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American English
Region United States
Native speakers
225 million, all varieties of English in the United States (2010 census)[1]
25.6 million "L2 speakers of English in the United States (2003)
"Latin (English alphabet)
"Unified English Braille[2]
Language codes
"ISO 639-3
"Glottolog None
"IETF en-US
""
""
English language prevalence in the United States. Darker shades of blue indicate higher concentrations of native English speakers in the corresponding states

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of varieties of the English language native to the "United States of America.[6]

English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the "de facto language of the country because of its widespread use but not established as the official language of the country, despite being given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments.[7][8] As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of "Puerto Rico, under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the "United States district court for the territory.[9]

The use of English in the United States is a result of "English and British colonization of the Americas. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has developed into new dialects, in some cases under the influence of "West African and "Native American languages, "German, "Dutch, "Irish, "Spanish, and other languages of successive waves of immigrants to the United States.

Any "North American English "accent perceived as free of noticeably local, ethnic, or cultural markers is popularly called ""General American", described by "sociolinguist "William Labov as "a fairly uniform broadcast standard in the mass media". Otherwise, according to Labov, with the major exception of "Southern American English, regional accents throughout the country are not yielding to this broadcast standard,[10] and historical and present linguistic evidence does not support the notion of there being a single "mainstream" American accent.[11][12] On the contrary, the sound of American English continues to evolve, with some local accents disappearing, but several larger regional accents emerging.[13]

Contents

Varieties[edit]

While written American English is (in general) standardized across the country, there are several recognizable variations in the spoken language, both in pronunciation and in vernacular vocabulary. The regional sounds of present-day American English are reportedly engaged in a complex phenomenon of "both convergence and divergence": some accents are homogenizing and "levelling, while others are diversifying and deviating further away from one another.[14] In 2010, "William Labov summarized the current state of regional American accents as follows:[15]

Some regional American English has undergone "vigorous new sound changes" since the mid-nineteenth century onwards, spawning relatively recent "Mid-Atlantic (centered on "Philadelphia and "Baltimore), "Western Pennsylvania (centered on "Pittsburgh), "Inland Northern (centered on "Chicago, "Detroit, and the "Great Lakes region), "Midland (centered on "Indianapolis, "Columbus, and "Kansas City) and "Western accents, all of which "are now more different from each other than they were fifty or a hundred years ago." Meanwhile, the unique features of the "Eastern New England (centered on "Boston) and "New York City accents appear to be stable. "On the other hand, dialects of many smaller cities have receded in favor of the new regional patterns";[15] for example, the traditional accents of "Charleston and of "Cincinnati have given way to the general Midland accent, and of "St. Louis now approaches the sounds of an Inland Northern or Midland accent. At the same time, the "Southern accent, despite its huge geographic coverage,[13] "is on the whole slowly receding due to cultural stigma: younger speakers everywhere in the South are shifting away from the "marked features of Southern speech." Finally, the ""Hoi Toider" dialect shows the paradox of receding among younger speakers in North Carolina's "Outer Banks islands, yet strengthening in the islands of the "Chesapeake Bay.

Major regional dialects of American English

Below, eleven major American English accents are defined by their particular combinations of certain characteristics:

Accent name Most populous urban center Strong "// fronting Strong "// fronting Strong "// fronting Strong "/ɑːr/ fronting "Cot–caught merger "Pin–pen merger "/æ/ raising system
"African-American English Mixed No No No Mixed Yes Southern
"Chicano English No No Mixed No Yes No none
"Inland Northern U.S. English Chicago No No No Yes No No general
"Mid-Atlantic U.S. English Philadelphia Yes Yes Yes No No No split
"Midland U.S. English Indianapolis Yes Yes Yes No Mixed Mixed pre-nasal
"New York City English New York City Yes No No[31] No No No split
"North-Central U.S. English Minneapolis No No No Yes Yes No pre-nasal (pre-velar)
"Northern New England English Boston No No No Yes Yes No pre-nasal
"Southern U.S. English San Antonio Yes Yes Yes No Mixed Yes Southern
"Western U.S. English Los Angeles No No Yes No Yes No pre-nasal
"Western Pennsylvania English Pittsburgh Yes Yes Yes No Yes Mixed pre-nasal

Eastern New England[edit]

"Marked New England speech is mostly associated with eastern New England, centering on Boston and Providence, and traditionally includes some notable degree of "r-dropping (or non-rhoticity),[28] as well as the "back tongue positioning of the "// vowel (to [u]) and the "// vowel (to [ɑʊ~äʊ]).[29] In and north of Boston, the "/ɑːr/ sound is famously centralized or even fronted. Boston shows a "cot–caught merger, while Providence keeps the same two vowels sharply distinct.

New York City[edit]

"New York City English, which prevails in a relatively small but nationally recognizable dialect region in and around "New York City (including "Long Island and northeastern "New Jersey). Its features include some notable degree of "non-rhoticity and a locally unique "short-a vowel pronunciation split. New York City English otherwise broadly follows Northern patterns, except that the "// vowel is fronted. The "cot–caught merger is markedly resisted around New York City, as depicted in popular stereotypes like tawwk and cawwfee, with this THOUGHT vowel being typically tensed and diphthongal.

South[edit]

Most "older Southern speech along the Eastern seaboard was non-rhotic, though, today, all local Southern dialects are strongly rhotic, defined most recognizably by the "// vowel losing its "gliding quality and approaching [aː~äː], the initiating event for the Southern Vowel Shift, which includes the famous ""Southern drawl" that makes short "front vowels into "gliding vowels.[24]

Inland North and North Central[edit]

Since the mid-twentieth century, a distinctive new Northern speech pattern has developed near the Canadian border of the United States, centered on the central and eastern "Great Lakes region (but only on the American side). Linguists call this region the ""Inland North", as defined by its local "Northern cities vowel shift—occurring in the same region whose "standard Midwestern" speech was the basis for "General American in the mid-20th century (though prior to this recent vowel shift). The Inland North accent was famously sketched on the television show "Saturday Night Live's ""Bill Swerski's Superfans" segments. Many people view the ""North Central" or ""Upper Midwestern" accent from the stereotypical lens of the movie "Fargo.[32] The North Central accent is characterized by influences from the German and Scandinavian settlers of the region (like "yah" for yes, pronounced similarly to "ja" in German, Norwegian and Swedish). In parts of "Pennsylvania and "Ohio, another dialect known as "Pennsylvania Dutch English was also once spoken among the "Pennsylvania Dutch community.

Midland[edit]

Between the traditional American dialect areas of the "North" and "South" is what linguists have long called the "Midland". This geographically overlaps with some states situated in the lower Midwest. West of the "Appalachian Mountains begins the broad zone of modern-day "Midland speech . Its vocabulary has been divided into two discrete subdivisions, the "North Midland" that begins north of the "Ohio River valley area, and the "South Midland" speech, which to the American ear has a slight trace of the ""Southern accent" (especially due to some degree of "// glide weakening). The South Midland dialect follows the "Ohio River in a generally southwesterly direction, moves across "Arkansas and "Oklahoma west of the "Mississippi, and peters out in "West Texas. Modern Midland speech is transitional regarding a presence or absence of the "cot–caught merger. Historically, Pennsylvania was a home of the Midland dialect; however, this state of early English-speaking settlers has now largely split off into new dialect regions, with distinct "Philadelphia and "Pittsburgh dialects documented since the latter half of the twentieth century.

West[edit]

A generalized Midland speech continues westward until becoming a somewhat internally diverse "Western American English that unites the entire western half of the country. This Western dialect is mostly unified by a firm "cot–caught merger and a "conservatively backed pronunciation of the long oh sound in goat, toe, show, etc., but a fronted pronunciation of the long oo sound in goose, lose, tune, etc. Western speech itself contains such advanced sub-types as "Pacific Northwest English and "California English, with the native-speaker "English of Mexican Americans also being a sub-type primarily of the Western dialect. The island state of "Hawaii, though primarily English-speaking, is also home to a "creole language known commonly as "Hawaiian Pidgin, and some Hawaii residents speak English with a Pidgin-influenced accent.

Other varieties[edit]

Although no longer region-specific,[33] "African-American English, which remains prevalent particularly among working- and middle-class "African Americans, has a close relationship to Southern dialects and has greatly influenced everyday speech of many Americans, including "hip hop culture. The same aforementioned socioeconomic groups, but among "Hispanic and Latino Americans, have also developed native-speaker varieties of English. The best-studied Latino Englishes are "Chicano English, spoken in the West and Midwest, and "New York Latino English, spoken in the "New York metropolitan area. Additionally, ethnic varieties such as "Yeshiva English and ""Yinglish" are spoken by some "American Jews, and "Cajun Vernacular English by some "Cajuns in southern Louisiana.

Phonology[edit]

Compared with "English as spoken in England, North American English[34] is more homogeneous, and any North American accent that exhibits a majority of the most common phonological features is known as ""General American." This section mostly refers to such widespread or mainstream pronunciation features that characterize American English.

Studies on historical usage of English in both the United States and the United Kingdom suggest that spoken American English did not simply deviate away from period British English, but retained certain now-archaic features contemporary "British English has since lost.[35] One of these is the rhoticity common in most American accents, because in the 17th century, when English was brought to the Americas, most English in England was also rhotic. The preservation of rhoticity has been further supported by the influences of "Hiberno-English, "West Country English and "Scottish English.[36] In most varieties of North American English, the sound corresponding to the letter ⟨r⟩ is a "postalveolar approximant [ɹ̠] or "retroflex approximant [ɻ] rather than a trill or tap (as often heard, for example, in the English accents of Scotland or India). A unique "bunched tongue" variant of the approximant r sound is also associated with the United States, and seems particularly noticeable in the Midwest and South.[37]

""
""
The red dots show every U.S. metropolitan area where over 50% non-rhotic speech has been documented among some of that area's local white speakers. Non-rhotic speech may be heard from "black speakers throughout the whole country.[38]

Traditionally, the "East Coast" comprises three or four major linguistically distinct regions, each of which possesses English varieties both distinct from each other as well as quite internally diverse: "New England, the "New York metropolitan area, the "Mid-Atlantic states (centering on Philadelphia and Baltimore), and the "Southern United States. The only "r-dropping (or non-rhotic) regional accents of American English are all spoken along the East Coast, except the Mid-Atlantic region, because these areas were in close historical contact with "England and imitated prestigious varieties of English at a time when these were undergoing changes;[39] in particular, the London prestige of "non-rhoticity (or dropping the ⟨r⟩ sound, except before vowels) from the 17th century onwards, which is now widespread throughout most of England. Today, non-rhoticity is confined in the United States to the accents of "eastern New England, the "former plantation South, "New York City, and "African-American English (though the vowel-consonant cluster found in "bird", "work", "hurt", "learn", etc. usually retains its r pronunciation today, even in these non-rhotic accents). Other than these varieties, American accents are "rhotic, pronouncing every instance of the ⟨r⟩ sound.

Many British accents have evolved in other ways compared to which "General American English has remained relatively more "conservative, for example, regarding the typical southern British features of a "trap–bath split, fronting of "//, and "H-dropping, none of which typical American accents show. The innovation of "/t/ glottaling, which does occur before a consonant (including a syllabic "coronal "nasal consonant, like in the words button or satin) and word-finally in General American, additionally occurs variably between vowels in British English. On the other hand, General American is more innovative than the dialects of England, or English elsewhere in the world, in a number of its own ways:

"/æ/ raising in "North American English[48]
Environment Dialect
Consonant after /æ/ "Syllable type Example words "New York City & "New Orleans "Baltimore & Philadelphia "Eastern New England "General American, "Midland U.S., & "Western U.S. "Canadian, "Northwestern U.S., & "Upper Midwestern U.S. "Southern U.S. & "African American Vernacular "Great Lakes
/r/ Open
arable, arid, baron, barrel, barren, carry, carrot, chariot, charity, clarity, Gary, Harry, Larry, marionette, maritime, marry, marriage, paragon, parent, parish, parody, parrot, etc.; this feature is determined by the presence or absence of the "Mary-marry-merry merger
[æ] [æ~"ɛ(ə)] ["ɛ(ə)]
/m/, /n/ Closed
Alexander, answer, ant, band, can (the noun), can't, clam, dance, ham, hamburger, hand, handy, man, manly, pants, plan, planning, ranch, sand, slant, tan, understand, etc.; in Philadelphia, began, ran, and swam alone remain lax
[eə] [æ~eə] [æ~ɛə] [ɛ(j)ə~eə] [eə]
Open
amity, animal, can (the verb), Canada, ceramic, family (varies by speaker),[49], gamut, hammer, janitor, manager, manner, Montana, panel, planet, profanity, salmon, Spanish, etc.
[æ]
/ɡ/ Closed
agriculture, bag, crag, drag, flag, magnet, rag, sag, tag, tagging, etc.
[eə] [æ] [æ] [æ~e] [æ~ɛ(j)ə]
Open
agate, agony, dragon, magazine, ragamuffin, etc.
[æ]
/b/, /d/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ/ Closed
absolve, abstain, add, ash, as, bad, badge, bash, cab, cash, clad, crag, dad, drab, fad, flash, glad, grab, had, halve (varies by speaker), jazz (varies by speaker), kashmir, mad, magnet, pad, plaid, rag, raspberry, rash, sad, sag, smash, splash, tab, tadpole, trash, etc. In NYC, this environment, particularly, /v/ and /z/, has a lot of variance and many exceptions to the rules. In Philadelphia, bad, mad, and glad alone in this set become tense. Similarly, in New York City, the /dʒ/ set is often tense even in open syllables (magic, imagine, etc.)
[eə] [æ~ɛə] [æ]
/f/, /s/, /θ/ Closed
ask, bask, basket, bath, brass, casket, cast, class, craft, crass, daft, drastic, glass, grass, flask, half, last, laugh, laughter, mask, mast, math, pass, past, path, plastic, task, wrath, etc.
[eə]
All other consonants
act, agony, allergy, apple, aspirin, athlete, avid, back, bat, brat, café, cafeteria, cap, cashew, cat, Catholic, chap, clap, classy, diagonal, fashion, fat, flap, flat, gap, gnat, latch, magazine, mallet, map, mastiff, match, maverick, Max, pack, pal, passive, passion, pat, patch, pattern, rabid, racket, rally, rap, rat, sack, sat, Saturn, savvy, scratch, shack, slack, slap, tackle, talent, trap, travel, wrap, etc.
[æ]
Footnotes
  1. Nearly all American English speakers pronounce /æŋ/ somewhere between [æŋ] and [eɪŋ], though "Western speakers specifically favor "[eɪŋ].
  2. The NYC, Philadelphia, and Baltimore dialects' rule of tensing /æ/ in certain closed-syllable environments also applies to words "inflectionally derived from those closed-syllable /æ/ environments that now have an open-syllable /æ/. For example, in addition to pass being tense (according to the general rule), so are its open-syllable derivatives passing and passer-by, but not passive.

Some mergers found in most varieties of both American and British English include:

Vocabulary[edit]

The process of coining new lexical items started as soon as English-speaking British-American colonists began borrowing names for unfamiliar flora, fauna, and topography from the "Native American languages.[55] Examples of such names are "opossum, "raccoon, "squash, "moose (from "Algonquian),[55] "wigwam, and "moccasin. The languages of the other colonizing nations also added to the American vocabulary; for instance, "cookie, from "Dutch; "kindergarten from "German,[56] "levee from "French; and "rodeo from "Spanish.[57][58][59][60] Landscape features are often loanwords from French or Spanish, and the word corn, used in England to refer to wheat (or any cereal), came to denote the "maize plant, the most important crop in the U.S.

Most "Mexican Spanish contributions came after the "War of 1812, with the opening of the West, like "ranch (now a common "house style). New forms of dwelling created new terms ("lot, waterfront) and types of homes like "log cabin, "adobe in the 18th century; "apartment, shanty in the 19th century; project, "condominium, "townhouse, "mobile home in the 20th century; and parts thereof ("driveway, breezeway, "backyard).["citation needed] Industry and material innovations from the 19th century onwards provide distinctive new words, phrases, and idioms through "railroading (see further at "rail terminology) and "transportation terminology, ranging from types of roads (dirt roads, "freeways) to infrastructure ("parking lot, "overpass, "rest area), to automotive terminology often now standard in English internationally.[61] Already existing English words—such as "store, "shop, "lumber—underwent shifts in meaning; others remained in the U.S. while changing in Britain. From the world of business and finance came new terms ("merger, "downsize, "bottom line), from sports and gambling terminology came, specific jargon aside, common everyday American idioms, including "many idioms related to baseball. The names of some American inventions remained largely confined to North America ("elevator, "gasoline) as did certain automotive terms ("truck, "trunk).

New foreign loanwords came with 19th and early 20th century European immigration to the U.S.; notably, from "Yiddish ("chutzpah, schmooze) and "German ("hamburger, "wiener).[62][63] A large number of English colloquialisms from various periods are American in origin; some have lost their American flavor (from "OK and cool to "nerd and "24/7), while others have not ("have a nice day, for sure);[64][65] many are now distinctly old-fashioned (swell, groovy). Some English words now in general use, such as hijacking, "disc jockey, boost, bulldoze and "jazz, originated as American slang.

American English has always shown a marked tendency "to use nouns as verbs.[66] Examples of nouns that are now also verbs are interview, advocate, vacuum, lobby, pressure, rear-end, transition, feature, profile, spearhead, skyrocket, showcase, bad-mouth, "vacation, major, and many others. "Compounds coined in the U.S. are for instance "foothill, "landslide (in all senses), backdrop, "teenager, "brainstorm, bandwagon, "hitchhike, smalltime, and a huge number of others. Some are euphemistic ("human resources, "affirmative action, "correctional facility). Many compound nouns have the verb-and-preposition combination: stopover, lineup, tryout, spin-off, "shootout, holdup, hideout, comeback, "makeover, and many more. Some prepositional and phrasal verbs are in fact of American origin (win out, hold up, back up/off/down/out, face up to and many others).[67]

Noun endings such as -ee (retiree), -ery (bakery), -ster (gangster) and -cian (beautician) are also particularly productive in the U.S.[66] Several verbs ending in -ize are of U.S. origin; for example, fetishize, prioritize, burglarize, accessorize, "weatherize, etc; and so are some "back-formations (locate, fine-tune, curate, donate, emote, upholster and enthuse). Among syntactical constructions that arose are outside of, headed for, meet up with, back of, etc. Americanisms formed by alteration of some existing words include notably pesky, phony, rambunctious, buddy, "sundae, skeeter, sashay and kitty-corner. Adjectives that arose in the U.S. are, for example, lengthy, bossy, "cute and cutesy, punk (in all senses), sticky (of the weather), through (as in "finished"), and many colloquial forms such as peppy or wacky.

A number of words and meanings that originated in "Middle English or "Early Modern English and that have been in everyday use in the United States have since disappeared in most varieties of British English; some of these have cognates in "Lowland Scots. Terms such as "fall ("autumn"), "faucet ("tap"), "diaper ("nappy"), "candy ("sweets"), "skillet, "eyeglasses, and "obligate are often regarded as Americanisms. Fall for example came to denote the season in 16th century England, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year".[68] Gotten ("past participle of get) is often considered to be largely an Americanism..[69] Other words and meanings were brought back to Britain from the U.S., especially in the second half of the 20th century; these include hire ("to employ"), I guess (famously criticized by "H. W. Fowler), "baggage, hit (a place), and the adverbs overly and presently ("currently"). Some of these, for example, "monkey wrench and "wastebasket, originated in 19th century Britain. The adjectives mad meaning "angry", smart meaning "intelligent", and sick meaning "ill" are also more frequent in American (and Irish) English than British English.[70][71][72]

Linguist "Bert Vaux created a survey, completed in 2003, polling English speakers across the United States about their specific everyday word choices, hoping to identify regionalisms.[73] The study found that most Americans prefer the term sub for a long sandwich, soda (but pop in the Great Lakes region and generic coke in the South) for a sweet and bubbly "soft drink,[74] you or you guys for the plural of you (but y'all in the South), "sneakers for athletic shoes (but often tennis shoes outside the Northeast), and "shopping cart for a cart used for carrying supermarket goods.

Differences between British and American English[edit]

American English and "British English (BrE) often differ at the levels of phonology, phonetics, vocabulary, and, to a much lesser extent, grammar and orthography. The first large American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language, known as "Webster's Dictionary, was written by "Noah Webster in 1828, codifying several of these spellings.

Differences in grammar are relatively minor, and do not normally affect mutual intelligibility; these include: different use of some "auxiliary verbs; formal (rather than notional) agreement with "collective nouns; different preferences for the past forms of a few verbs (for example, AmE/BrE: learned/learnt, burned/burnt, snuck/sneaked, dove/dived) although the purportedly "British" forms can occasionally be seen in American English writing as well; different prepositions and adverbs in certain contexts (for example, AmE in school, BrE at school); and whether or not a definite article is used, in very few cases (AmE to the hospital, BrE to hospital; contrast, however, AmE actress Elizabeth Taylor, BrE the actress Elizabeth Taylor). Often, these differences are a matter of relative preferences rather than absolute rules; and most are not stable, since the two varieties are constantly influencing each other,[75] and American English is not a standardized set of dialects.

Differences in "orthography are also minor. The main differences are that American English usually uses spellings such as flavor for British flavour, fiber for fibre, defense for defence, analyze for analyse, license for licence, catalog for catalogue and traveling for travelling. Noah Webster popularized such spellings in America, but he did not invent most of them. Rather, "he chose already existing options [...] on such grounds as simplicity, analogy or etymology".[76] Other differences are due to the "francophile tastes of the 19th century "Victorian era Britain (for example they preferred programme for program, manoeuvre for maneuver, cheque for check, etc.).[77] AmE almost always uses -ize in words like realize. BrE prefers -ise, but also uses -ize on occasion (see "Oxford spelling).

There are a few differences in punctuation rules. British English is more tolerant of run-on sentences, called "comma splices" in American English, and American English requires that periods and commas be placed inside closing quotation marks even in cases in which British rules would place them outside. American English also favors the double quotation mark over single.[78]

AmE sometimes favors words that are "morphologically more complex, whereas BrE uses clipped forms, such as AmE transportation and BrE transport or where the British form is a "back-formation, such as AmE burglarize and BrE burgle (from burglar). However, while individuals usually use one or the other, both forms will be widely understood and mostly used alongside each other within the two systems.

British English also differs from American English in that "schedule" can be pronounced with either [sk] or [ʃ].[79]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dialects are considered ""rhotic" if they pronounce the r sound in all historical environments, without ever "dropping" this sound. The "father–bother merger is the pronunciation of the unrounded "/ɒ/ vowel variant (as in cot, lot, bother, etc.) the same as the "/ɑː/ vowel (as in spa, haha, Ma), causing words like con and Kahn and like sob and "Saab to "sound identical, with the vowel usually realized in the back or middle of the mouth as [ɑ~ä]. Finally, most of the U.S. participates in a continuous nasal system of the "short a" vowel (in cat, trap, bath, etc.), causing /æ/ to be pronounced with the tongue raised and with a glide quality (typically sounding like [ɛə]) particularly when before a "nasal consonant; thus, mad is [mæd], but man is more like [mɛən].

References[edit]

  1. ^ English (United States) at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Unified English Braille (UEB)". Braille Authority of North America (BANA). 2 November 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  3. ^ en-US is the "language code for U.S. English, as defined by "ISO standards (see "ISO 639-1 and "ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and "Internet standards (see "IETF language tag).
  4. ^ Plichta, Bartlomiej, and Dennis R. Preston (2005). "The /ay/s Have It: The Perception of /ay/ as a North-South Stereotype in the United States English." Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 37.1: 107-130.
  5. ^ Zentella, A. C. (1982). Spanish and English in contact in the United States: The Puerto Rican experience. Word, 33(1-2), 41.
  6. ^ "Crystal, David (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "0-521-53032-6. 
  7. ^ Crawford, James (1 February 2012). "Language Legislation in the U.S.A." languagepolicy.net. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  8. ^ "U.S. English Efforts Lead West Virginia to Become 32nd State to Recognize English as Official Language". us-english.org. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016. 
  9. ^ "48 U.S. Code § 864 - Appeals, certiorari, removal of causes, etc.; use of English language | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
  10. ^ Labov, William (2010). The Politics of Language Change: Dialect Divergence in America. The University of Virginia Press. Pre-publication draft. p. 55.
  11. ^ Labov, William (2012). Dialect diversity in America: The politics of language change. University of Virginia Press. pp. 1-2.
  12. ^ Kretzchmar, William A. (2004), Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., eds., A Handbook of Varieties of English, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 262, "ISBN "9783110175325 
  13. ^ a b "Do You Speak American: What Lies Ahead". PBS. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  14. ^ Labov, William. 2012. Dialect diversity in America: the politics of language change. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
  15. ^ a b Labov, William (2010). The Politics of Language Change: Dialect Divergence in America. The University of Virginia Press. Pre-publication draft. p. 53-4.
  16. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 148
  17. ^ a b c Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:141)
  18. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:123–4)
  19. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:135)
  20. ^ a b Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:237)
  21. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:271–2)
  22. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:130)
  23. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:133)
  24. ^ a b Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:125)
  25. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:127, 254)
  26. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:124, 229)
  27. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:124)
  28. ^ a b Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:137, 141)
  29. ^ a b Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:230)
  30. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:231)
  31. ^ Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006:107)
  32. ^ https://www.mprnews.org/story/2015/12/11/how-to-talk-minnesotan-accents-fargo
  33. ^ Cf. Trudgill, p.42.
  34. ^ "North American English (Trudgill, p. 2) is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in both the United States and "Canada.
  35. ^ "What Is the Difference between Theater and Theatre?". Wisegeek.org. 2015-05-15. Retrieved 2015-06-01. 
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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

History of American English

External links[edit]

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