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An angel according to Islamic arts from a "Persian miniature from the 16th century
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Angel Blowing a Woodwind', ink and opaque watercolor painting from Iran, c. 1500, Honolulu Academy of Arts

In Islam, "Angels ("Arabic: ملاك malāk; plural: ملاًئِكة mala'ikah) are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by "God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The Angels from the "angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the "Archangels in the "highest heavens.[1] Belief in Angels is one of the six "Articles of Faith in "Islam.

Contents

Concepts of Angels[edit]

Islam acknowledges the concept of Angels both as "anthropomorphic and abstract.[2] It does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces. Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels.[3]

As personified creatures[edit]

Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind, commonly dwelling in the heavenly spheres. They are created from a luminious substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.[4] "Al-Kindi and "Ibn Sina both define Angels as simple substances endowed with life, reason and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who are, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but also mortal animals.[5]

The Angels were born out of light and the "Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined (in the Qur'an) for you (i. e. he is fashioned out of clay) [6][7]

Commonly, Angels were created from light according to Islamic faith, based on the quoted hadith above. However, a dispute arises whether there are Angels created from other substances or not. According to "Tabari, besides the Angels of light, there can be Angels created from any other substances.[8] Angels created from other elements, especially those who carry the "Throne of God,[9] are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire. According to the "Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, "Muhammad met an Angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature. According to "Ibn Abbas, "Iblis was an Angel created from fire, differing from the other Angels.

Later Islamic scholars evaluated, in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time, that God revealed Angels were created from fire. Whether Angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light is disputed.[10] "Al-Suyuti stated angels are either from fire or light.[11] Maqdisi divided the Angels into two groups: The Angels of mercy created from light in contrast to the Angels of Punishment from fire.[12] "Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtile matter that is equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the Angels are created from the light of fire, the Jinn from the tongue of fire and the Demons from its smoke.[13][14] Furthermore, scholars such as Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminious origin of Angels which shouldn't be taken literally.[15]

As abstract concepts[edit]

Angels as abstract concepts belong to "Al-Ghaib (the unseen). Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws.[16] They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific Angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative Angels, who perform for a specific function.[17]

Qazwini portrays the earthly Angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these Angels could be proven by reason and the things these Angels affect.[18]

Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential "demon.[19] Depending on whether the "sensual soul or the "rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon.[20] Angels may also give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from "Satan.[21]

The modern astrophysicist "Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as "Muhammad Asad and "Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of Angels.[22]

Angels impeccability[edit]

A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the Angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion, that Angels are sinless. Advocates of Angels infalliblity commonly cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and Angels, and they are not arrogant". However these verses can not prove the impeccability for all Angels at any time and in any situation.[23] The motif of erring Angels is also known to Islam.[24] Supproted by verses describing angels with personal traits and being tested.[25] One of the first scholars, who hold that Angels are impeccable was "Hasan of Basra. He not only advocated the impeccability of Angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but also reinterpreted verses, which speaks against the impeccability of Angels.[26] And with the discussion whether Angels are able to err or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or Angels are the superior. Hasa of Basra also advocated, Angels are better than both humans and prophets, because of their purity, a position that was opposed by "Sunnis and "Shias.[27] On the other hand, the prostration of Angels before "Adam is often seen as evidence for humans supremacy over Angels. Because it is harder for humans to worship God since humans are hassled with bodily temptations, in contrast to Angels, the Angels rank lower than humans. Other scholars argued that the messengers of Archangels rank higher than the messengers of humans, but the messengers of humans rank higher than ordinary Angels and the ordinary humans again lower than the ordinary Angels.[28] The "Mu'tazilites and some "Asharites held the superiority of Angels, because they are free from any material deficits including anger and lust.[29] Another thought holds that an undeveloped human soul ranks lower than Angels, but an "Al-Insān al-Kāmil higher than Angels, therefore the Angels were commanded to prostrate themselves before Adam, who represented the perfect human.[30] According to some Sufi views, Angels rank lower than humans, because as already flawless and desireless beings, they are not capable of loving God like humans do.[31] When humans die, they return to the heavenly spheres with all deeds, experiences and thoughts accomplished in the earthly plane.[32][33]

If fallible Angels are assumed, as long they carrying out the laws of nature, they are considered infallable. However, as personified Angels they may indeed sin. Their obedience and worship consist of their awareness of God, rather than lack of "free will.[34] They are not endowed with human reason neither are they subject to temptation but beings who may err; also explaining the implications of a well-known hadith concerning an argument that took place between the Angels of Mercy and the "Angels of Punishment.[35] "Ibn Arabi stated that some Angels may err in opposing Adam as a vice regent and fixing on their way of worshipping God to the exclusion of other creatures.[36][37]

Individual Angels[edit]

Islam has no standard hierarchical organization that parallels the "division into different "choirs" or spheres hypothesized and drafted by early medieval "Christian theologians, but does distinguish between "Archangels and Angels. Angels are not equal in status and consequently, they are delegated different tasks to perform. (Note that the affiliation of some of the following creatures are disputed and denoted by an asterisk. These creatures may be regarded as jinn, saints or kings, instead of Angels. However these are often related to Angels and are consequently listed here).

Archangels[edit]

Other Angels and Angel groups[edit]

Vision of Angels[edit]

Traditionally, angels are desripted as corperal beings, able to appear in human form. Unlike the Jinn and demons, Angels always take on beautiful forms,[59] except the angels of death, if they approach sinners.[60] Besides their human form, the angels also have a celestrial form in the heavens and according to some "Sufi-traditions, it is possible to see an angel during deams in "Malakut.[61] Angels interceding with other creatures than human, may take on a different shape, like the Bearers of the Throne each take the form of a specific animal.[62] Some philosophical approaches, made by scholars like "Ibn Sina,[63] refused that angels have bodies. The idea, that angels may take on human form is rooted in the principle writings of Islam. According to Qur'an Jibra'il appeared in a human-like form to announce to "Mary the future birth of "Jesus. Muhammad accordingly saw Jibra'il in both human and his original angelic shape.[64][65][66] Some folklore traditions maintain that it is still possible to meet "Khidr in human shape. If a Sufi can not find "Shaikh as a teacher, he would may teach the Sufi.[67][68]

Distinction between Angels and Jinn[edit]

Another creature in Islamic belief, often related to the subject of Angels, are the "Jinn. While the term jinn means "to hide" it is sometimes used to encompass any creature concealed from human eye.[69] However, the Jinn are commonly thought of as a distinct entity apart from Angels. The Jinn do not dwell in heaven, but below, either on earth along with humans or in an "intermediary realm.[70] Unlike Angels, Jinn are endowed with "desires, have an extended measure of free decisions, thus able to choose between good and evil, can procreate and are not immortal,[71] thus sharing many characteristics with humans. Finally, the Jinn will either enter "hell or "heaven depending on how they lived their lives.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith The New Encyclopedia of Islam Rowman Altamira 2003 "ISBN "978-0-759-10190-6 page 49-50
  2. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0
  3. ^ www.suleyman-ates.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1662:qmelekq-kavramindan-ne-anlamaliyiz&catid=90:mart-2016&Itemid=20 (turkish)
  4. ^ Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith The New Encyclopedia of Islam Rowman Altamira 2003 "ISBN "978-0-759-10190-6 page 49-50
  5. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 268 (german)
  6. ^ https://sunnah.com/muslim/55/78
  7. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0 page 100
  8. ^ https://islaambooks.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/the-commentary-on-the-quran-volume-i-tafsir-al-tabari.pdf page 241
  9. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 283
  10. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0
  11. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0 chapter 6.2
  12. ^ Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM Brill 1995 page 94
  13. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 270
  14. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr Islamic Life and Thought Routledge 2013 "ISBN "978-1-134-53818-8 page 135
  15. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Band 5 BRILL 1993 "ISBN "978-9-004-09791-9 page 191
  16. ^ Joseph Hell Die Religion des Islam Motilal Banarsidass Publishe 1915
  17. ^ Harris Zafar Demystifying Islam: Tackling the Tough Questions Rowman & Littlefield 2014 "ISBN "978-1-442-22328-8
  18. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 263
  19. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 "ISBN "978-0-815-65070-6 page 43
  20. ^ Khaled El-Rouayheb, Sabine Schmidtke The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy Oxford University Press 2016 "ISBN "978-0-199-91739-6 page 186
  21. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/angels-in-islam-2004030
  22. ^ Guessoum. Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. 
  23. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Band 5 BRILL 1993 "ISBN "978-9-004-09791-9 page 191
  24. ^ Christoph Auffarth, Loren T. Stuckenbruck The Fall of the Angels BRILL 2004 "ISBN "978-9-004-12668-8 page 161
  25. ^ http://www.dinimizislam.com/detay.asp?Aid=3563
  26. ^ Omar Hamdan Studien zur Kanonisierung des Korantextes: al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrīs Beiträge zur Geschichte des Korans Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2006 "ISBN "978-3-447-05349-5 page 292 (german)
  27. ^ Omar Hamdan Studien zur Kanonisierung des Korantextes: al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrīs Beiträge zur Geschichte des Korans Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2006 "ISBN "978-3-447-05349-5 page 293 (german)
  28. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Band 5 BRILL 1993 "ISBN "978-9-004-09791-9 page 191
  29. ^ M. Th. Houtsma E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Band 5 BRILL 1993 "ISBN "978-9-004-09791-9 page 191
  30. ^ Mohamed Haj Yousef The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos: Ibn Arabi's Concept of Time and Creation ibnalarabi 2014 "ISBN "978-1-499-77984-4 page 292
  31. ^ John Renard The A to Z of Sufism Scarecrow Press 2009 "ISBN "978-0-810-86343-9 page 33
  32. ^ Karin Jironet The Image of Spiritual Liberty in the Western Sufi Movement Following Hazrat Inayat Khan Peeters Publishers 2002 "ISBN "978-9-042-91205-2 page 36
  33. ^ H.J. Witteveen The Heart of Sufism Shambhala Publications "ISBN "978-0-834-82874-2 chapter 4
  34. ^ https://www.al-islam.org/faith-and-reason-ayatullah-mahdi-hadavi-tehrani/question-16-angels-and-free-will
  35. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, book 56:http://www.islamawareness.net/Children/story22.html
  36. ^ Sa'diyya Shaikh Sufi Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn Arabi, Gender, and Sexuality Univ of North Carolina Press 2012 "ISBN "978-0-807-83533-3 page 114
  37. ^ Christian Krokus The Theology of Louis Massignon CUA Press 2017 "ISBN "978-0-813-22946-1 page 89
  38. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0 chapter 3
  39. ^ Islam Issa Milton in the Arab-Muslim World Taylor & Francis 2016 "ISBN "978-1-317-09592-7 page 111
  40. ^ "Quran 2:98
  41. ^ Matthew L.N. Wilkinson A Fresh Look at Islam in a Multi-Faith World: A Philosophy for Success Through Education Routledge 2014 "ISBN "978-1-317-59598-4 page 106
  42. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 320 (german)
  43. ^ Sophy Burnham A Book of Angels: Reflections on Angels Past and Present, and True Stories of How They Touch Our L ives Penguin 2011 "ISBN "978-1-101-48647-4
  44. ^ Syrinx von Hees Enzyklopädie als Spiegel des Weltbildes: Qazwīnīs Wunder der Schöpfung : eine Naturkunde des 13. Jahrhunderts Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2002 "ISBN "978-3-447-04511-7 page 331 (german)
  45. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo Encyclopedia of Islam Infobase Publishing, 2009 "ISBN "978-1-438-12696-8 page 42
  46. ^ "Quran 82:11
  47. ^ a b "Quran 13:10–11
  48. ^ "Quran 79:2
  49. ^ "Quran 51:4
  50. ^ "Quran 37:2
  51. ^ "Quran 40:7
  52. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:6:315
  53. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:54:454
  54. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0
  55. ^ Darda'il on Dinul-islam.org
  56. ^ The Vision of Islam by "Sachiko Murata & "William Chittick pg 86-87
  57. ^ Hussein Abdul-Raof Theological Approaches to Qur'anic Exegesis: A Practical Comparative-Contrastive Analysis Routledge 2012 "ISBN "978-1-136-45991-7 page 155
  58. ^ Brannon Wheeler Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis A&C Black 2002 "ISBN "978-0-826-44956-6 page 225
  59. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 "ISBN "9780815650706 page 48
  60. ^ Jan Knappert Swahili Islamic Poetry: Introduction, The celebration of Mohammed's birthday, Swahili Islamic cosmology Brill Archive 1971 page 69
  61. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 "ISBN "9780815650706 page 50
  62. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0 chapter 6.2.
  63. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 "ISBN "978-1-136-50473-0 p. 102
  64. ^ Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 9) MSA Publication Limited 2009 "ISBN "978-1-861-79667-7 page 344
  65. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/angels-in-islam-2004030
  66. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 "ISBN "9780815650706 page 48
  67. ^ Michael Anthony Sells Early Islamic Mysticism (CWS) Paulist Press 1996 "ISBN "978-0-809-13619-3 page 39
  68. ^ Noel Cobb Archetypal Imagination: Glimpses of the Gods in Life and Art SteinerBooks "ISBN "978-0-940-26247-8 page 194
  69. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 "ISBN "978-0-710-31356-0 page 302
  70. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 "ISBN "9780815650706 page 50
  71. ^ Dan Burton, David Grandy Magic, Mystery, and Science: The Occult in Western Civilization Indiana University Press 2004 "ISBN "978-0-253-21656-4 page 143
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