Architectural lighting design is a field within "architecture, "interior design and "electrical engineering that is concerned with the design of "lighting systems, including natural light, "electric light, or both, to serve human needs.
The design process takes account of:
The objective of lighting design is the human response, to see clearly and without discomfort.
The earliest form of artificial lighting used to illuminate an area were "campfires or "torches. As early as 400,000 "BCE, fire was kindled in the caves of "Peking Man. Prehistoric people used lamps to illuminate surroundings. These lamps were made from naturally occurring materials such as rocks, shells, horns and stones, were filled with "grease, and had a "fiber "wick. Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel. Hundreds of hollowed worked stone lamps have been found in the "Lascaux caves in modern-day "France, dating to about 15,000 years ago. Oily animals (birds and fish) were also used as lamps after being threaded with a wick. "Fireflies have been used as lighting sources.["citation needed] "Candles provided light but used relatively costly "tallow or "beeswax.["citation needed]
Major reductions in the cost of lighting occurred with the discovery of "whale oil and "kerosene. The potential of electric light as a new building material was recognized in the 1920s and became a useful design tool by the mid-century.["citation needed]
"Gas lighting was economical enough to light streets in major cities starting in the early 1800s, and was also used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people. The "gas mantle boosted the luminosity of utility lighting and of "kerosene lamps. The next major drop in price came about with the "incandescent light bulb powered by "electricity.
Over time, electric lighting became ubiquitous in developed countries. "Segmented sleep patterns disappeared, improved nighttime lighting made people made more activities possible at night, and more "street lights reduced urban crime.
Lighting design calls for consideration of the amount of functional light present, the energy expended, as well as the aesthetic impact supplied by the lighting system. Some buildings, like surgical centers and sports facilities, are primarily concerned with providing the appropriate amount of light for the associated task. Some buildings, like warehouses and office buildings, are primarily concerned with saving money through the energy efficiency of the lighting system. Other buildings, like casinos and theatres, are primarily concerned with enhancing the appearance and emotional impact of architecture through lighting systems. Therefore, it is important that the sciences of light production and luminaire photometrics are balanced with the artistic application of light as a medium in our built environment. These electrical lighting systems should also consider the impacts of, and ideally be integrated with, daylighting systems. Factors involved in lighting design are essentially the same as those discussed above in energy conservation analysis.
Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings or spaces. The first is the aesthetic appeal of a building, an aspect particularly important in the illumination of "retail environments. Secondly, the "ergonomic aspect: the measure of how much of a function the lighting plays. Thirdly is the "energy efficiency issue to ensure that light is not wasted by "over-illumination, either by illuminating vacant spaces unnecessarily or by providing more light than needed for the "aesthetics or the task.
Each of these three aspects is looked at in considerable detail when the lighting designer is at work. In aesthetic appeal, the lighting designer attempts to raise the general attractiveness of the design, measure whether it should be subtly blended into the background or whether it should stand out, and assess what kind of "emotions the lighting should evoke. The functional aspects of the project can encompass the need for the project to be visible (by night mostly, but also by day), the impact of "daylight on the project and "safety issues ("glare, color confusion etc.).
As the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, orange, yellow or white depending on its position. The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is mainly a result of "scattering of light and is not due to changes in black-body radiation. The blue color of the sky is caused by "Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.
Daylight has a spectrum similar to that of a black body with a correlated color temperature of 6,500 K ("D65 viewing standard) or 5,500 K (daylight-balanced photographic film standard).["citation needed]
For colors based on black-body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, while red occurs at lower, cooler, temperatures. This is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which red represents hot, and blue cold.
Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. The most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid "visual glare. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes.
An important property of light fixtures is the "luminous efficacy or "wall-plug efficiency, meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy, usually measured in "lumen per "watt. A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to the surroundings. The more "transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy. "Shading the light will normally decrease efficiency but increase the directionality and the "visual comfort probability.
The PH-lamps are a series of light fixtures designed by Danish designer and writer "Poul Henningsen from 1926 onwards. The lamp is designed with multiple concentric shades to eliminate "visual glare, only emitting reflected light, obscuring the light source.
Photometric studies (also sometimes referred to as "layouts" or "point by points") are often used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated. This enables architects, lighting designers, and engineers to determine whether a proposed lighting setup will deliver the amount of light intended. They will also be able to determine the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. In many cases these studies are referenced against "IESNA or "CIBSE recommended lighting practices for the type of application. Depending on the type of area, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality (i.e. such as maintaining uniform light levels, avoiding glare or highlighting certain areas). Specialized software is often used to create these, which typically combine the use of two-dimensional digital "CAD drawings and lighting "simulation software.
"Color temperature for white light sources also affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in "kelvins of a theoretical "black body emitter that most closely matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp. An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around 2800 to 3000 kelvins; daylight is around 6400 kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have relatively more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance. For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect.
The color temperature of a light source is the "temperature of an ideal "black-body radiator that radiates light of comparable "hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of "visible light that has important applications in "lighting, "photography, "videography, "publishing, "manufacturing, "astrophysics, "horticulture, and other fields. In practice, color temperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely to the radiation of some black body, i.e., those on a line from reddish/orange via yellow and more or less white to blueish white; it does not make sense to speak of the color temperature of, e.g., a green or a purple light. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the "kelvin, having the unit symbol K.
For lighting building interiors, it is often important to take into account the color temperature of illumination. For example, a warmer (i.e., lower color temperature) light is often used in public areas to promote relaxation, while a cooler (higher color temperature) light is used to enhance concentration in offices.
CCT dimming for LED technology is regarded as a difficult task, since binning, age and temperature drift effects of LEDs change the actual color value output. Here feedback loop systems are used for example with color sensors, to actively monitor and control the color output of multiple color mixing LEDs.
The color temperature of the "electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal "black body is defined as its surface temperature in kelvins, or alternatively in "mireds (micro-reciprocal kelvin). This permits the definition of a standard by which light sources are compared.
|1,700 K||Match flame, low-pressure sodium lamps (LPS/SOX)|
|1,850 K||Candle flame, sunrise, sunset|
|2,700–3,300 K||Incandescent lamps, soft-white "fluorescent lamps|
|3,000 K||Warm-white fluorescent lamps|
|4,100–4,150 K||Moonlight, cool-white fluorescent lamps|
|5,000 K||Horizon daylight|
|5,500–6,000 K||Vertical daylight, electronic flash|
|6,200 K||"Xenon short-arc lamp|
|6,500 K||Daylight, overcast, daylight fluorescent lamps|
|6,500–10,500 K||LCD or CRT screen|
|15,000–27,000 K||Clear blue poleward sky|
|These temperatures are merely characteristic;
considerable variation may be present.
To the extent that a hot surface emits "thermal radiation but is not an ideal black-body radiator, the color temperature of the light is not the actual temperature of the surface. An "incandescent lamp's light is thermal radiation, and the bulb approximates an ideal black-body radiator, so its color temperature is essentially the temperature of the filament.
Many other light sources, such as "fluorescent lamps, or "LEDs (light emitting diodes) emit light primarily by processes other than thermal radiation. This means that the emitted radiation does not follow the form of a "black-body spectrum. These sources are assigned what is known as a "correlated color temperature (CCT). CCT is the color temperature of a black-body radiator which to "human color perception most closely matches the light from the lamp. Because such an approximation is not required for incandescent light, the CCT for an incandescent light is simply its unadjusted temperature, derived from the comparison to a black-body radiator.
For simple installations, hand-calculations based on tabular data can be used to provide an acceptable lighting design. More critical or optimized designs now routinely use mathematical modeling on a computer.
Based on the positions and mounting heights of the fixtures, and their photometric characteristics, the proposed lighting layout can be checked for uniformity and quantity of illumination. For larger projects or those with irregular floor plans, lighting design software can be used. Each fixture has its location entered, and the reflectance of walls, ceiling, and floors can be entered. The computer program will then produce a set of contour charts overlaid on the project floor plan, showing the light level to be expected at the working height. More advanced programs can include the effect of light from windows or skylights, allowing further optimization of the operating cost of the lighting installation. The amount of daylight received in an internal space can typically be analyzed by undertaking a "daylight factor calculation.
The Zonal Cavity Method is used as a basis for both hand, tabulated, and computer calculations. This method uses the reflectance coefficients of room surfaces to model the contribution to useful illumination at the working level of the room due to light reflected from the walls and the ceiling. Simplified photometric values are usually given by fixture manufacturers for use in this method.
Computer modeling of outdoor flood lighting usually proceeds directly from photometric data. The total lighting power of a lamp is divided into small solid angular regions. Each region is extended to the surface which is to be lit and the area calculated, giving the light power per unit of area. Where multiple lamps are used to illuminate the same area, each one's contribution is summed. Again the tabulated light levels (in lux or foot-candles) can be presented as contour lines of constant lighting value, overlaid on the project plan drawing. Hand calculations might only be required at a few points, but computer calculations allow a better estimate of the uniformity and lighting level.
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The Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia and New Zealand was established in 1930 during the "Great Depression.
The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) was founded in 1969, and its current mission is "to serve the IALD worldwide membership by promoting the visible success of its members in practicing lighting design." The organization created a new attitude towards the profession and raised the profile of architectural lighting design, one its principal goals.
The "Professional Lighting Designers Association (PLDA) was formed in 1993 as the European Lighting Designers' Association (ELDA, later ELDA+). Until it was dissolved in 2014, it was with the IALD one of the main authorities regarding lighting design in architecture.
The "Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) seeks to improve the lighted environment by bringing together those with lighting knowledge and by translating that knowledge into actions that benefit the public.
The National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions (NCQLP) is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 to serve and protect the well-being of the public through effective and efficient lighting practice. Through a peer-review process, the NCQLP establishes the education, experience and examination requirements for baseline certification across the lighting professions. The NCQLP has established a certification process by which practitioners in lighting and related fields, through testing, demonstrate their knowledge and experience across the lighting professions. Those who successfully complete the NCQLP Lighting Certification Examination are entitled to use the appellation LC (Lighting Certified) after their name for professional purposes.
The "International Commission on Illumination (CIE) is an organization "devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters relating to the science and art of lighting." CIE works globally to develop and publish lighting design standardization and best-practice documents.
The Professional Lighting & Sound Association ("PLASA) represents the interests of many lighting designers and manufacturers, several of which are involved in the Architectural lighting market. PLASA is UK orientated, but does represent companies on a European and International level.
There are many more nationally-based organizations such as the Schweizerische Licht Gesellschaft (SLG) in Switzerland, the Association des Concepteurs Lumière et Éclairagistes (ACE) in "France, the Hellenic Illumination Committee (HIC) in "Greece and the Associazione Professionisti dell'Illuminazione (APIL) in "Italy.
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With the increase in global focus on green design and energy codes, lighting design and its role in sustainability have become more well known, resulting in a number of lighting-specific trade publications and an increase in coverage in architectural publications.
Types of "electric lighting include:
|Name||"Optical spectrum||Nominal "efficiency
|"Incandescent light bulb||"Continuous||4-17||2-20000||2400-3400||Warm white (yellowish)||100|
|"Halogen lamp||Continuous||16-23||3000-6000||3200||Warm white (yellowish)||100|
|"Fluorescent lamp||"Mercury line + "Phosphor||52-100 (white)||8000-20000||2700-5000*||White (various color temperatures), as well as saturated colors available||15-85|
|"Metal halide lamp||Quasi-continuous||50-115||6000-20000||3000-4500||Cold white||65-93|
|"Sulfur lamp||Continuous||80-110||15000-20000||6000||Pale green||79|
|"High pressure sodium||Broadband||55-140||10000-40000||1800-2200*||Pinkish orange||0-70|
|"Low pressure sodium||Narrow line||100-200||18000-20000||1800*||Yellow, no color rendering||0|
|"Light-emitting diode||Line plus phosphor||10-110 (white)||50,000-100,000||Various white from 2700 to 6000*||Various color temperatures, as well as saturated colors||70-85 (white)|
|Induction Lamp (External Coil)||"Mercury line + "Phosphor||70-90 (white)||80,000-100,000||Various white from 2700 to 6000*||Various color temperatures, as well as saturated colors||70-85 (white)|
*Color temperature is defined as the temperature of a "black body emitting a similar spectrum; these spectra are quite different from those of black bodies.
The most efficient source of electric light is the low-pressure sodium lamp. It produces, for all practical purposes, a "monochromatic orange/yellow light, which gives a similarly monochromatic perceprtion of any illuminated scene. For this reason, it is generally reserved for outdoor public lighting usages. Low-pressure sodium lights are favoured for public lighting by astronomers, since the "light pollution that they generate can be easily filtered, contrary to broadband or continuous spectra.
The modern incandescent light bulb, with a coiled filament of tungsten, was commercialized in the 1920s developed from the carbon "filament lamp introduced in about 1880. As well as bulbs for normal illumination, there is a very wide range, including low voltage, low-power types often used as components in equipment, but now largely displaced by LEDs
There is currently interest in banning some types of filament lamp in some countries, such as Australia planning to ban standard incandescent light bulbs by 2010, because they are inefficient at converting electricity to light. Sri Lanka has already banned importing filament bulbs because of high use of electricity and less light. Less than 3% of the input energy is converted into usable light. Nearly all of the input energy ends up as heat that, in warm climates, must then be removed from the building by "ventilation or "air conditioning, often resulting in more energy consumption. In colder climates where heating and lighting is required during the cold and dark winter months, the heat byproduct has at least some value.
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Halogen lamps are usually much smaller than standard incandescents, because for successful operation a bulb temperature over 200 °C is generally necessary. For this reason, most have a bulb of fused silica (quartz), but sometimes aluminosilicate glass. This is often sealed inside an additional layer of glass. The outer glass is a safety precaution, reducing UV emission and because halogen bulbs can occasionally explode during operation. One reason is if the quartz bulb has oily residue from "fingerprints. The risk of burns or fire is also greater with bare bulbs, leading to their prohibition in some places unless enclosed by the luminaire.
"Fluorescent lamps consist of a glass tube that contains mercury vapour or argon under low pressure. Electricity flowing through the tube causes the gases to give off ultraviolet energy. The inside of the tubes are coated with "phosphors that give off visible light when struck by ultraviolet energy. have much higher efficiency than Incandescent lamps. For the same amount of light generated, they typically use around one-quarter to one-third the power of an incandescent.
Solid state "light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been popular as indicator lights since the 1970s. In recent years, "efficacy and output have risen to the point where LEDs are now being used in niche lighting applications.
Indicator LEDs are known for their extremely long life, up to 100,000 hours, but lighting LEDs are operated much less conservatively (due to high LED cost per watt), and consequently have much shorter lives.
Due to the relatively high cost per watt, LED lighting is most useful at very low powers, typically for lamp assemblies of under 10 W. LEDs are currently most useful and "cost-effective in low power applications, such as "nightlights and "flashlights. Colored LEDs can also be used for "accent lighting, such as for glass objects, and even in fake ice cubes for drinks at parties. They are also being increasingly used as holiday lighting.
"LED efficiencies vary over a very wide range. Some have lower efficiency than filament lamps, and some significantly higher. LED performance in this respect is prone to being misinterpreted, as the inherent directionality of LEDs gives them a much higher light intensity in one direction per given total light output.
Single color LEDs are well developed technology, but white LEDs at time of writing still have some unresolved issues:
LED technology is useful for lighting designers because of its low power consumption, low heat generation, instantaneous on-and-off control, and in the case of single color LEDs, continuity of color throughout the life of the diode and relatively low cost of manufacture.
In the last few years, software has been developed to merge lighting and video by enabling lighting designers to stream video content to their LED fixtures, creating low resolution video walls.