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Main articles: "Carnegie library, "Carnegie Corporation of New York, "Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, "Carnegie Institution for Science, "Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, "Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, "Carnegie Hero Fund, "Carnegie Mellon University, and "Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh Carnegie Hall, "Tuskegee Institute, and "Hooker telescope
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Andrew Carnegie's philanthropy. Puck magazine cartoon by Louis Dalrymple, 1903

Carnegie spent his last years as a philanthropist. From 1901 forward, public attention was turned from the shrewd business acumen which had enabled Carnegie to accumulate such a fortune, to the public-spirited way in which he devoted himself to utilizing it on philanthropic projects. He had written about his views on social subjects and the responsibilities of great wealth in Triumphant Democracy (1886) and "Gospel of Wealth (1889). Carnegie bought "Skibo Castle in Scotland, and made his home partly there and partly in his "New York mansion located at 2 East "91st Street at "Fifth Avenue. The building was built in 1903 and he lived there until his death and Louise until her death in 1946. The building is now the "Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, part of the "Smithsonian Institution. The surrounding neighborhood on Manhattan's "Upper East Side has come to be called "Carnegie Hill. The mansion was named a "National Historic Landmark in 1966.[36][37][38][39] He then devoted his life to providing the capital for purposes of public interest and social and educational advancement.

He was a powerful supporter of the movement for "spelling reform as a means of promoting the spread of the English language. His organisation, the "Simplified Spelling Board,[40] created the Handbook of Simplified Spelling, which was written wholly in reformed spelling.[41][42]

3,000 public libraries[edit]

Among his many philanthropic efforts, the establishment of "public libraries throughout the United States, Britain, Canada and other English-speaking countries was especially prominent. In this special driving interest and project of his he was inspired by a visit and tour he made with Mr. "Enoch Pratt (1808–1896), formerly of Massachusetts but who made his fortune in "Baltimore and ran his various mercantile and financial businesses very thriftily. Pratt in turn had been inspired and helped by his friend and fellow Bay Stater, "George Peabody, (1795–1869) who also had made his fortune in the "Monumental City" of Baltimore before moving to New York and London to expand his empire as the richest man in America before the Civil War. Later he too endowed several institutions, schools, libraries and foundations in his home commonwealth, and also in Baltimore with his "Peabody Institute in 1857, completed in 1866, with added library wings a decade later and several educational foundations throughout the Old South. Several decades later, Carnegie's visit with Mr. Pratt lasted for several days; resting and dining in his city mansion, then touring, visiting and talking with staff and ordinary citizen patrons of the newly established "Enoch Pratt Free Library (1886) impressed the Scotsman deeply – years later he was always heard to proclaim that "Pratt was my guide and inspiration".

The first "Carnegie library opened in 1883 in Dunfermline. His method was to build and equip, but only on condition that the local authority matched that by providing the land and a budget for operation and maintenance. To secure local interest, in 1885, he gave $500,000 to Pittsburgh for a public library, and in 1886, he gave $250,000 to Allegheny City for a music hall and library; and $250,000 to "Edinburgh for a free library. In total Carnegie funded some 3,000 libraries, located in 47 US states, and also in Canada, the United Kingdom, what is now the "Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the "West Indies, and "Fiji. He also donated £50,000 to help set up the "University of Birmingham in 1899.[43] In the early 20th century, a decade after Mr. Pratt's death, when expansion and city revenues grew tight, Carnegie returned the favor and endowed a large sum to permit the building of many Carnegie Libraries in the Enoch Pratt system in Baltimore and enabled EPFL to expand through the next quarter-century to meet the needs of the growing city and supply neighborhood branches for its annexed suburbs.

As Van Slyck (1991) showed, the last years of the 19th century saw acceptance of the idea that free libraries should be available to the American public. But the design of the idealized free library was the subject of prolonged and heated debate. On one hand, the library profession called for designs that supported efficiency in administration and operation; on the other, wealthy philanthropists favored buildings that reinforced the paternalistic metaphor and enhanced civic pride. Between 1886 and 1917, Carnegie reformed both library philanthropy and library design, encouraging a closer correspondence between the two.[44]

Investing in education[edit]

In 1900, Carnegie gave $2 million to start the "Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) at Pittsburgh and the same amount in 1902 to found the "Carnegie Institution at Washington, D.C. He later contributed more to these and other schools. CIT is now known as "Carnegie Mellon University after it merged with the "Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. Carnegie also served on the Board of "Cornell University.

In 1911, Carnegie became a sympathetic benefactor to "George Ellery Hale, who was trying to build the 100 inches (2.5 m) "Hooker Telescope at "Mount Wilson, and donated an additional ten million dollars to the "Carnegie Institution with the following suggestion to expedite the construction of the telescope: "I hope the work at Mount Wilson will be vigorously pushed, because I am so anxious to hear the expected results from it. I should like to be satisfied before I depart, that we are going to repay to the old land some part of the debt we owe them by revealing more clearly than ever to them the new heavens." The telescope saw "first light on November 2, 1917, with Carnegie still alive.[45]

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Pittencrieff Park, Dunfermline

In 1901, in Scotland, he gave $10 million to establish the "Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. It was created by a deed which he signed on June 7, 1901, and it was incorporated by Royal Charter on August 21, 1902. The establishing gift of $10 million was, then, an unprecedented sum: at the time, total government assistance to all four Scottish universities was about £50,000 a year. The aim of the Trust was to improve and extend the opportunities for scientific research in the Scottish universities and to enable the deserving and qualified youth of Scotland to attend a university.[46] He was subsequently elected "Lord Rector of "University of St. Andrews in December 1901.[47] He also donated large sums of money to Dunfermline, the place of his birth. In addition to a library, Carnegie also bought the private estate which became "Pittencrieff Park and opened it to all members of the public, establishing the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust[48] to benefit the people of Dunfermline. A statue of him stands there today. He gave a further $10 million in 1913 to endow the "Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, a grant-making foundation.[49][50]

In 1901, Carnegie also established large pension funds for his former employees at Homestead and, in 1905, for American college professors. The latter fund evolved into "TIAA-CREF. One critical requirement was that church-related schools had to sever their religious connections to get his money.

His interest in music led him to fund construction of 7,000 church organs. He built and owned "Carnegie Hall in New York City.

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Carnegie with African-American leader "Booker T. Washington (front row, center), seen here in 1906 while visiting "Tuskegee Institute.

Carnegie was a large benefactor of the "Tuskegee Institute for African-American education under "Booker T. Washington. He helped Washington create the "National Negro Business League.

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Andrew Carnegie, April 1905

In 1904, he founded the "Carnegie Hero Fund for the United States and Canada (a few years later also established in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, and Germany) for the recognition of deeds of heroism. Carnegie contributed $1,500,000 in 1903 for the erection of the "Peace Palace at "The Hague; and he donated $150,000 for a Pan-American Palace in Washington as a home for the International Bureau of American Republics.

Carnegie was honored for his philanthropy and support of the arts by initiation as an honorary member of "Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity on October 14, 1917, at the "New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. The fraternity's mission reflects Carnegie's values by developing young men to share their talents to create harmony in the world.

By the standards of 19th century tycoons, Carnegie was not a particularly ruthless man but a humanitarian with enough acquisitiveness to go in the ruthless pursuit of money.[51] "Maybe with the giving away of his money," commented biographer "Joseph Wall, "he would justify what he had done to get that money."[52]

To some, Carnegie represents the idea of the American dream. He was an immigrant from Scotland who came to America and became successful. He is not only known for his successes but his enormous amounts of philanthropist works, not only to charities but also to promote democracy and independence to colonized countries.[53]

Death[edit]

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Carnegie's grave site at the Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in "North Tarrytown, New York
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The "footstone of Andrew Carnegie

Carnegie died[54] on August 11, 1919, in "Lenox, Massachusetts at his "Shadow Brook estate, of bronchial pneumonia.[55] He had already given away $350,695,653 (approximately $76.9 billion, adjusted to 2015 share of GDP figures)[56] of his wealth. After his death, his last $30,000,000 was given to foundations, charities, and to pensioners.[57] He was buried at the "Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in "North Tarrytown, New York. The grave site is located on the Arcadia Hebron plot of land at the corner of Summit Avenue and Dingle Road. Carnegie is buried only a few yards away from union organizer "Samuel Gompers, another important figure of industry in the "Gilded Age.[58]

Controversies[edit]

1889: Johnstown Flood[edit]

Johnstown Flood

Carnegie was one of more than 50 members of the "South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, which has been blamed for the "Johnstown Flood that killed 2,209 people in 1889.[59]

At the suggestion of his friend Benjamin Ruff, Carnegie's partner "Henry Clay Frick had formed the exclusive South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club high above Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The sixty-odd club members were the leading business tycoons of Western Pennsylvania and included among their number Frick's best friend, "Andrew Mellon, his attorneys "Philander Knox and James Hay Reed, as well as Frick's business partner, Carnegie. High above the city, near the small town of South Fork, the "South Fork Dam was originally built between 1838 and 1853 by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as part of a canal system to be used as a reservoir for a canal basin in Johnstown. With the coming-of-age of railroads superseding canal barge transport, the lake was abandoned by the Commonwealth, sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad, and sold again to private interests and eventually came to be owned by the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club in 1881. Prior to the flood, speculators had purchased the abandoned reservoir, made less than well-engineered repairs to the old dam, raised the lake level, built cottages and a clubhouse, and created the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club. Less than 20 miles downstream from the dam sat the city of Johnstown.

The dam was 72 feet (22 m) high and 931 feet (284 m) long. Between 1881 when the club was opened, and 1889, the dam frequently sprang leaks and was patched, mostly with mud and straw. Additionally, a previous owner removed and sold for scrap the 3 "cast iron discharge pipes that previously allowed a controlled release of water. There had been some speculation as to the dam's integrity, and concerns had been raised by the head of the Cambria Iron Works downstream in Johnstown. Such repair work, a reduction in height, and unusually high snowmelt and heavy spring rains combined to cause the dam to give way on May 31, 1889 resulting in twenty million tons of water sweeping down the valley causing the Johnstown Flood.[60] When word of the dam's failure was telegraphed to Pittsburgh, Frick and other members of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club gathered to form the Pittsburgh Relief Committee for assistance to the flood victims as well as determining never to speak publicly about the club or the flood. This strategy was a success, and Knox and Reed were able to fend off all lawsuits that would have placed blame upon the club's members.

Although Cambria Iron and Steel's facilities were heavily damaged by the flood, they returned to full production within a year. After the flood, Carnegie built Johnstown a new library to replace the one built by Cambria's chief legal counsel Cyrus Elder, which was destroyed in the flood. The Carnegie-donated library is now owned by the Johnstown Area Heritage Association, and houses the Flood Museum.

1892: Homestead Strike[edit]

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The Homestead Strike

The "Homestead Strike was a bloody labor confrontation lasting 143 days in 1892, one of the most serious in U.S. history. The conflict was centered on Carnegie Steel's main plant in "Homestead, Pennsylvania, and grew out of a dispute between the National Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers of the United States and the Carnegie Steel Company.

Carnegie left on a trip to Scotland before the unrest peaked.[61] In doing so, Carnegie left mediation of the dispute in the hands of his associate and partner "Henry Clay Frick. Frick was well known in industrial circles for maintaining staunch anti-union sensibilities.

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Frick's letter to Carnegie describing the plans and munitions that will be on the barges when the Pinkertons arrive to confront the strikers in Homestead.

After a recent increase in profits by 60%, the company refused to raise workers' pay by more than 30%. When some of the workers demanded the full 60%, management locked the union out. Workers considered the stoppage a ""lockout" by management and not a "strike" by workers. As such, the workers would have been well within their rights to protest, and subsequent government action would have been a set of criminal procedures designed to crush what was seen as a pivotal demonstration of the growing "labor rights movement, strongly opposed by management. Frick brought in thousands of strikebreakers to work the steel mills and "Pinkerton agents to safeguard them.

On July 6, the arrival of a force of 300 Pinkerton agents from New York City and Chicago resulted in a fight in which 10 men—seven strikers and three Pinkertons—were killed and hundreds were injured. Pennsylvania Governor "Robert Pattison ordered two brigades of state militia to the strike site. Then, allegedly in response to the fight between the striking workers and the Pinkertons, "anarchist "Alexander Berkman shot at Frick in an attempted assassination, wounding Frick. While not directly connected to the strike, Berkman was tied in for the assassination attempt. According to Berkman, "...with the elimination of Frick, responsibility for Homestead conditions would rest with Carnegie."[62] Afterwards, the company successfully resumed operations with non-union immigrant employees in place of the Homestead plant workers, and Carnegie returned to the United States.[61] However, Carnegie's reputation was permanently damaged by the Homestead events.

Philosophy[edit]

Andrew Carnegie Dictum[edit]

In his final days, Carnegie suffered from pneumonia. Before his death on August 11, 1919, Carnegie had donated $350,695,654 for various causes. The "Andrew Carnegie Dictum" was:

Carnegie was involved in philanthropic causes, but he kept himself away from religious circles. He wanted to be identified by the world as a ""positivist". He was highly influenced in public life by "John Bright.

On wealth[edit]

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Carnegie at Skibo Castle, 1914
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Stained glass window dedicated to Andrew Carnegie in the "National Cathedral

As early as 1868, at age 33, he drafted a memo to himself. He wrote: "...The amassing of wealth is one of the worse species of idolatry. No idol more debasing than the worship of money."[63] In order to avoid degrading himself, he wrote in the same memo he would retire at age 35 to pursue the practice of philanthropic giving for "...the man who dies thus rich dies disgraced." However, he did not begin his philanthropic work in all earnest until 1881, with the gift of a library to his hometown of Dunfermline, Scotland.[64]

Carnegie wrote ""The Gospel of Wealth",[65] an article in which he stated his belief that the rich should use their wealth to help enrich society. In that article, Carnegie also expressed sympathy for the ideas of "progressive taxation and an "estate tax.[66][67]

The following is taken from one of Carnegie's memos to himself:

Man does not live by bread alone. I have known millionaires starving for lack of the nutriment which alone can sustain all that is human in man, and I know workmen, and many so-called poor men, who revel in luxuries beyond the power of those millionaires to reach. It is the mind that makes the body rich. There is no class so pitiably wretched as that which possesses money and nothing else. Money can only be the useful drudge of things immeasurably higher than itself. Exalted beyond this, as it sometimes is, it remains Caliban still and still plays the beast. My aspirations take a higher flight. Mine be it to have contributed to the enlightenment and the joys of the mind, to the things of the spirit, to all that tends to bring into the lives of the toilers of Pittsburgh sweetness and light. I hold this the noblest possible use of wealth.[68]

Intellectual influences[edit]

Carnegie claimed to be a champion of evolutionary thought particularly the work of "Herbert Spencer, even declaring Spencer his teacher.[69] Though Carnegie claims to be a disciple of Spencer many of his actions went against the ideas espoused by Spencer.

Spencerian evolution was for individual rights and against government interference. Furthermore, Spencerian evolution held that those unfit to sustain themselves must be allowed to perish. Spencer believed that just as there were many varieties of beetles, respectively modified to existence in a particular place in nature, so too had human society "spontaneously fallen into division of labour".[70] Individuals who survived to this, the latest and highest stage of evolutionary progress would be "those in whom the power of self-preservation is the greatest—are the select of their generation."[71] Moreover, Spencer perceived governmental authority as borrowed from the people to perform the transitory aims of establishing social cohesion, insurance of rights, and security.[72][73] Spencerian 'survival of the fittest' firmly credits any provisions made to assist the weak, unskilled, poor and distressed to be an imprudent disservice to evolution.[74] Spencer insisted people should resist for the benefit of collective humanity, as severe fate singles out the weak, debauched, and disabled.[74]

Andrew Carnegie's political and economic focus during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was the defense of laissez faire economics. Carnegie emphatically resisted government intrusion in commerce, as well as government-sponsored charities. Carnegie believed the concentration of capital was essential for societal progress and should be encouraged.[75] Carnegie was an ardent supporter of commercial "survival of the fittest" and sought to attain immunity from business challenges by dominating all phases of the steel manufacturing procedure.[76] Carnegie's determination to lower costs included cutting labor expenses as well.[77] In a notably Spencerian manner, Carnegie argued that unions impeded the natural reduction of prices by pushing up costs, which blocked evolutionary progress.[78] Carnegie felt that unions represented the narrow interest of the few while his actions benefited the entire community.[76]

On the surface, Andrew Carnegie appears to be a strict laissez-faire capitalist and follower of Herbert Spencer, often referring to himself as a disciple of Spencer.[79] Conversely, Carnegie a titan of industry seems to embody all of the qualities of Spencerian survival of the fittest. The two men enjoyed a mutual respect for one another and maintained correspondence until Spencer's death in 1903.[79] There are however, some major discrepancies between Spencer's capitalist evolutionary conceptions and Andrew Carnegie's capitalist practices.

Spencer wrote that in production the advantages of the superior individual are comparatively minor, and thus acceptable, yet the benefit that dominance provides those who control a large segment of production might be hazardous to competition. Spencer feared that an absence of "sympathetic self-restraint" of those with too much power could lead to the ruin of their competitors.[80] He did not think free market competition necessitated competitive warfare. Furthermore, Spencer argued that individuals with superior resources who deliberately used investment schemes to put competitors out of business were committing acts of "commercial murder".[80] Carnegie built his wealth in the steel industry by maintaining an extensively integrated operating system. Carnegie also bought out some regional competitors, and merged with others, usually maintaining the majority shares in the companies. Over the course of twenty years, Carnegie's steel properties grew to include the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, the Lucy Furnace Works, the Union Iron Mills, the Homestead Works, the Keystone Bridge Works, the Hartman Steel Works, the Frick Coke Company, and the Scotia ore mines among many other industry related assets.[81] Furthermore, Carnegie's success was due to his convenient relationship with the railroad industries, which not only relied on steel for track, but were also making money from steel transport. The steel and railroad barons worked closely to negotiate prices instead of free market competition determinations.[82]

Besides Carnegie's market manipulation, United States trade tariffs were also working in favor of the steel industry. Carnegie spent energy and resources lobbying congress for a continuation of favorable tariffs from which he earned millions of dollars a year.[83] Carnegie tried to keep this information concealed, but legal documents released in 1900, during proceedings with the ex-chairman of Carnegie Steel, Henry Clay Frick, revealed how favorable the tariffs had been.[84] Herbert Spencer absolutely was against government interference in business in the form of regulatory limitation, taxes, and tariffs as well. Spencer saw tariffs as a form of taxation that levied against the majority in service to "the benefit of a small minority of manufacturers and artisans".[85]

Despite Carnegie's personal dedication to Herbert Spencer as a friend, his adherence to Spencer's political and economic ideas is more contentious. In particular, it appears Carnegie either misunderstood or intentionally misrepresented some of Spencer's principal arguments. Spencer remarked upon his first visit to Carnegie's steel mills in Pittsburgh, which Carnegie saw as the manifestation of Spencer's philosophy, "Six months' residence here would justify suicide."[86]

The conditions of human society create for this an imperious demand; the concentration of capital is a necessity for meeting the demands of our day, and as such should not be looked at askance, but be encouraged. There is nothing detrimental to human society in it, but much that is, or is bound soon to become, beneficial. It is an evolution from the heterogeneous to the homogeneous, and is clearly another step in the upward path of development.

— Carnegie, Andrew 1901 The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays[75]

On the subject of charity Andrew Carnegie's actions diverged in the most significant and complex manner from Herbert Spencer's philosophies. In his 1854 essay "Manners and Fashion", Spencer referred to public education as "Old schemes". He went on to declare that public schools and colleges fill the heads of students with inept, useless knowledge and exclude useful knowledge. Spencer stated that he trusted no organization of any kind, "political, religious, literary, philanthropic", and believed that as they expanded in influence so too did their regulations expand. In addition, Spencer thought that as all institutions grow they become evermore corrupted by the influence of power and money. The institution eventually loses its "original spirit, and sinks into a lifeless mechanism".[87] Spencer insisted that all forms of philanthropy that uplift the poor and downtrodden were reckless and incompetent. Spencer thought any attempt to prevent "the really salutary sufferings" of the less fortunate "bequeath to posterity a continually increasing curse".[88] Carnegie, a self-proclaimed devotee of Spencer, testified to Congress on February 5, 1915: "My business is to do as much good in the world as I can; I have retired from all other business."[89]

Carnegie held that societal progress relied on individuals who maintained moral obligations to themselves and to society.[90] Furthermore, he believed that charity supplied the means for those who wish to improve themselves to achieve their goals.[91] Carnegie urged other wealthy people to contribute to society in the form of parks, works of art, libraries and other endeavors that improve the community and contribute to the "lasting good".[92] Carnegie also held a strong opinion against inherited wealth. Carnegie believed that the sons of prosperous businesspersons were rarely as talented as their fathers.[91] By leaving large sums of money to their children, wealthy business leaders were wasting resources that could be used to benefit society. Most notably, Carnegie believed that the future leaders of society would rise from the ranks of the poor.[93] Carnegie strongly believed in this because he had risen from the bottom. He believed the poor possessed an advantage over the wealthy because they receive greater attention from their parents and are taught better work ethics.[93]

Religion and worldview[edit]

Carnegie and his family belonged to the "Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. In his early life Carnegie was skeptical of "Calvinism, and religion as a whole, but reconciled with it later in his life. In his autobiography, Carnegie describes his family as moderate "Presbyterian believers, writing that "there was not one orthodox Presbyterian" in his family; various members of his family having somewhat distanced themselves from Calvinism, some of them leaning more towards "Swedenborg theology. Though, being a child, his family led vigorous theological and political disputes. His mother avoided the topic of religion. His father left the Presbyterian church after a sermon on infant damnation, while, according to Carnegie, still remaining very religious on his own.

Witnessing sectarianism and strife in 19th century Scotland regarding religion and philosophy, Carnegie kept his distance from organized religion and theism.[94] Carnegie instead preferred to see things through naturalistic and scientific terms stating, "Not only had I got rid of the theology and the supernatural, but I had found the truth of evolution."[95]

Later in life, Carnegie's firm opposition to religion softened. For many years he was a member of Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, pastored from 1905 to 1926 by "Social Gospel exponent "Henry Sloane Coffin, while his wife and daughter belonged to the Brick Presbyterian Church.[96] He also prepared (but did not deliver) an address in which he professed a belief in "an Infinite and Eternal Energy from which all things proceed".[97] Records exist of a short period of correspondence around 1912–1913 between Carnegie and "`Abdu'l-Bahá, the eldest son of "Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the "Bahá'í Faith. In these letters, one of which was published in the New York Times in full text,[98] Carnegie is extolled as a "lover of the world of humanity and one of the founders of Universal Peace".

World peace[edit]

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Carnegie commemorated as an industrialist, philanthropist, and founder of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1960[99]

Influenced by his "favorite living hero in public life" "John Bright, Carnegie started his efforts in pursuit of world peace at a young age.[100] His motto, "All is well since all grows better", served not only as a good rationalization of his successful business career, but also his view of international relations.

Despite his efforts towards international peace, Carnegie faced many dilemmas on his quest. These dilemmas are often regarded as conflicts between his view on international relations and his other loyalties. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, for example, Carnegie allowed his steel works to fill large orders of armor plate for the building of an enlarged and modernized United States Navy, but he opposed American oversea expansion.[101]

Despite that, Carnegie served as a major donor for than newly-established "International Court of Arbitration's "Peace Palace - brainchild of Russian Tsar "Nicolas II.[102]

In 1913, at the dedication of the Peace Palace in The Hague, Carnegie predicted that the end of war was ‘‘as certain to come, and come soon, as day follows night.’’[103]

In 1914, on the eve of the First World War, Carnegie founded the Church Peace Union (CPU), a group of leaders in religion, academia, and politics. Through the CPU, Carnegie hoped to mobilize the world's churches, religious organizations, and other spiritual and moral resources to join in promoting moral leadership to put an end to war forever. For its inaugural international event, the CPU sponsored a conference to be held on August 1, 1914, on the shores of Lake Constance in southern Germany. As the delegates made their way to the conference by train, Germany was invading Belgium.

Despite its inauspicious beginning, the CPU thrived. Today its focus is on ethics and it is known as the "Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization, whose mission is to be the voice for ethics in international affairs.

The outbreak of the First World War was clearly a shock to Carnegie and his optimistic view on world peace. Although his promotion of "anti-imperialism and world peace had all failed, and the Carnegie Endowment had not fulfilled his expectations, his beliefs and ideas on international relations had helped build the foundation of the "League of Nations after his death, which took world peace to another level.

US colonial expansion[edit]

On the matter of American colonial expansion, Carnegie had always thought it is an unwise gesture for the United States. He did not oppose the annexation of the Hawaiian islands or Puerto Rico, but he opposed the annexation of the Philippines. Carnegie believed that it involved a denial of the fundamental democratic principle, and he also urged "William McKinley to withdraw American troops and allow the Filipinos to live with their independence.[104] This act strongly impressed the other American anti-imperialists, who soon elected him vice-president of the Anti-Imperialist League.

After he sold his steel company in 1901, Carnegie was able to get fully involved in the peace cause, both financially and personally. He gave away much of his fortunes to various peace-keeping agencies in order to keep them growing. When his friend, the British writer "William T. Stead, asked him to create a new organization for the goal of a peace and arbitration society, his reply was:

I do not see that it is wise to devote our efforts to creating another organization. Of course I may be wrong in believing that, but I am certainly not wrong that if it were dependent on any millionaire's money it would begin as an object of pity and end as one of derision. I wonder that you do not see this. There is nothing that robs a righteous cause of its strength more than a millionaire's money. Its life is tainted thereby.[105]

Carnegie believed that it is the effort and will of the people, that maintains the peace in international relations. Money is just a push for the act. If world peace depended solely on financial support, it would not seem a goal, but more like an act of pity.

Like Stead, he believed that the United States and the British Empire would merge into one nation, telling him "We are heading straight to the Re-United States". Carnegie believed that the combined country's power would maintain world peace and disarmament.[106] The creation of the "Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910 was regarded as a milestone on the road to the ultimate goal of abolition of war. Beyond a gift of $10 million for peace promotion, Carnegie also encouraged the "scientific" investigation of the various causes of war, and the adoption of judicial methods that should eventually eliminate them. He believed that the Endowment exists to promote information on the nations' rights and responsibilities under existing international law and to encourage other conferences to codify this law.[107]

Writings[edit]

Carnegie was a frequent contributor to periodicals on labor issues. In addition to Triumphant Democracy (1886), and "The Gospel of Wealth (1889), he also wrote Our Coaching Trip, Brighton to Inverness (1882), An American Four-in-hand in Britain (1883), Round the World (1884), "The Empire of Business (1902), The Secret of Business is the Management of Men (1903)["citation needed] James Watt (1905) in the "Famous Scots Series, Problems of Today (1907), and his posthumously published Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (1920).

Legacy and honors[edit]

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The Statue of Andrew Carnegie in his home town of "Dunfermline

Carnegie received the honorary "Doctor of Laws (DLL) from the "University of Glasgow in June 1901,[108] and received the "Freedom of the City of "Glasgow ″in recognition of his munificence″ later the same year.[109] In July 1902 he received the Freedom of the city of "St Andrews, ″in testimony of his great zeal for the welfare of his fellow-men on both sides of the Atlantic.″[110]

Carnegie's personal papers are at the "Library of Congress Manuscript Division. The Carnegie Collections of the Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library consist of the archives of the following organizations founded by Carnegie: The "Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY); The "Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP); the "Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT);The Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs (CCEIA). These collections deal primarily with Carnegie philanthropy and have very little personal material related to Carnegie. "Carnegie Mellon University and the "Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh jointly administer the Andrew Carnegie Collection of digitized archives on Carnegie's life.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The All-Time Richest Americans". All the Money in the World. Forbes. September 14, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Andrew Carnegie". Encyclopedia.com. 
  3. ^ MacKay, p. 29.
  4. ^ listed at 372 billion 2014 USD by Jacob Davidson, time.com The 10 Richest People of All Time "Rockefeller gets all the press, but Andrew Carnegie may be the richest American of all time. The Scottish immigrant sold his company, U.S. Steel, to J.P. Morgan for $480 million in 1901. That sum equates to about slightly over 2.1% of U.S. GDP at the time, giving Carnegie economic power equivalent to $372 billion in 2014."
  5. ^ a b Andrew Carnegie's Legacy. carnegie.org. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
  6. ^ 25 Richest People @ Celebrity Net Worth.
  7. ^ a b c d MacKay, pp. 23–24.
  8. ^ The Edinburgh Magazine and Literary Review, Sept 1819
  9. ^ a b c Nasaw, pp. 54–59, 64–65.
  10. ^ MacKay, pp. 37–38.
  11. ^ Jack McKee, "The North Side Story", in North Side Directory Chamber of Commerce Members 1960–61
  12. ^ Autobiography, p. 34
  13. ^ Edge (2004) pg. 21-22
  14. ^ Autobiography, p. 37
  15. ^ Autobiography, pp. 56, 59
  16. ^ Autobiography, p. 45
  17. ^ Murray, Stuart A.P (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub. "ISBN "9781602397064. 
  18. ^ a b Edge (2004) pg. 35
  19. ^ Edge (2004) pg. 37
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  27. ^ Rosenberg, Nathan (1982). Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 90. "ISBN "0-521-27367-6.  Bessemer steel suffered from nitrogen embrittlement with age
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  37. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination" (pdf). National Park Service. May 30, 1975. 
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  39. ^ "Dolkart, Andrew S; Postal, Matthew A. (2004). Guide to New York City Landmarks. New York City Landmarks Preservation Committee. Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg (Author of Forward) (Third ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 51, 175. 
  40. ^ "CARNEGIE ASSAULTS THE SPELLING BOOK; To Pay the Cost of Reforming English Orthography. CAMPAIGN ABOUT TO BEGIN Board Named, with Headquarters Here – Local Societies Throughout the Country.", "The New York Times, March 12, 1906. Retrieved August 28, 2008.
  41. ^ Handbook of Simplified Spelling. Simplified Spelling Board, 1920.
  42. ^ Scott, Tom (June 28, 2013). Ghoti and the Ministry of Helth: Spelling Reform. 
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  45. ^ Simmons, Mike (1984). "History of Mount Wilson Observatory – Building the 100-Inch Telescope". "Mount Wilson Observatory Association (MWOA).
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  48. ^ "Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, Registered Charity no. SC015710". "Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator. 
  49. ^ "Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, Registered Charity no. SC012799". "Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator. 
  50. ^ "Home - Carnegie UK Trust". 
  51. ^ Krause, Paul (1992). The Battle for Homestead 1880–1892. University of Pittsburgh Press. "ISBN 978-0-8229-5466-8. p. 233
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  58. ^ "Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Map" (PDF). Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Historic Fund. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 9, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2010. 
  59. ^ Frank, Walter Smoter (May 1988). "The Cause of the Johnstown Flood". Civil Engineering: 63–66. 
  60. ^ McCullough, David (1987) The Johnstown Flood. Simon & Schuster, New York. "ISBN 0671207148
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  63. ^ Klein, Maury (2004) The Change Makers, p. 57, Macmillan. "ISBN 978-0-8050-7518-2
  64. ^ Burlingame, Dwight (2004) Philanthropy in America. ABC-CLIO. "ISBN 978-1-57607-860-0. p. 60
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  66. ^ Carnegie, Andrew (1900), The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays, New York: "The Century Company, p. 11, The growing disposition to tax more and more heavily large estates left at death is a cheering indication of the growth of a salutary change in public opinion. The State of Pennsylvania now takes–subject to some exceptions–one tenth of the property left by its citizens. The budget presented in the British Parliament the other day proposes to increase the death duties; and, most significant of all, the new tax is to be a graduated one. Of all forms of taxation this seems the wisest. Men who continue hoarding great sums all their lives, the proper use of which for public ends would work good to the community from which it chiefly came, should be made to feel that the community, in the form of the State, cannot thus be deprived of its proper share. By taxing estates heavily at death the State marks its condemnation of the selfish millionaire's unworthy life. 
  67. ^ Carnegie, Andrew (1962), The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays, Cambridge, Massachusetts: "Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, pp. 21–22 
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  97. ^ Nasaw, p. 625
  98. ^ "Carnegie exalted by Bahaist leader". The New York Times. September 5, 1917.
  99. ^ "Andrew Carnegie Issue", Arago: people, postage & the post, Smithsonian National Postal Museum, viewed September 27, 2014
  100. ^ Autobiography, Ch. 21, pp. 282–283
  101. ^ Carnegie, An American Four-in-Hand in Britain (New York, 1883), pp. 14–15
  102. ^ Gay, Mark H (November 10, 2013). "The Hague Peace Palace Keeps Tsar's Vision Alive". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016. 
  103. ^ Cited in Bruno Tertrais "The Demise of Ares: The End of War as We Know It?" The Washington Quarterly, 35/3, (2012): p. 17.
  104. ^ Carnegie, Americanism Versus Imperialism, esp. pp. 12–13
  105. ^ Quoted in Hendrick, B. J. (1932) The Life of Andrew Carnegie, Vol.2, p. 337. Garden City, N. Y. [1]
  106. ^ Stead, W. T. (1901). The Americanization of the World. Horace Markley. pp. 406–412. 
  107. ^ Patterson, David S. (1970). "Andrew Carnegie's Quest for World Peace". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 114 (5): 371–383. "JSTOR 985802. 
  108. ^ "Glasgow University jubilee". The Times (36481). London. June 14, 1901. p. 10. 
  109. ^ "Court circular". The Times (36532). London. August 13, 1901. p. 7. 
  110. ^ "The Freedom of St Andrews". The Times (36824). London. July 19, 1902. p. 14. 
  111. ^ Ackerman, Jan (May 10, 1984). "Town names carry bit of history". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 1. Retrieved October 31, 2015. 
  112. ^ "School Histories: the Stories Behind the Names". "Houston Independent School District. Retrieved September 24, 2008. "It is named for Andrew Carnegie, the famous Scottish immigrant who rose to become a steel tycoon and philanthropist."

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Academic offices
Preceded by
"James Stuart
"Rector of the University of St Andrews
1901–1907
Succeeded by
"The Lord Avebury
) )