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Further information: "Arlington National Cemetery § Arlington Woods expansion controversy
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A portion of Arlington Woods on Humphreys Drive. (2013)

In 1995, officials of the "United States Department of the Interior and the "United States Department of the Army signed an agreement to transfer from Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, to the Army a part of Arlington Woods, which was located in Section 29 of the NPS at Arlington National Cemetery between Arlington House and "Fort Myer.[44] The property transfer, which involved 12 acres (4.9 ha) of NPS land, was intended to enable the Cemetery to increase its space for burials.[45][46]

Environmentalists expressed concerns that the agreement would result in the partial destruction of the 24 acres (9.7 ha) remnant of an historically important stand of native trees.[47] Nevertheless, Congress enacted legislation in September 1996 authorizing the transfer.[45][48]

On June 5, 2013, after reviewing 100 public comments that it had received on a draft "environmental assessment (EA) for the Cemetery expansion project, the "United States Army Corps of Engineers released a final EA and a signed Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the project.[49][50] The final EA stated that, of the 905 trees to be removed, 771 trees were healthy native trees that had diameters between 6 and 41 inches.[51][52] The project would remove approximately 211 trees from a less than 2.63 acres (1.06 ha) area containing a portion of a 145-year-old forest that stood within the property boundaries of a historic district that a "National Register of Historic Places nomination form for Arlington House had described in 1966.[51][53] About 491 trees would be removed from an area of trees that was approximately 105 years old.[51] At a public hearing on July 11, 2013, the "National Capital Planning Commission approved the site and building plans for the project.[54]

Studies, damages and restorations[edit]

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East side of Arlington House in 2012

From 2003 to 2007, the National Park Service conducted an archeological excavation of two outbuildings that once held Arlington House's slave quarters.[55] In 2009, the Park Service published reports that described the history of the slave quarters and the findings of the excavations, as well as proposals for the restoration of the quarters.[56]

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East facade of north slave quarters during restoration (2011).

From 2007 through 2013, Arlington House underwent its first renovation since 1925.[57] During that period, the National Park Services placed the House's furnishings on display at the "Friendship Hill National Historic Site near "Point Marion, Pennsylvania.[58] The Park Service held a rededication ceremony after it had completed the renovation and returned the furnishings to the House.[59]

Arlington House suffered significant damage in the "2011 Virginia earthquake, requiring the closure of the back halls and upper floor pending an architectural assessment.[60] On July 17, 2014, philanthropist "David Rubenstein donated $12.5 million to the "National Park Foundation (the arm of the National Park Service which raises funds through private contributions) to rehabilitate Arlington House, its outbuildings, and grounds. The 30-month project is intended to restore the mansion, buildings, and grounds to the way they looked in 1860. The project will repair the earthquake-damaged foundation, and add new interior lighting and a modern climate-control system. National Park Service officials said they are likely to close Arlington House and the slave quarters for several months in 2016, during which most of the work will be done.[61]

Replicas[edit]

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Old Administration Building, Arlington National Cemetery (2011)

In 1919, a replica was built for the short-lived "Lanier University in "Atlanta, designed by architect "A. Ten Eyck Brown. It is still standing at 1140 University Drive NE, and houses the Ben H. Zimmerman Religious School and the Canterbury School.[62] Arlington Hall, a two-thirds scale replica of Arlington House, was built in 1939 in Robert E. Lee Park in "Dallas, Texas.[63]

The "facade of the Old Administration Building in Arlington National Cemetery resembles that of Arlington House. The building is 500 feet (150 m) west of Arlington House.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. 
  2. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. 
  3. ^ (1) "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". National Register of Historic Places: NPGallery. "National Park Service. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016. 
    (2) Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, "George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, "National Park Service (January 15, 1980). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. "National Park Service. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016. 
    (3) Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, "George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, "National Park Service (January 15, 1980). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. "Richmond, Virginia: "Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 14, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  (includes maps)
  4. ^ (1) "Arlington House Historic District". National Register of Historic Places Program. "National Park Service. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016. 
    (2) Smith, Kathryn Gettings (National Park Service) (December 31, 2013). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Arlington House Historic District [2013 Boundary Increase & Additional Documentation]" (PDF). "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2016. 
  5. ^ Patterson, Michael Robert (December 14, 2004). "Arlington House (The Custis-Lee Mansion)". Arlington National Cemetery website. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Today in History: May 13: Arlington National Cemetery". American Memory. "Library of Congress. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  7. ^ (1) Rudy, p. 15.
    (2) Peters, p. 3
  8. ^ (1) Rudy, p. 15.
    (2) Peters, p. 5.
  9. ^ a b Smith, Adam; Tooker, Megan; Enscore, Susan (U.S. Corps of Engineers) (January 31, 2013). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Arlington National Cemetery Historic District" (PDF). "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2016. 
  10. ^ Rudy, pp. 9, 31.
  11. ^ Rudy, pp. 16-18, 35-36.
  12. ^ Hanna October 2001, p. 54.
  13. ^ a b Hanna October 2001, p. 59.
  14. ^ Fellman 2003, pp. 195-200.
  15. ^ a b c Arlington National Cemetery 2009, p. 77.
  16. ^ Chase 1930, p. 173.
  17. ^ McCaslin 2004, pp. 79-80.
  18. ^ a b c d Atkinson 2007, p. 25.
  19. ^ Perry 2010, p. 125.
  20. ^ a b Chase 1930, p. 176.
  21. ^ Arlington 2000, p. 77.
  22. ^ a b Poole 2009, pp. 54-55.
  23. ^ Poole 2009, p. 55.
  24. ^ Hanna October 2001, pp. 77-78, 87-88.
  25. ^ McCaslin 2004, p. 82.
  26. ^ Peters 1986, p. 142.
  27. ^ Hanna October 2001, p. 88.
  28. ^ a b c Hanna October 2001, p. 86.
  29. ^ a b c d Atkinson 2007, p. 26.
  30. ^ Randall 1913, p. 35.
  31. ^ Chase 1930, p. 191.
  32. ^ Meyer 1998, p. 140.
  33. ^ Amar 1987, p. 1512.
  34. ^ Grant 1996, p. 203, fn 254.
  35. ^ a b Holt 2010, p. 336.
  36. ^ Fernandez 2013, p. 63.
  37. ^ Public Resolution 74, 68th Congress, Session II, Chapter 562: "Joint Resolution Authorizing the restoration of the Lee Mansion in the Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, March 4, 1925", cited in: Smith, Kathryn Gettings (National Park Service) (December 31, 2013). "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Arlington House Historic District [2013 Boundary Increase & Additional Documentation]" (PDF). Section 8, p. 105. "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2014. Retrieved September 3, 2016. 
  38. ^ "Public Law 84-107: JOINT RESOLUTION: Dedicating the Lee Mansion in Arlington National Cemetery as a permanent memorial to Robert E. Lee" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: "United States Government Publishing Office. June 29, 1955. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2016. SEC. 3. That the magnificent manor house situated in its prominent position at the brow of a hill overlooking the Potomac River in Arlington National Cemetery, and popularly known as Lee Mansion, be officially designated as the Custis-Lee Mansion, so as to give appropriate recognition to the illustrious Virginia family in which General Lee found his wife, and that the Custis-Lee Mansion is hereby dedicated as a permanent memorial to Robert E. Lee, and the Secretary of the Interior is authorized and directed to erect on the aforesaid premises a suitable memorial plaque, and to correct governmental records to bring them into compliance with the designation authorized by this joint resolution. 
  39. ^ United States of America. National Park Service. Arlington House The Robert E. Lee Memorial. Washington D.C: US Department of the Interior, 1985.
  40. ^ "Public Law 92-333: AN ACT: To restore to the Custis-Lee Mansion located in the Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia, its original historical name, followed by the explanatory memorial phrase, so that it shall be known as Arlington House, The Robert E, Lee Memorial." (PDF). Washington, D.C.: "United States Government Publishing Office. June 30, 1972. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016. 
  41. ^ a b "The Gray Family". Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial. "National Park Service. Retrieved September 26, 2014. 
  42. ^ a b "The Grey Family". Black History Museum of Arlington. Retrieved September 29, 2014. 
  43. ^ Mary Beth Griggs. "Rare Photo of Robert E. Lee's Slave Acquired by National Park Service". Smithsonian. 
  44. ^ (1) "Interactive map of Arlington National Cemetery showing Section 29 and Future Expansion Site". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
    (2) Coordinates of Section 29: 38°52′55″N 77°04′37″W / 38.8820646°N 77.0770195°W / 38.8820646; -77.0770195 (Section 29)
  45. ^ a b Wee, Eric L. (1998-03-06). "Good News for Tree Lovers, Not for Arlington Cemetery; Park Service Wants to Give 4 Acres, Not 12". Metro Section. "The Washington Post. p. B7. arlingtoncemetery.net. Archived from the original on 2005-02-10. Retrieved 2016-09-07. In 1995, the Park Service agreed to move forward with plans to give the cemetery the 12 acres of woodlands near the Arlington House mansion, where Robert E. Lee lived before the Civil War. Congress approved the transfer on the condition that an archaeological and cultural study be done on the land. Another 12-acre parcel near the house already had been largely ruled out for graves because of its historic value.  Article preview in website of The Washington Post
  46. ^ Hanna, Jennifer (October 2001). "Arlington House: The Robert E. Lee Memorial: Cultural Landscape Report: History" (PDF). Cultural History Program. "Washington, D.C.: "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service: National Capital Region. 1: 169. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 
  47. ^ (1) Gearan, Anne (1995-07-03). "Admirers of Lee Upset by Cemetery Expansion Plan". News Archive. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-03-20. Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
    (2) Nakashima, Ellen (1995-07-06). "Environmentalists Fear Effects of Expanded Arlington Cemetery". Metro. "The Washington Post. p. B3. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  48. ^ "XXVIII—General Provisions: Subtitle C—Land Conveyances: Section 2821(a). Transfer of lands, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia (110 Stat. 2791-2792)" (pdf). Public Law 104-201: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Division B: Military Construction Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997. "United States Government Printing Office. 1996-09-23. Retrieved 2012-12-24. (a) REQUIREMENT FOR SECRETARY OF INTERIOR TO TRANSFER CERTAIN SECTION 29 LANDS.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary of the Interior shall transfer to the Secretary of the Army administrative jurisdiction over the following lands located in section 29 of the National Park System at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia: (A) The lands known as the Arlington National Cemetery Interment Zone. (B) All lands in the Robert E. Lee Memorial Preservation Zone, other than those lands in the Preservation Zone that the Secretary of the Interior determines must be retained because of the historical significance of such lands or for the maintenance of nearby lands or facilities. 
  49. ^ (1) Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment (PDF). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) Federoff, David (2013-06-05). "Finding of No Significant Impact Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia" (pdf). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  50. ^ (1) "Appendix J: Comments on Revised Millennium EA: Public Comment Period 12 March 2013 to 12 April 2013" (PDF). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) Sullivan, Patricia (2012-06-12). "Army Corps says go ahead with Arlington cemetery expansion". Post Local. "The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  51. ^ a b c "Impacts to Trees". Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment (PDF). Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. pp. 114–115. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  52. ^ Tree Tag #1026 (Black Cherry, Prunus serotina (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-17.  in Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment, June 2013, Appendix I (Tree Inventory and Analysis), p. 13.
  53. ^ (1) Figure A: Millennium Project with Tree Ages and NPS Property (PDF). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. p. 4. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (2) Figure 38: Existing conditions, impacts, and contributing areas of Arlington House: Historic Landscape Effects: ANC Boundary Wall and Arlington House Forest (PDF). Arlington National Cemetery Millennium Project Final Environmental Assessment. Norfolk, Virginia: United States Army Corps of Engineers Norfolk District. June 2013. p. 133. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
    (3) Seagraves, Anna; Fuqua, Ann; Veloz, Nicholas, "George Washington Memorial Parkway, National Capital Region, "National Park Service (1980-01-15). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial" (PDF). United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service: National Register of Historic Places — Nomination Form for Federal Properties. "Richmond, Virginia: "Virginia Department of Historic Resources. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-07-17. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  54. ^ (1) Young, Deborah B. (2013-07-11). "Commission Action: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457)" (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
    (2) "Executive Director's Recommendation: Commission Meeting: July 11, 2013: Millennium Project, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, VA (NCPC File Number 7457)" (pdf). Washington, D.C.: National Capital Planning Commission. 2013-07-11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  55. ^ (1) "Slave Quarters". Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial. "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. Archived from the original on June 21, 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-05. 
    (2) "Historic slave quarters being restored". arlingoncemetery.net. November 27, 2003. Archived from the original on August 18, 1014. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
    (1) Kelley, Sarah, Northern Virginia Journal (November 23, 2003). "Dig May Tell Story Of Arlington Slaves: A Project To Restore The Historic Mansion In Virginia Could Uncover Artifacts". "Orlando, Florida: "Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on September 6, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016. 
  56. ^ (1) Fisher, Charles; Randl, Chad; Staveteig, Karen (December 8, 2009). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial: North Dependency: Historic Structure Report". Washington DC: "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service: Technical Preservation Service. Retrieved September 5, 2016.  At "Internet Archive.
    (2) Fisher, Charles; Randl, Chad; Staveteig, Karen (December 8, 2009). "Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial: South Dependency: Historic Structure Report". Washington DC: "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service: Technical Preservation Service. Retrieved September 5, 2016.  At "Internet Archive.
  57. ^ "Arlington House Revisited: Prominent landmark to undergo renovations as a means to preserve its rich history". Arlington Connection. November 27, 2006. Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2016. 
  58. ^ (1) "Furniture Exhibit Unveiled at Friendship Hill NHS". "Friendship Hill National Historic Site. "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. April 23, 2007. Archived from the original on August 1, 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-05. 
    (2) "Arlington House Furnishings at Friendship Hill". "Friendship Hill National Historic Site. "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved 2016-09-05. 
  59. ^ "Arlington House Re-Dedication". "CSPAN. April 20, 2013. Archived from the original (video) on September 10, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2016. 
  60. ^ (1)"Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial". "United States Department of the Interior: "National Park Service. August 30, 2011. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011. Due to earthquake damage at Arlington House, the second floor and back hall are closed. All other areas will remain open. 
    (2) "Historic Arlington House Damaged in Earthquake". ARLnow.com. November 2, 2011. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2014. 
  61. ^ Ruane, Michael E. (July 17, 2014). "Robert E. Lee's Arlington Mansion Gets $12 Million Donation From David Rubenstein". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 17, 2014. 
  62. ^ Davis & Davis 2011, p. 138.
  63. ^ Gerem 2004, p. 426.
  64. ^ Coordinates of Old Administration Building in Arlington National Cemetery: 38°52′52″N 77°04′28″W / 38.881067°N 77.074550°W / 38.881067; -77.074550 (Old Administration Building in Arlington National Cemetery)

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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