ARRA included the enactment of the "Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, also known as the HITECH Act.
Total health care spending: $155.1 billion
- $86.8 billion for "Medicaid
- $25.8 billion for "health information technology investments and incentive payments
- $25.1 billion to provide a 65% subsidy of health care insurance premiums for the unemployed under the "COBRA program
- $10 billion for health research and construction of National Institutes of Health facilities
- $2 billion for "Community Health Centers
- $1.3 billion for construction of military hospitals
- $1.1 billion to study the comparative effectiveness of healthcare treatments
- $1 billion for prevention and wellness
- $1 billion for the "Veterans Health Administration
- $500 million for healthcare services on "Indian reservations
- $300 million to train healthcare workers in the "National Health Service Corps
- $202 million for a temporary moratorium for certain Medicare regulations
Total: $100 billion
- $53.6 billion in aid to local school districts to prevent layoffs and cutbacks, with flexibility to use the funds for school modernization and repair (State Fiscal Stabilization Fund)
- $15.6 billion to increase "Pell Grants from $4,731 to $5,350
- $13 billion for low-income public schoolchildren
- $12.2 billion for "IDEA special education
- $2.1 billion for "Head Start
- $2 billion for "childcare services
- $650 million for "educational technology
- $300 million for increased teacher salaries
- $250 million for states to analyze student performance
- $200 million to support working college students
- $70 million for the education of homeless children
Aid to low income workers, unemployed and retirees (including job training)
Total: $82.2 billion
- $40 billion to provide extended unemployment benefits through December 31, and increase them by $25 a week
- $19.9 billion for the "Food Stamp Program
- $14.2 billion to give one-time $250 payments to "Social Security recipients, people on "Supplemental Security Income, and veterans receiving disability and pensions.
- $3.45 billion for job training
- $3.2 billion in temporary welfare payments (TANF and WIC)
- $500 million for vocational training for the disabled
- $400 million for employment services
- $120 million for subsidized community service jobs for older Americans
- $150 million to help refill "food banks
- $100 million for meals programs for seniors, such as "Meals on Wheels
- $100 million for "free school lunch programs
Total: $105.3 billion
Total: $48.1 billion, some in the form of Transportation Income Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) Grants
- $27.5 billion for highway and bridge construction projects
- $8 billion for intercity passenger rail projects and rail congestion grants, with priority for "high-speed rail
- $6.9 billion for new equipment for public transportation projects ("Federal Transit Administration)
- $1.5 billion for national surface transportation discretionary grants
- $1.3 billion for "Amtrak
- $1.1 billion in grants for airport improvements
- $750 million for the construction of new public rail transportation systems and other fixed guideway systems.
- $750 million for the maintenance of existing public transportation systems
- $200 million for FAA upgrades to air traffic control centers and towers, facilities, and equipment
- $100 million in grants for improvements to domestic shipyards
Water, sewage, environment, and public lands
Total: $18 billion
- $4.6 billion for the "Army Corps of Engineers for environmental restoration, flood protection, hydropower, and navigation infrastructure projects
- $4 billion for the "Clean Water State Revolving Fund wastewater treatment infrastructure improvements ("EPA)
- $2 billion for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund drinking water infrastructure improvements ("EPA)
- $1.38 billion for rural drinking water and waste disposal projects
- $1 billion to the "Bureau of Reclamation for drinking water projects for rural or drought-likely areas
- $750 million to the "National Park Service
- $650 million to the "Forest Service
- $600 million for hazardous waste cleanup at "Superfund sites ("EPA)
- $515 million for wildfire prevention projects
- $500 million for "Bureau of Indian Affairs infrastructure projects
- $340 million to the "Natural Resources Conservation Service for watershed infrastructure projects
- $320 million to the "Bureau of Land Management
- $300 million for reductions in emissions from diesel engines ("EPA)
- $300 million to improve Land Ports of Entry ("GSA)
- $280 million for "National Wildlife Refuges and the "National Fish Hatchery System
- $220 million to the "International Boundary and Water Commission to repair flood control systems along the "Rio Grande
- $200 million for cleanup of leaking "Underground Storage Tanks ("EPA)
- $100 million for cleaning former industrial and commercial sites ("Brownfields) ("EPA)
Government buildings and facilities
Total: $7.2 billion
- $4.2 billion to repair and modernize Defense Department facilities.
- $890 million to improve housing for service members
- $750 million for federal buildings and U.S. Courthouses ("GSA)
- $250 million to improve "Job Corps training facilities
- $240 million for new "child development centers
- $240 million for the maintenance of "United States Coast Guard facilities
- $200 million for "Department of Homeland Security headquarters
- $176 million for Agriculture Research Service repairs and improvements
- $150 million for the construction of state extended-care facilities
- $100 million to improve facilities of the "National Guard
Communications, information, and security technologies
Total: $10.5 billion
- $7.2 billion for complete "broadband and "wireless Internet access
- $1 billion for explosive detection systems for airports
- $500 million to update the computer center at the "Social Security Administration
- $420 million for construction and repairs at ports of entry
- $290 million to upgrade IT platforms at the "State Department
- $280 million to upgrade border security technologies
- $210 million to build and upgrade "fire stations
- $200 million for IT and claims processing improvements for "Veterans Benefits Administration
- $150 million to upgrade port security
- $150 million for the security of transit systems
- $50 million for IT improvements at the "Farm Service Agency
- $26 million to improve security systems at the "Department of Agriculture headquarters
Total: $21.5 billion
- $6 billion for the cleanup of "radioactive waste (mostly nuclear weapons production sites)
- $4.5 billion for the "Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability to modernize the nation's electrical grid and "smart grid.
- $4.5 billion to increase energy efficiency in federal buildings ("GSA)
- $3.25 billion for the "Western Area Power Administration for power transmission system upgrades.
- $3.25 billion for the "Bonneville Power Administration for power transmission system upgrades.
Energy efficiency and renewable energy research and investment
Total: $27.2 billion
- $6 billion for "renewable energy and electric transmission technologies "loan guarantees
- $5 billion for "weatherizing modest-income homes
- $3.4 billion for carbon capture and low emission coal research
- $3.2 billion toward "Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants.
- $3.1 billion for the "State Energy Program to help states invest in "energy efficiency and "renewable energy
- $2 billion for manufacturing of advanced "car battery (traction) systems and components.
- $800 million for "biofuel research, development, and demonstration projects.
- $602 million to support the use of energy efficient technologies in building and in industry
- $500 million for training of "green-collar workers (by the "Department of Labor)
- $400 million for the "Geothermal Technologies Program
- $400 million for "electric vehicle technologies
- $300 million for "energy efficient appliance rebates
- $300 million for state and local governments to purchase energy efficient vehicles
- $300 million to acquire "electric vehicles for the "federal vehicle fleet ("GSA)
- $250 million to increase energy efficiency in low-income housing
- $204 million in funding for research and testing facilities at "national laboratories
- $190 million in funding for wind, hydro, and other renewable energy projects
- $115 million to develop and deploy "solar power technologies
- $110 million for the development of high efficiency vehicles
- $42 million in support of new deployments of "fuel cell technologies
Total: $14.7 billion
- $4 billion to the "Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for repairing and modernizing public housing, including increasing the energy efficiency of units.
- $2.25 billion in tax credits for financing low-income housing construction
- $2 billion for "Section 8 housing rental assistance
- $2 billion for the Neighborhood Stabilization Program to purchase and repair foreclosed vacant housing
- $1.5 billion for rental assistance to prevent homelessness
- $1 billion in community development block grants for state and local governments
- $555 million in mortgage assistance for wounded service members (Army Corps of Engineers)
- $510 million for the rehabilitation of Native American housing
- $250 million for energy efficient modernization of low-income housing
- $200 million for helping rural Americans buy homes (Department of Agriculture)
- $140 million in grants for independent living centers for elderly blind persons (Dept. of Education)
- $130 million for rural community facilities (Department of Agriculture)
- $100 million to help remove "lead paint from public housing
- $100 million emergency food and shelter for homeless (Department of Homeland Security)
Total: $7.6 billion["citation needed]
- $3 billion to the "National Science Foundation
- $2 billion to the "United States Department of Energy
- $1 billion to "NASA, including "$400 million for space exploration related activities. Of this amount, $50 million [was] to be used for the development of "commercial crew space transportation concepts and enabling capabilities."
- $600 million to the "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
- $580 million to the "National Institute of Standards and Technology, of which $68 million was spent on new major (+$1M) scientific instruments, $200M went to fund major scientific building construction at research universities, and $110M was spent on new buildings and major upgrades to existing facilities, including energy efficiency and solar panel arrays, at the Gaithersburg MD and Boulder CO campuses.
- $230 million for NOAA operations, research and facilities
- $140 million to the "United States Geological Survey
Total: $10.6 billion
- $4 billion for state and local "law enforcement agencies
- $1.1 billion in waivers on interest payments for state unemployment trust funds
- $1 billion in preparation for the "2010 census
- $1 billion in added funding for child support enforcement
- $750 million for "DTV conversion coupons and "DTV transition education
- $749 million in crop insurance reinstatement, and emergency loans for farmers
- $730 million in SBA loans for small businesses
- $500 million for the "Social Security Administration to process disability and retirement backlogs
- $201 million in additional funding for AmeriCorps and other community service organizations
- $150 million for Urban and Rural economic recovery programs
- $150 million for an increase of claims processing military staff
- $150 million in loans for rural businesses
- $50 million for the "National Endowment for the Arts to support artists
- $50 million for the "National Cemetery Administration
Buy American provision
ARRA included a "protectionist 'Buy American' provision, which imposed a general requirement that any public building or public works project funded by the new stimulus package must use only iron, steel and other manufactured goods produced in the United States.
A May 15, 2009, Washington Post article reported that the 'Buy American' provision of the stimulus package caused outrage in the Canadian business community, and that the government in Canada "retaliated" by enacting its own restrictions on trade with the U.S. On June 6, 2009, delegates at the "Federation of Canadian Municipalities conference passed a resolution that would potentially shut out U.S. bidders from Canadian city contracts, in order to help show support for Prime Minister "Stephen Harper's opposition to the "Buy American" provision. "Sherbrooke Mayor "Jean Perrault, president of the federation, stated, "This U.S. protectionist policy is hurting Canadian firms, costing Canadian jobs and damaging Canadian efforts to grow in the world-wide recession." On February 16, 2010, the United States and Canada agreed on exempting Canadian companies from Buy American provisions, which would have hurt the "Canadian economy.
Recommendations by economists
Economists such as "Martin Feldstein, "Daron Acemoğlu, National Economic Council director "Larry Summers, and "Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winners "Joseph Stiglitz and "Paul Krugman favored a larger economic stimulus to counter the economic downturn. While in favor of a stimulus package, Feldstein expressed concern over the act as written, saying it needed revision to address consumer spending and unemployment more directly. Just after the bill was enacted, Krugman wrote that the stimulus was too small to deal with the problem, adding, "And it's widely believed that political considerations led to a plan that was weaker and contains more tax cuts than it should have – that Mr. Obama compromised in advance in the hope of gaining broad bipartisan support." Conservative economist "John Lott was more critical of the government spending.
On January 28, 2009, a full-page advertisement with the names of approximately 200 economists who were against Obama's plan appeared in "The New York Times and "The Wall Street Journal. This included "Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates "Edward C. Prescott, "Vernon L. Smith, and "James M. Buchanan. The economists denied the quoted statement by President Obama that there was "no disagreement that we need action by our government, a recovery plan that will help to jumpstart the economy". Instead, the signers believed that "to improve the economy, policymakers should focus on reforms that remove impediments to work, saving, investment and production. Lower tax rates and a reduction in the burden of government are the best ways of using fiscal policy to boost growth." The funding for this advertisement came from the "Cato Institute.
On February 8, 2009, a letter to Congress signed by about 200 economists in favor of the stimulus, written by the "Center for American Progress Action Fund, said that Obama's plan "proposes important investments that can start to overcome the nation's damaging loss of jobs", and would "put the United States back onto a sustainable long-term-growth path". This letter was signed by Nobel Memorial laureates "Kenneth Arrow, "Lawrence R. Klein, "Eric Maskin, "Daniel McFadden, "Paul Samuelson and "Robert Solow. The New York Times published projections from IHS Global Insight, Moodys.com, Economy.com and Macroeconomic Advisers that indicated that the economy may have been worse without the ARRA.
Congressional Budget Office reports
The CBO estimated ARRA would positively impact GDP and employment. It projected an increase in the GDP of between 1.4 percent and 3.8 percent by the end of 2009, between 1.1 percent and 3.3 percent by the end of 2010, between 0.4 percent and 1.3 percent by the end of 2011, and a decrease of between zero and 0.2 percent beyond 2014. The impact to employment would be an increase of 0.8 million to 2.3 million by the end of 2009, an increase of 1.2 million to 3.6 million by the end of 2010, an increase of 0.6 million to 1.9 million by the end of 2011, and declining increases in subsequent years as the U.S. labor market reaches nearly full employment, but never negative. Decreases in GDP in 2014 and beyond are accounted for by "crowding out, where government debt absorbs finances that would otherwise go toward investment. A 2013 study by economists "Stephen Marglin and Peter Spiegler found the stimulus had boosted GDP in line with CBO estimates.
A February 4, 2009, report by the "Congressional Budget Office (CBO) said that while the stimulus would increase economic output and employment in the short run, the GDP would, by 2019, have an estimated net decrease between 0.1% and 0.3% (as compared to the CBO estimated baseline).
The CBO estimated that enacting the bill would increase federal budget deficits by $185 billion over the remaining months of fiscal year 2009, by $399 billion in 2010, and by $134 billion in 2011, or $787 billion over the 2009–2019 period.
In a February 11 letter, CBO Director "Douglas Elmendorf noted that there was disagreement among economists about the effectiveness of the stimulus, with some skeptical of any significant effects while others expecting very large effects. Elmendorf said the CBO expected short term increases in GDP and employment. In the long term, the CBO expects the legislation to reduce output slightly by increasing the nation's debt and "crowding out private investment, but noted that other factors, such as improvements to roads and highways and increased spending for basic research and education may offset the decrease in output and that crowding out was not an issue in the short term because private investment was already decreasing in response to decreased demand.
A May 21, 2009, article in "The Washington Post stated, "To build support for the stimulus package, President Obama vowed unprecedented transparency, a big part of which, he said, would be allowing taxpayers to track money to the street level on Recovery.gov..." But three months after the bill was signed, Recovery.gov offers little beyond news releases, general breakdowns of spending, and acronym-laden spreadsheets and timelines." The same article also stated, "Unlike the government site, the privately run Recovery.org is actually providing detailed information about how the $787 billion in stimulus money is being spent."
Reports regarding errors in reporting on the Web site made national news. News stories circulated about Recovery.gov reporting fund distribution to congressional districts that did not exist.
A new Recovery.gov website was redesigned at a cost estimated to be $9.5 million through January 2010. The section of the act that was intended to establish and regulate the operation of Recovery.gov was actually struck prior to its passage into law. Section 1226, which laid out provisions for the structure, maintenance, and oversight of the website were struck from the bill. Directives are currently being given to those organizations handling the stimulus dollars that tie directly to recovery.gov that will require that detailed reports be provided that will end up on recovery.gov, which tie the dollars spent to activities in the bill.
On July 20, 2009, the "Drudge Report published links to pages on Recovery.gov that Drudge alleged were detailing expensive contracts awarded by the "U.S. Department of Agriculture for items such as individual portions of mozzarella cheese, frozen ham and canned pork, costing hundreds of thousands to over a million dollars. A statement released by the USDA the same day corrected the allegation, stating that "references to '2 pound frozen ham sliced' are to the sizes of the packaging. Press reports suggesting that the Recovery Act spent $1.191 million to buy "2 pounds of ham" are wrong. In fact, the contract in question purchased 760,000 pounds of ham for $1.191 million, at a cost of approximately $1.50 per pound."
Developments under the Act and estimates of the Act's results
The Congressional Budget Office reported in October 2009 the reasons for the changes in the 2008 and 2009 deficits, which were approximately $460 billion and $1.41 trillion, respectively. The CBO estimated that ARRA increased the deficit by $200 billion for 2009, split evenly between tax cuts and additional spending, excluding any feedback effects on the economy.
On February 12, 2010, the "Bureau of Labor Statistics, which regularly issues economic reports, published job-loss data on a month-by-month basis since 2000. "Organizing for America, a community organizing project of the "Democratic National Committee, prepared a chart presenting the BLS data for the period beginning in December 2007. OFA used the chart to argue, "As a result [of the Recovery Act], job losses are a fraction of what they were a year ago, before the Recovery Act began." Others argue that job losses always grow early in a recession and naturally slow down with or without government stimulus spending, and that the OFA chart was mis-leading.
In the primary justification for the stimulus package, the Obama administration and Democratic proponents presented a graph in January 2009 showing the projected unemployment rate with and without the ARRA. The graph showed that if ARRA was not enacted the unemployment rate would exceed 9%; but if ARRA was enacted it would never exceed 8%. After ARRA became law, the actual unemployment rate exceeded 8% in February 2009, exceeded 9% in May 2009, and exceeded 10% in October 2009. The actual unemployment rate was 9.2% in June 2011 when it was projected to be below 7% with the ARRA. However, supporters of the ARRA claim that this can be accounted for by noting that the actual recession was subsequently revealed to be much worse than any projections at the time when the ARRA was drawn up.["citation needed]
According to a March 2009 Industry Survey of and by the National Association of Business Economists, 60.3% of their economists who had reviewed the fiscal stimulus enacted in February 2009 projected it would have a modest impact in shortening the recession, with 29.4% anticipating little or no impact as well as 10.3% predicting a strong impact. The aspects of the stimulus expected by the NABE to have the greatest effectiveness were physical infrastructure, unemployment benefits expansion, and personal tax-rate cuts.
One year after the stimulus, several independent macroeconomic firms, including "Moody's and "IHS Global Insight, estimated that the stimulus saved or created 1.6 to 1.8 million jobs and forecast a total impact of 2.5 million jobs saved by the time the stimulus is completed. The Congressional Budget Office considered these estimates conservative. The CBO estimated according to its model 2.1 million jobs saved in the last quarter of 2009, boosting the economy by up to 3.5 percent and lowering the unemployment rate by up to 2.1 percent. The CBO projected that the package would have an even greater impact in 2010. The CBO also said, "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package." The CBO's report on the first quarter of 2010 showed a continued positive effect, with an employment gain in that quarter of up to 2.8 million and a GDP boost of up to 4.2 percent. On the other hand, economists Timothy Conley of the University of Western Ontario and Bill Dupor of the Ohio State University used state level variation to estimate that while the stimulus created or saved 450 thousand government jobs, it destroyed or forestalled 1 million private sector jobs, thus costing jobs on net. Economist Dan Wilson of the Federal Reserve, who used similar methodology, without the same identified errors, estimates that "ARRA spending created or saved about 2 million jobs in its first year and over 3 million by March 2011."
The CBO also revised its assessment of the long-term impact of the bill. After 2014, the stimulus is estimated to decrease output by zero to 0.2%. The stimulus is not expected to have a negative impact on employment in any period of time.
In 2011, the "Department of Commerce revised some of its previous estimates. Economist "Dean Baker commented:
[T]he revised data ... showed that the economy was plunging even more rapidly than we had previously recognised in the two quarters following the collapse of "Lehman. Yet, the plunge stopped in the second quarter of 2009 – just as the stimulus came on line. This was followed by respectable growth over the next four quarters. Growth then weakened again as the impact of the stimulus began to fade at the end of 2010 and the start of this year. In other words, the growth pattern shown by the revised data sure makes it appear that the stimulus worked. The main problem would seem to be that the stimulus was not big enough and it wasn't left in place long enough to lift the economy to anywhere near potential output.
The "Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) established a "Hypocrisy Hall of Fame" to list Republican Representatives who had voted against ARRA but who then sought or took credit for ARRA programs in their districts. As of September 2011, the DCCC was listing 128 House Republicans in this category. "Newsweek reported that many of the Republican legislators who publicly argued that the stimulus would not create jobs were writing letters seeking stimulus programs for their districts on the grounds that the spending would create jobs.
The stimulus has been criticized as being too small. In July 2010, a group of 40 prominent economists issued a statement calling for expanded stimulus programs to reduce unemployment. They also challenged the view that the priority should be reducing the deficit: "Making deficit reduction the first target, without addressing the chronic underlying deficiency of demand, is exactly the error of the 1930s."
In July 2010, the White House "Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) estimated that the stimulus had "saved or created between 2.5 and 3.6 million jobs as of the second quarter of 2010". At that point, spending outlays under the stimulus totaled $257 billion and tax cuts totaled $223 billion. In July 2011, the CEA estimated that as of the first quarter of 2011, the ARRA raised employment relative to what it otherwise would have been by between 2.4 and 3.6 million. The sum of outlays and tax cuts up to this point was $666 billion. Using a straight mathematical calculation, critics reported that the ARRA cost taxpayers between $185,000 to $278,000 per job that was created, though this computation does not include the permanent infrastructure that resulted.
In August 2010, Republican Senators "Tom Coburn and "John McCain released a report listing 100 projects it described as the "most wasteful projects" funded by the Act. In total, the projects questioned by the two senators amounted to about $15 billion, or less than 2% of the $862 billion. The two senators did concede that the stimulus has had a positive effect on the economy, though they criticized it for failing to give "the biggest bang for our buck" on the issue of job creation. CNN noted that the two senators' stated objections were brief summaries presenting selective accounts that were unclear, and the journalists pointed out several instances where they created erroneous impressions.
One of the primary purposes and promises of the Act was to launch a large number of "shovel-ready" projects that would generate jobs. However, a sizable number of these projects, most of which pertained to infrastructure, took longer to implement than they had expected by most. This was largely attributed to the regulatory process that is involved in such projects.["citation needed]
Some of the tax incentives in the Act, including those related to the "American opportunity tax credit and "Earned Income Tax Credit, were extended for a further two years by the "Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010.
In November 2011, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) updated its earlier reports concerning the Act. The CBO stated that "the employment effects began to wane at the end of 2010 and have continued to do so throughout 2011." Nevertheless, in the third quarter of 2011, the CBO estimated that the Act had increased the number of full-time equivalent jobs by 0.5 million to 3.3 million. Section 1513 of the Recovery Act stated that reports on the impact of the act were to be submitted quarterly, however the last report issued occurred for the second quarter of 2011. As of December 2012, 58.6% of Americans are employed.
In 2013, the "Reason Foundation, an American "libertarian group, conducted a study of the results of the ARRA. Only 23% of the 8,381 sampled companies hired new workers and kept all of them when the project was completed. Also, just 41% of sampled companies hired workers at all, while 30% of sampled companies did hire but laid off all workers once the government money stopped funding. These results cast doubt on previously stated estimates of job creation numbers, which do not factor those companies that did not retain their workers or hire any at all.
In February 2014, the White House stated in a release that the stimulus measure saved or created an average of 1.6 million jobs a year between 2009 and 2012, thus averting having the recession descend into another "Great Depression. Republicans, such as "House Speaker "John Boehner of Ohio, criticized the report since, in their views, the Act cost too much for too little result.
Oversight and administration
In addition to the Vice President Biden's oversight role, a high-level advisory body, the "President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board (later renamed and reconstituted as the "President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness"), was named concurrent to the passage of the act.
As well, the President named "Inspector General of the "United States Department of the Interior "Earl Devaney and the "Recovery Accountability and Transparency Board (RATB) to monitor administration of the Act. Eleven other inspectors general served on the RATB, and the board also had a "Recovery Independent Advisory Panel.
In late 2011, Devaney and his fellow inspectors general on RATB, and more who were not, were credited with avoiding any major scandals in the administration of the Act, in the eyes of one Washington observer.
In May 2016, the chairman of the U.S. "Senate Finance Committee, Senator "Orrin Hatch (R-UT), launched the first steps of an investigation into a part of the stimulus law that gave grants to solar and green energy companies. Hatch sent a letter to the IRS and Treasury Department with a list of questions about the program. According to the Wall Street Journal, letters from senior senators who chair committees can lead to formal investigations by Congress.
One part of the stimulus law, section 1603, gave cash grants to solar companies to encourage investment in solar technology. Because many companies didn't yet make a profit in 2009 in that industry, they were offered cash instead of tax credits. Recently, in September 2015, the government asked that a Spanish company return $1 million it had received from the program. The company issued a statement saying it fully complied with the request.
- "2009 energy efficiency and renewable energy research investment
- "2010 United States federal budget
- "Build America Bonds
- "Energy law of the United States
- "European Economic Recovery Plan
- "Late-2000s financial crisis
- "Pathways out of Poverty (POP)
- "Race to the Top
- "School Improvement Grant
- "Tax Credit Assistance Program
- "Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output from October 2011 Through December 2011" (PDF). A CBO Report. Congressional Budget Office. February 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Economic Stimulus". IGM Forum. The Initiative on Global Markets; Chicago Booth. February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Economic Stimulus (revisited)". IGM Forum. The Initiative on Global Markets; Chicago Booth. July 29, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2017.
- "Romer, Christina; "Bernstein, Jared (January 10, 2009), The Job Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on July 9, 2011, retrieved July 7, 2011
- Legislative Day of January 26, 2009 for the 111th Congress, First Session (Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)
- "Obama seeks congressional consensus on stimulus plan". Newsday. January 24, 2009. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009.
- Calmes, Jackie (January 29, 2009). "House Passes Stimulus Plan Despite G.O.P. Opposition". The New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- Roll call vote 046, via Clerk.House.gov
- See, for example: S.Amdt. 106, S.Amdt. 107, S.Amdt. 108, and S.Amdt. 109
- Sheryl Gay Stolberg (February 2, 2009). "Obama Predicts Support From G.O.P. for Stimulus Proposal". The New York Times.
- Roll call vote 59, via Senate.gov
- Senator "Judd Gregg (R) did not vote because, at the time, he was a nominee of the Democratic president to become "Secretary of Commerce. Gregg also did not participate in the cloture vote.
- Roll call vote 60, via Senate.gov
- David Espo. "Stimulus bill survives Senate test". "Atlanta Journal-Constitution. "Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009.
- "Stimulus bill far from perfect, Obama says" MSNBC
- Conference report 111-16, Division B Title II 2/13/09
- Conference report 111-16
- Conference report 111-16, 2-13-09, Title 14
- "ReviewJournal.com – News – Stimulus in Nevada: Raggio presses Reid: 'We can't be required to give what we don't have'". Lvrj.com. February 7, 2009. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2009.
- Davey, Monica (February 16, 2009). "States and Cities Angle for Stimulus Cash". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- House Conference report 111-? Final partially handwritten report released by Nancy Pelosi's Office 2/13/09
- House Conference report 111-16 2/13/09
- Hitt, Greg; Weisman, Jonathan (February 12, 2009). "Congress Strikes $789 Billion Stimulus Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Conference Report 111-16, 2-13-09
- David M. Herszenhorn; Carl Hulse (February 12, 2009). "Deal Struck on $789 Billion Stimulus". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- David M. Herszenhorn (February 13, 2009). "Even After the Deal, Tinkering Goes On". The New York Times. p. A20. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- "Committee on Rules – Conference Report to Accompany H.R. 1 – The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009". Rules.house.gov. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2009.
- "US Congress passes stimulus plan". BBC. February 14, 2009. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- Roll call vote 070, via Clerk.House.gov
- "Summary: American Revovery and Reinvestment" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations. February 13, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- "Getting to $787 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. February 17, 2009.
- Note that there are deviations in how some sources allocate spending and tax incentives and loans to different categories
- ARRA of 2009 Questions & Answers
- H.R. 1 (111th Cong.) ENR:["expand acronym] Title XIII
- "Overview". HHS.gov / Recovery. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010.
- State Fiscal Stabilization Fund
- "Overview of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" (Web page). EPA.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 12 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
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He realized too late that 'there's no such thing as shovel-ready projects' when it comes to public works.
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|""||"Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|""||Wikimedia Commons has media related to American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.|
- Complete text of enacted statute at Wikisource
- American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Fully Searchable Conference Version
- Recovery.gov – A website of the Executive for transparency of actions taken under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
- Full Video of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 signing ceremony on February 17, 2009 (from C-SPAN)
- Vice President Biden and President Obama speeches on the 1-year anniversary of the ARRA (from C-SPAN)
- Council of Economic Advisers-The Economic Impact of the ARRA Five Years Later - February 2014
- Stimulus.org Tracking the Stimulus, Financial Bailout, and Recovery Spending, from the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget
- Stimulus Analysis – An economic and fiscal analysis of the Act, from the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget
- Stimulus Watch.org – built to help the new administration keep its pledge to invest stimulus money smartly
- A report of estimated ARRA funds for students with disabilities in public schools by state
- American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 from Discourse DB
- EERE Network News, from Energy.gov