, 2011). "NGS Celebrates 23rd Founders Day". NGS. National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
Though he wasn't one of the original 33 founders, Bell had a major influence on the Society.
- Petrie, A. Roy (1975). Alexander Graham Bell. Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside. p. 4. "ISBN "0-88902-209-7.
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- Bruce 1990, pp. 17–19.
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- Gray 2006, p. 9.
- Mackay, James (1997). Sounds Out of Silence: A life of Alexander Graham Bell. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream Publishing. p. 25. "ISBN "1-85158-833-7.
- Petrie 1975, p. 7.
- Mackay 1997, p. 31.
- Gray 2006, p. 11.
- Town, Florida (1988). Alexander Graham Bell. Toronto, Ontario: Grolier. p. 7. "ISBN "0-7172-1950-X.
- Bruce 1990, p. 37.
- Shulman, Seth (2008). The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Bell's Secret. New York: Norton & Company. p. 49. "ISBN "978-0-393-06206-9.
- Groundwater 2005, p. 25.
- Petrie 1975, pp. 7–9.
- Petrie 1975, p. 9.
- Groundwater 2005, p. 30.
- Shulman 2008, p. 46.
- Surtees, Lawrence (2005). "BELL, ALEXANDER GRAHAM". In Cook, Ramsay; Bélanger, Réal. "Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV (1921–1930) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- "MacKenzie, Catherine (2003) . Alexander Graham Bell. Boston, Massachusetts: Grosset and Dunlap. p. 41. "ISBN "978-0-7661-4385-2.
- Groundwater 2005, p. 31.
- Shulman 2008, pp. 46–48.
- Micklos, John Jr. (2006). Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone. New York: "HarperCollins. p. 8. "ISBN "978-0-06-057618-9.
- Bruce 1990, p. 45.
- Bruce 1990, pp. 67–28.
- Bruce 1990, p. 68.
- Groundwater 2005, p. 33.
- Mackay 1997, p. 50.
- Petrie 1975, p. 10.
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- Mackay 1997, p. 61.
- Bell Homestead National Historic Site of Canada. "Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- Wing, Chris (1980). Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck. Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King. p. 10.
- Groundwater 2005, p. 34.
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- Groundwater 2005, p. 35.
- Wing 1980, p. 10.
- Waldie, Jean H. "Historic Melodeon Is Given To Bell Museum". likely published either by the "London Free Press or by the "Brantford Expositor, date unknown.
- Bruce 1990, p. 74.
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- Alexander Graham Bell ((booklet)). Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Limited. 1979. p. 8.
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- Petrie 1975, p. 15.
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- Petrie 1975, p. 17.
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- Miller, Don; Branson, Jan (2002). Damned For Their Difference: The Cultural Construction Of Deaf People as Disabled: A Sociological History. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press. pp. 30–31, 152–153. "ISBN "978-1-56368-121-9.
- Ayers, William C.; Quinn, Therese; Stovall, David, eds. (2009). The Handbook of Social Justice in Education. London: Routledge. pp. 194–195. "ISBN "978-0-80585-928-7.
- Town 1988, p. 15.
- Town 1988, p. 16.
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- "Eber, Dorothy Harley (1991) . Genius at Work: Images of Alexander Graham Bell (reprint ed.). Toronto, Ontario: "McClelland and Stewart. p. 43. "ISBN "0-7710-3036-3.
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- "Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson". "CBC. July 25, 1975. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
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- Matthews 1999, p. 21.
- McCormick, Blaine; Israel, Paul (January–February 2005). "Underrated entrepreneur: Thomas Edison's overlooked business story". IEEE Power & Energy Magazine. 3 (1). "doi:10.1109/MPAE.2005.1380243.
- Town 1988, p. 17.
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- US 174465 Alexander Graham Bell: "Improvement in Telegraphy" filed on February 14, 1876, granted on March 7, 1876.
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- "Phone to Pacific From the Atlantic". The New York Times. January 26, 1915. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
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- "Mrs. A.G. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. Deaf Girl's Romance With Distinguished Inventor Was Due to Her Affliction". The New York Times. January 4, 1923.["dead link]
- "Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies". The New York Times. Canadian Press. February 5, 1966. Retrieved September 18, 2015. (subscription required (. ))
Dr. "Gilbert H. Grosvenor ... died on the "Cape Breton Island estate once owned by his father-in-law, the inventor Alexander Graham Bell.
- "Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor Dead". The New York Times. December 27, 1964. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
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- "Mrs. David Fairchild, 82, Dead; Daughter of Bell, Phone Inventor". The New York Times. Canadian Press. September 25, 1962. (subscription required (. ))
- Grosvenor & Wesson 1997, p. 104.
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- Tulloch, Judith (2006). The Bell Family in Baddeck: Alexander Graham Bell and Mabel Bell in Cape Breton. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. pp. 25–27. "ISBN "978-0-88780-713-8.
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- Bell, Alexander Graham (1882). Upon the electrical experiments to determine the location of the bullet in the body of the late President Garfield; and upon a successful form of induction balance for the painless detection of metallic masses in the human body. Washington, DC: Gibson Brothers. p. 33. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
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- Phillips 1977, pp. 96–97.
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- "Lusane, Clarence (2003). Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi Era. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press. p. 124. "ISBN "978-0-415932-950.
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- Crosland, Maurice P. (1992). Science Under Control: The French Academy of Sciences, 1795–1914. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. "ISBN "978-0-52152-475-9. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
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- Davis, John L. (July 1998). "Artisans and savants: The Role of the Academy of Sciences in the Process of Electrical Innovation in France, 1850–1880". Annals of Science. 55 (3): 301. "doi:10.1080/00033799800200211. Retrieved January 5, 2010. (subscription required (. ))
- "Dr. Bell, Inventor of Telephone, Dies". The New York Times. August 3, 1922. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Honors to Professor Bell Daily Evening Traveller". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. September 1, 1880. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Volta Prize of the French Academy Awarded to Prof. Alexander Graham Bell". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. September 1, 1880. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Telegram from Grossman to Alexander Graham Bell". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. August 2, 1880. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Telegram from Alexander Graham Bell to Count du Moncel, undated". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. 1880. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Letter from Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to Alexander Graham Bell". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. January 7, 1882. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- "Letter from Mabel Hubbard Bell". Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Library of Congress. February 27, 1880. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
The last line of the typed note refers to the future disposition of award funds: He intends putting the full amount into his Laboratory and Library.
- "National Geographic Milestones". National Geographic Milestones. National Geographic Society. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
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- Scott's United States Stamp catalogue.
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- "Proof Set - 100th Anniversary of Flight in Canada (2009)". Royal Canadian Mint. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
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- MacDougall 1917, p. 162.
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- "THE SCREEN; The founding of the Wrong-Number Industry WellDramatized in Roxy's 'Alexander Graham Bell' At the 86th St. Garden Theatre At Three Theatres At the 86th Street Casino". The New York Times. April 1, 1939. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Gray 2006, p. 419.
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Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, died at 2 o'clock this morning at Beinn Breagh, his estate near Baddeck
- "Descendants of Alexander Melville Bell – Three Generations. Bell Telephone Company of Canada Historical Collection and Company Library (undated)". Brant Historical Society. ["citation needed]
- Bell, Alexander Graham (October 1880). "On the Production and Reproduction of Sound by Light". "American Journal of Science (Read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, August 27, 1880). Third. 20 (118): 305–324. "doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-20.118.305.
Also published as: Bell, Alexander Graham (September 23, 1880). "Selenium and the Photophone" (PDF). "Nature. 22: 500–503. "Bibcode:1880Natur..22..500.. "doi:10.1038/022500a0.
- Bell, Alexander Graham (1898). The Question of Sign-Language and The Utility of Signs in the Instruction of the Deaf—Two papers (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Sanders Printing Office.
- Bell, Alexander Graham (February 1917). "Prizes for the Inventor: Some of the Problems Awaiting Solution". "The National Geographic Magazine. Vol. 31 no. 2. "National Geographic Society. pp. 131–146.
- Mullett, Mary B. The Story of A Famous Inventor. New York: Rogers and Fowle, 1921.
- Walters, Eric. The Hydrofoil Mystery. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: "Puffin Books, 1999. "ISBN 0-14-130220-8.
- Winzer, Margret A. The History Of Special Education: From Isolation To Integration. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1993. "ISBN 978-1-56368-018-2.
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexander Graham Bell|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Graham Bell.|
|""||"Wikisource has the text of the "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bell, Alexander Graham.|
|""||"Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Alexander Graham Bell
- Alexander Graham Bell Institute at Cape Breton University
- Bell Telephone Memorial, "Brantford, Ontario
- Bell Homestead National Historic Site, Brantford, Ontario
- Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site of Canada, Baddeck, Nova Scotia
- Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress
- Alexander Graham Bell — "Biographical Memoirs of the "National Academy of Sciences
- Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- Science.ca profile: Alexander Graham Bell
- Alexander Graham Bell at "Find a Grave
- Alexander Graham Bell at the "Internet Movie Database
- Alexander Graham Bell's notebooks at the "Internet Archive
U.S. patent images in "TIFF format
- U.S. Patent 161,739 Improvement in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraphs, filed March 1875, issued April 1875 (multiplexing signals on a single wire)
- U.S. Patent 174,465 Improvement in Telegraphy, filed February 14, 1876, issued March 7, 1876 (Bell's first telephone patent)
- U.S. Patent 178,399 Improvement in Telephonic Telegraph Receivers, filed April 1876, issued June 1876
- U.S. Patent 181,553 Improvement in Generating Electric Currents (using rotating permanent magnets), filed August 1876, issued August 1876
- U.S. Patent 186,787 Electric Telegraphy (permanent magnet receiver), filed January 15, 1877, issued January 30, 1877
- U.S. Patent 235,199 Apparatus for Signalling and Communicating, called Photophone, filed August 1880, issued December 1880
- U.S. Patent 757,012 Aerial Vehicle, filed June 1903, issued April 1904
- Alexander Graham Bell at "The Biography Channel
- The Story of Alexander Graham Bell (1939) at the "Internet Movie Database
- Alexander Graham Bell portrayed by "John Bach (1992). "The Sound and the Silence (Television production). Canada, New Zealand, Ireland: Atlantis Films.
- The Animated Hero Classics: Alexander Graham Bell (1995) at the "Internet Movie Database
- Gray, Charlotte (May 2013). "We Had No Idea What Alexander Graham Bell Sounded Like. Until Now". "Smithsonian Magazine.
- Shaping The Future, from the "Heritage Minutes and Radio Minutes collection at "HistoricaCanada.ca (1:31 audio drama, "Adobe Flash required)
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"Gardiner Greene Hubbard
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"William John McGee