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Armenian
հայերէն/հայերեն hayeren
Pronunciation "[hɑjɛˈɾɛn]
Native to "Armenian Highlands
Native speakers
8-12 million (ca.2001 – some figures undated)[1]
"Indo-European
  • Armenian
Early forms
Standard forms
"Armenian alphabet
"Armenian Braille
Official status
Official language in
 "Armenia
 "Artsakh (Karabakh)
""CSTO Flag.png "CSTO
""Flag of the Eurasian Economic Union.svg "Eurasian Union
Recognised minority
language in
Official (de jure) status:
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status
"Regulated by Institute of Language ("Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[21]
Language codes
"ISO 639-1 hy
"ISO 639-2 arm (B)
hye (T)
"ISO 639-3 Variously:
hye – Modern Armenian
xcl – "Classical Armenian
axm – "Middle Armenian
"Glottolog arme1241[22]
"Linguasphere 57-AAA-a
""Idioma armenio.png
The Armenian-speaking world:
  regions where Armenian is the language of the majority
This article contains "IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper "rendering support, you may see "question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of "Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see "Help:IPA.

The Armenian language ("classical: հայերէն; "reformed: հայերեն "[hɑjɛˈɾɛn] hayeren) occupies an independent branch of the "Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of the "Republic of Armenia and the "Republic of Artsakh. It has historically been spoken throughout the "Armenian Highlands and today is widely spoken in the "Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written using the "Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by "Mesrop Mashtots.

Armenian has developed since the separation from Indo-European mother tongue in the third millennium BCE to at least the time of the first Armenian dynasty (the "Yervanduni dynasty, founded in the 6th century BCE). Hellenistic influences during the "Artashesian Dynasty (2nd century BCE to 1st century CE) led to word borrowings from Greek and Latin. As the state language of the "Arshakuni dynasty of Armenia (1st to 5th century CE) was "Parthian, a large portion of Armenian vocabulary has been formed from Parthian borrowings. The earliest extant form of written Armenian is from the 5th century and is known as "Classical Armenian (5th to 11th century); translations of the Bible and other religious texts during this period led to extensive word borrowings from Hebrew and Syriac. "Middle Armenian (12th to 15th century) began with the establishment of the "Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the 12th century and is marked by an increased influence of European languages on Armenian, particularly "Old French (which had become the secondary language of the Cilician nobility) and "Italian (which had become the secondary language of Cilician commerce). Middle Armenian is the first written form of Armenian to display Western-type voicing qualities. Early Modern Armenian (16th to 18th centuries) is a mix of Middle Armenian and an evolving, non-standardized literary Modern Armenian (in "Constantinople, "Venice, the "Ararat plain, and the Persian Armenian communities, particularly "New Julfa). As Armenian communities were spread across a large geographic area during this period, early Modern Armenian was influenced by the languages of host societies, with a large amount of loan words being borrowed from Arabic, Turkish, Persian, Georgian, and smaller amounts in Latin, Greek, Italian, French, German, Polish, Hungarian, and Russian.

At the turn of the twentieth century, the Armenian linguist "Hrachia Acharian identified 31 spoken Armenian dialects and classified them into 3 branches (7 dialects of the "-oom" branch, loosely corresponding to Eastern Armenian dialects; 21 dialects of the "-gu" branch, loosely corresponding to Western Armenian dialects; and 3 dialects of the "-el" branch).

The two standard forms of written Modern Armenian – "Western Armenian and "Eastern Armenian – began to take shape during the early to mid 19th century, with Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire being the center of literary Western Armenian, and "Tiflis in the Russian Empire being the center of literary Eastern Armenian. The "Armenian Genocide of 1915-1923 had a catastrophic impact on the Armenian population living in the Armenian homeland, with two-thirds of the total Armenian population being killed and nearly all of the remaining Armenian population living in the Ottoman Empire being expelled from their ancestral homeland; this had an especially catastrophic effect on the 21 Western Armenian dialects. While some survivors from the western regions of the Ottoman Empire fled as far as the United States, France, and South America, most fled south to Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Iraq, with "Beirut becoming the new center of literary Western Armenian. With the migration of survivors from eastern regions of the Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire, the emergence of the "Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1922, and the migration of Armenian intellectuals of Tiflis to the new Republic, "Yerevan became the new center of literary Eastern Armenian. Eastern Armenian was influenced from the Russian rule and incorporated some loanwords, while Western Armenian was influenced by the diaspora in Arabic speaking countries.

Various "spelling reforms implemented in Soviet Armenia in the 1920s led to a further divide between the literary Eastern and literary Western Armenian languages, with the latter (and Eastern Armenian writers of Iran) continuing to use "traditional Armenian orthography. Thus, today the two modern dialects of Armenian differ in their phonology, morphology, vocabulary, and orthography.

Contents

Classification and origins[edit]

"Armenian manuscripts.jpg
"History of the Armenian language
"Armenian alphabet
"Romanization of Armenian

Armenian is an independent branch of the "Indo-European languages.[23] It is of interest to linguists for its distinctive "phonological developments within that family. Armenian exhibits "more satemization than centumization, although it is not classified as belonging to either of these subgroups. Some linguists tentatively conclude that Armenian, "Greek ("Phrygian), "Albanian and "Indo-Iranian were dialectally close to each other;[24][25][26][27] within this hypothetical dialect group, Proto-Armenian was situated between "Proto-Greek ("centum subgroup) and "Proto-Indo-Iranian ("satem subgroup).[28]

Armenia was a monolingual country by the 2nd century BC at the latest.[29] Its language has a long literary history, with a 5th-century Bible translation as its oldest surviving text. Its vocabulary has been influenced by "Western Middle Iranian languages, particularly "Parthian, and to a lesser extent by Greek, "Persian, and "Arabic, throughout its history. There are two standardized modern literary forms, "Eastern Armenian and "Western Armenian, with which most contemporary dialects are "mutually intelligible.[30][31][32][33]

Although the Armenians were known to history much earlier (for example, they were mentioned in the 6th century BC "Behistun Inscription and in "Xenophon's 4th century BC history, "The Anabasis),[34] the oldest surviving Armenian-language text is the 5th century AD "Bible translation of "Mesrop Mashtots, who created the "Armenian alphabet in 405 AD, at which time it had 36 letters. He is also credited by some with the creation of the "Caucasian Albanian alphabet. In The Anabasis, Xenophon describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC. He relates that the Armenian people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the "Persians.[35]

Early contacts[edit]

W. M. Austin (1942) concluded[36] that there was an early contact between Armenian and "Anatolian languages, based on what he considered common archaisms, such as the lack of a feminine gender and the absence of inherited long vowels. However, unlike shared innovations (or "synapomorphies), the common retention of archaisms (or "symplesiomorphy) is not considered conclusive evidence of a period of common isolated development.

Soviet linguist "Igor M. Diakonoff (1985)[37] noted the presence in "Classical Armenian of what he calls a "Caucasian substratum" identified by earlier scholars, consisting of loans from the "Kartvelian and "Northeast Caucasian languages. Noting that "Hurro-Urartian-speaking peoples inhabited the Armenian homeland in the second millennium BC, Diakonov identifies in Armenian a Hurro-Urartian substratum of social, cultural, and animal and plant terms such as ałaxin "slave girl" ( ← Hurr. al(l)a(e)ḫḫenne), cov "sea" ( ← Urart. ṣûǝ "(inland) sea"), ułt "camel" ( ← Hurr. uḷtu), and xnjor "apple(tree)" ( ← Hurr. ḫinzuri). Some of the terms he gives admittedly have an "Akkadian or "Sumerian provenance, but he suggests they were borrowed through Hurrian or Urartian. Given that these borrowings do not undergo "sound changes characteristic of the development of Armenian from "Proto-Indo-European, he dates their borrowing to a time before the written record but after the "Proto-Armenian language stage.

Loan words from "Iranian languages, along with the other ancient accounts such as that of Xenophon above, initially led linguists to erroneously classify Armenian as an Iranian language. Scholars such as "Paul de Lagarde and F. Müller believed that the similarities between the two languages meant that Iranian and Armenian were the same language.[38] The distinctness of Armenian was recognized when philologist "Heinrich Hübschmann (1875)[38][39] used the "comparative method to distinguish two layers of Iranian loans from the older Armenian "vocabulary. He showed that Armenian often had 2 morphemes for the one concept, and the non-Iranian components yielded a consistent "PIE pattern distinct from Iranian, and also demonstrated that the inflectional morphology was different from that in Iranian languages.

Graeco-Armenian hypothesis[edit]

The hypothesis that Greek is Armenian's closest living relative originates with "Holger Pedersen (1924), who noted that the number of Greek-Armenian lexical cognates is greater than that of agreements between Armenian and any other Indo-European language. "Antoine Meillet (1925, 1927) further investigated morphological and phonological agreement, postulating that the parent languages of Greek and Armenian were dialects in immediate geographical proximity in the "Proto-Indo-European period. Meillet's hypothesis became popular in the wake of his Esquisse (1936). "Georg Renatus Solta (1960) does not go as far as postulating a Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage, but he concludes that considering both the lexicon and morphology, Greek is clearly the dialect most closely related to Armenian. "Eric P. Hamp (1976, 91) supports the Graeco-Armenian thesis, anticipating even a time "when we should speak of Helleno-Armenian" (meaning the postulate of a Graeco-Armenian proto-language). Armenian shares the "augment, and a negator derived from the set phrase "Proto-Indo-European language *ne h₂oyu kʷid ("never anything" or "always nothing"), and the representation of word-initial "laryngeals by prothetic vowels, and other phonological and morphological peculiarities with Greek. Nevertheless, as Fortson (2004) comments, "by the time we reach our earliest Armenian records in the 5th century AD, the evidence of any such early kinship has been reduced to a few tantalizing pieces".

Greco-Armeno-Aryan hypothesis[edit]

Graeco-(Armeno)-Aryan is a hypothetical "clade within the "Indo-European family, ancestral to the "Greek language, the Armenian language, and the "Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan unity would have become divided into "Proto-Greek and "Proto-Indo-Iranian by the mid-third millennium BC. Conceivably, "Proto-Armenian would have been located between Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian, consistent with the fact that Armenian shares certain features only with Indo-Iranian (the "satem change) but others only with Greek (s > h).

Graeco-Aryan has comparatively wide support among Indo-Europeanists for the "Indo-European homeland to be located in the "Armenian Highlands, the ""Armenian hypothesis".[40][41][42][43] Early and strong evidence was given by Euler's 1979 examination on shared features in Greek and Sanskrit nominal flection.[44]

Used in tandem with the Graeco-Armenian hypothesis, the Armenian language would also be included under the label Aryano-Greco-Armenic, splitting into proto-Greek/Phrygian and "Armeno-Aryan" (ancestor of Armenian and "Indo-Iranian).[24][25]

Evolution[edit]

""
""
Armenian manuscript, 5th–6th century.

"Classical Armenian (Arm: grabar), attested from the 5th century to the 19th century as the literary standard (up to the 11th century also as a spoken language with different varieties), was partially superseded by "Middle Armenian, attested from the 12th century to the 18th century. Specialized literature prefers "Old Armenian" for grabar as a whole, and designates as "Classical" the language used in the 5th century literature, "Post-Classical" from the late 5th to 8th centuries, and "Late Grabar" that of the period covering the 8th to 11th centuries. Later, it was used mainly in religious and specialized literature, with the exception of a revival during the early modern period, when attempts were made to establish it as the language of a literary renaissance, with neoclassical inclinations, through the creation and dissemination of literature in varied genres, especially by the "Mekhitarists. The first Armenian periodical, Azdarar, was published in grabar in 1794.

The classical form borrowed numerous words from "Middle Iranian languages, primarily "Parthian,[45] and contains smaller inventories of "loanwords from Greek,[45] Syriac,[45] Arabic,[46] Mongol,[47] Persian,[48] and "indigenous languages such as "Urartian. An effort to modernize the language in "Bagratid Armenia and the "Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (11–14th centuries) resulted in the addition of two more characters to the alphabet ("օ" and "ֆ"), bringing the total number to 38.[49]

The Book of Lamentations by "Gregory of Narek (951–1003) is an example of the development of a literature and writing style of Old Armenian by the 10th century. In addition to elevating the literary style and vocabulary of the Armenian language by adding about well above a thousand new words,[50] through his other hymns and poems Gregory paved the way for his successors to include secular themes and vernacular language in their writings. The thematic shift from mainly religious texts to writings with secular outlooks further enhanced and enriched the vocabulary. “A Word of Wisdom”, a poem by Hovhannes Sargavak devoted to a starling, legitimizes poetry devoted to nature, love, or female beauty. Gradually, the interests of the population at large were reflected in other literary works as well. Konsdantin Yerzinkatsi and several others even take the unusual step of criticizing the ecclesiastic establishment and addressing the social issues of the Armenian homeland. However, these changes represented the nature of the literary style and syntax, but they did not constitute immense changes to the fundamentals of the grammar or the morphology of the language. Often, when writers codify a spoken dialect, other language users are then encouraged to imitate that structure through the literary device known as "parallelism.[51]

""
""
The Four Gospels, 1495, Portrait of St Mark Wellcome with Armenian inscriptions
""
""
First printed Armenian language Bible, 1666

In the 19th century, the traditional Armenian homeland was once again divided. This time "Eastern Armenia was conquered from "Qajar Iran by the "Russian Empire, while "Western Armenia, containing two thirds of historical Armenia, remained under "Ottoman control. The antagonistic relationship between the Russian and Ottoman empires led to creation of two separate and different environments under which Armenians lived and suffered. Halfway through the 19th century, two important concentrations of Armenian communities were further consolidated.[52] Because of persecutions or the search for better economic opportunities, many Armenians living under Ottoman rule gradually moved to "Constantinople, whereas "Tbilisi became the center of Armenians living under Russian rule. These two cosmopolitan cities very soon became the primary poles of Armenian intellectual and cultural life.[53]

The introduction of new literary forms and styles, as well as many new ideas sweeping Europe, reached Armenians living in both regions. This created an ever-growing need to elevate the vernacular, Ashkharhabar, to the dignity of a modern literary language, in contrast to the now-anachronistic Grabar. Numerous dialects existed in the traditional Armenian regions, which, different as they were, had certain morphological and phonetic features in common. On the basis of these features two major standards emerged:

Both centers vigorously pursued the promotion of Ashkharhabar. The proliferation of newspapers in both versions (Eastern & Western) and the development of a network of schools where modern Armenian was taught, dramatically increased the rate of literacy (in spite of the obstacles by the colonial administrators), even in remote rural areas. The emergence of literary works entirely written in the modern versions increasingly legitimized the language’s existence. By the turn of the 20th century both varieties of the one modern Armenian language prevailed over Grabar and opened the path to a new and simplified grammatical structure of the language in the two different cultural spheres. Apart from several morphological, phonetic, and grammatical differences, the largely common vocabulary and generally analogous rules of grammatical fundamentals allows users of one variant to understand the other as long as they are fluent in one of the literary standards.[54]

After "World War I, the existence of the two modern versions of the same language was sanctioned even more clearly. The "Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1990) used Eastern Armenian as its official language, whereas the diaspora created after the "Armenian Genocide preserved the Western Armenian dialect.

Modern changes[edit]

""
""
Armenian language road sign.

The two modern literary dialects, Western (originally associated with writers in the Ottoman Empire) and Eastern (originally associated with writers in the Russian Empire), removed almost all of their "Turkish lexical influences in the 20th century, primarily following the "Armenian Genocide.["citation needed]

Phonology[edit]

"Proto-Indo-European voiceless "stop consonants are aspirated in the "Proto-Armenian language, one of the circumstances that is often linked to the "glottalic theory, a version of which postulated that the voiceless occlusives of Proto-Indo-European were aspirated.[55]

Stress[edit]

In Armenian, the stress falls on the last syllable unless the last syllable contains the definite article [ə] or [n], and the possessive articles ս and դ, in which case it falls on the penultimate one. For instance, [ɑχoɾˈʒɑk], [mɑʁɑdɑˈnos], [giˈni] but [vɑˈhɑgən] and [ˈdɑʃtə]. Exceptions to this rule are some words with the final letter է (ե in the reformed orthography) (մի՛թէ, մի՛գուցե, ո՛րեւէ) and sometimes the ordinal numerals (վե՛ցերորդ, տա՛սներորդ, etc.), as well as նաեւ, նամանաւանդ, հիմա, այժմ, and a small number of other words.

Vowels[edit]

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Modern Armenian has six monophthongs. Each vowel phoneme in the table is represented by three symbols. The first indicates the phoneme's pronunciation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). After that appears the corresponding letter of the Armenian alphabet. The last symbol is its Latin transliteration (according to ISO 9985).

Armenian vowel phonemes[56]
"Front "Central "Back
"Close "i
ի
i
"u
ու
u
"Mid "ɛ
ե, է
e, ē
"ə
ը
ë
"ɔ
ո, օ
o, ò
"Open     "ɑ
ա
a

Consonants[edit]

The following table lists the Eastern Armenian consonantal system. The occlusives and "affricates have a special aspirated series (transcribed with an "apostrophe after the letter): p’, t’, c’, k’ (but č). Each phoneme in the table is represented by three symbols. The first indicates the phoneme's pronunciation in the "International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), after that appears the corresponding letter of the "Armenian alphabet, and the last symbol is its "Romanization according to ISO 9985 (1996).

Eastern Armenian consonant phonemes[57]
"Labials "Dental/
"Alveolar
"Postalveolar "Palatal "Velar "Uvular "Glottal
"Nasal /m/ մ – m /n/ ն – n [ŋ]
"Stop "voiceless /p/ պ – p /t/ տ – t /k/ կ – k
"voiced /b/ բ – b /d/ դ – d /ɡ/ գ – g
"aspirated /pʰ/ փ – p’ /tʰ/ թ – t’ /kʰ/ ք – k’
"Affricate "voiceless /t͡s/ ծ – ç /t͡ʃ/ ճ – č̣
"voiced /d͡z/ ձ – j /d͡ʒ/ ջ – ǰ
"aspirated /t͡sʰ/ ց – c’ /t͡ʃʰ/ չ – č
"Fricative "voiceless /f/ ֆ – f /s/ ս – s /ʃ/ շ – š /x ~ χ/1 խ – x /h/ հ – h
"voiced /v/ վ – v /z/ զ – z /ʒ/ ժ – ž /ɣ ~ ʁ/1 ղ – ġ
"Approximant [ʋ] /l/ լ – l /j/ յ – y
"Trill /r/ ռ – ṙ
"Flap /ɾ/ ր – r
  1. Sources differ on the place of articulation of these consonants.

The major phonetic difference between dialects is in the reflexes of Classical Armenian "voice-onset time. The seven dialect types have the following correspondences, illustrated with the t–d series:[58]

Correspondence in initial position
"Indo-European *d * *t
"Sebastia d
"Erevan t
"Istanbul d
"Kharpert, "Middle Armenian d t
"Malatya, "SWA d
"Classical Armenian, "Agulis, "SEA t d
"Van, Artsakh t

Morphology[edit]

Armenian corresponds with other Indo-European languages in its structure, but it shares distinctive sounds and features of its grammar with neighboring "languages of the Caucasus region. Armenian is rich in combinations of consonants.[59][60] Both classical Armenian and the modern spoken and literary dialects have a complicated system of noun declensions, with six or seven noun cases but no gender. In modern Armenian the use of auxiliary verbs to show tense (comparable to will in "he will go") has generally supplemented the inflected verbs of "Classical Armenian. Negative verbs are conjugated differently from positive ones (as in English "he goes" and "he does not go") in many tenses, otherwise adding only the negative չ to the positive conjugation. Grammatically, early forms of Armenian had much in common with classical "Greek and "Latin, but the modern language, like modern Greek, has undergone many transformations, adding some "analytic features.

Noun[edit]

Classical Armenian has no "grammatical gender, not even in the pronoun, but there is a feminine suffix (-ուհի "-uhi"). For example, ուսուցիչ (usuts'ich, "teacher") becomes ուսուցչուհի (usuts'chuhi, female teacher). This suffix, however, does not have a grammatical effect on the sentence. The nominal inflection, however, preserves several types of inherited stem classes. Nouns are declined for one of seven cases: "nominative (ուղղական uxxakan), "accusative (հայցական hayc'akan), "locative (ներգոյական nergoyakan), "genitive (սեռական seṙakan), "dative (տրական trakan), "ablative (բացառական bac'aṙakan), or "instrumental (գործիական gorciakan).

Examples of noun declension in Eastern Armenian
Հեռախոս Heṙaxos (telephone)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative հեռախոս(ը-ն)*
heṙaxos(ë-n)*
հեռախոսներ(ը-ն)*
heṙaxosner(ë-n)*
Accusative հեռախոսը(-ն)*
heṙaxosë(-n)*
հեռախոսները(-ն)*
heṙaxosnerë(-n)*
Genitive հեռախոսի
heṙaxosi
հեռախոսների
heṙaxosneri
Dative հեռախոսին
heṙaxosin
հեռախոսներին
heṙaxosnerin
Ablative հեռախոսից
heṙaxosic'
հեռախոսներից
heṙaxosneric'
Instrumental հեռախոսով
heṙaxosov
հեռախոսներով
heṙaxosnerov
Locative հեռախոսում
heṙaxosum
հեռախոսներում
heṙaxosnerum
Մայր Mayr (mother)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative մայր(ը-ն)*
mayr(ë-n)*
մայրեր(ը-ն)*
mayrer(ë-n)*
Accusative մայրը(-ն)*
mayrë(-n)*
մայրերը(-ն)*
mayrerë(-n)*
Genitive մոր
mor
մայրերի
mayreri
Dative մորը(-ն)*
morë(-n)*
մայրերին
mayrerin
Ablative մորից
moric'
մայրերից
mayreric'
Instrumental մորով
morov
մայրերով
mayrerov
Locative - -

Animate nouns do not decline for locative case.

Հանրապետություն Hanrapetut'yun (republic)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative հանրապետություն(ը-ն)*
hanrapetut'yun(ë-n)*
հանրապետություններ(ը-ն)*
hanrapetut'yunner(ë-n)*
Accusative հանրապետությունը(-ն)*
hanrapetut'yunë(-n)*
հանրապետությունները(-ն)*
hanrapetut'yunnerë(-n)*
Genitive հանրապետության
hanrapetut'yan
հանրապետությունների
hanrapetut'yunneri
Dative հանրապետությանը(-ն)*
hanrapetut'yanë(-n)*
հանրապետություններին
hanrapetut'yunnerin
Ablative հանրապետությունից
hanrapetut'yunic'
հանրապետություններից
hanrapetut'yunneric'
Instrumental հանրապետությամբ
hanrapetut'yamb
հանրապետություններով
hanrapetut'yunnerov
Locative հանրապետությունում
hanrapetut'yunum
հանրապետություններում
hanrapetut'yunnerum


Examples of noun declension in Western Armenian


  դաշտ / tašd (field) կով / gov (cow)
singular plural singular plural
Nom-Acc (Ուղղական-Հայցական) դաշտ / tašd դաշտեր / tašder կով / gov կովեր / gover
Gen-Dat (Սեռական-Տրական) դաշտի / tašdi դաշտերու / tašderu կովու / govu կովերու / goveru
Abl (Բացառական) դաշտէ / tašde դաշտերէ / tašdere կովէ / gove կովերէ / govere
Instr (Գործիական) դաշտով / tašdov դաշտերով / tašderov կովով / govov կովերով / goverov
  գարուն / karun (Spring) օր / or (day) Քոյր / kuyr (sister)
singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nom-Acc (Ուղղական-Հայցական) գարուն
karun
գարուններ
karunner
օր
or
օրեր
orer
քոյր
kuyr
քոյրեր
kuyrer
Gen-Dat (Սեռական-Տրական) գարնան
karnan
գարուններու
karunneru
օրուայ
oruay
օրերու
oreru
քրոջ
kr
քոյրերու
kuyreru
Abl (Բացառական) գարունէ
karune
գարուններէ
karunnere
օրուընէ
oruəne
օրերէ
orere
քրոջմէ
kročme
քոյրերէ
kuyrere
Instr (Գործիական) գարունով
karunov
գարուններով
karunnerov
օրով
orov
օրերով
orerov
քրոջմով
kročmov
քոյրերով
kuyrerov
  հայր / hayr (father) Աստուած / Asdvadz (God) գիտութիւն / kidutiun (science)
singular plural singular plural singular plural
Nom-Acc (Ուղղական-Հայցական) հայր
hayr
հայրեր
hayrer
Աստուած
Asdvadz
աստուածներ
asdvadzner
գիտութիւն
kidutiun
գիտութիւններ
kidutiunner
Gen-Dat (Սեռական-Տրական) հօր
hor
հայրերու
hayreru
Աստուծոյ
Asdudzuy
աստուածներու
asdvadzneru
գիտութեան
kidutean
գիտութիւններու
kidutiunneru
Abl (Բացառական) հօրմէ
horme
հայրերէ
hayrere
Աստուծմէ
Asdudzme
աստուածներէ
asdvadznere
գիտութենէ
kidutene
գիտութիւններէ
kidutiunnere
Instr (Գործիական) հօրմով
hormov
հայրերով
hayrerov
Աստուծմով
Asdudzmov
աստուածներով
asdvadznerov
գիտութեամբ /
գիտութիւնով
kiduteamp /
kidutiunov
գիտութիւններով
kidutiunnerov

Verb[edit]

Verbs in Armenian have an expansive system of "conjugation with two main verb types in Eastern Armenian and three in Western Armenian changing form based on "tense, "mood and "aspect.

Dialects[edit]

""
""
Map of the "Armenian dialects in early 20th century:
  -owm dialects, nearly corresponding to Eastern Armenian
  -el dialects (intermediate)
  -gë dialects, nearly corresponding to Western Armenian

Armenian is a "pluricentric language, having two modern "standardized forms: "Eastern Armenian and "Western Armenian. The most distinctive feature of Western Armenian is that it has undergone several phonetic mergers; these may be due to proximity to Arabic- and Turkish-speaking communities.

For example, Eastern Armenian speakers pronounce (թ) as an aspirated "t" as in "tiger", (դ) like the "d" in "develop", and (տ) as a "tenuis occlusive, sounding somewhere between the two as in "stop." Western Armenian has simplified the occlusive system into a simple division between voiced occlusives and aspirated ones; the first series corresponds to the tenuis series of Eastern Armenian, and the second corresponds to the Eastern voiced and aspirated series. Thus, the Western dialect pronounces both (թ) and (դ) as an aspirated "t" as in "tiger", and the (տ) letter is pronounced like the letter "d" as in "develop".

There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a dialect transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically identified dialects.

Armenian can be divided into two major dialectal blocks and those blocks into individual dialects, though many of the Western Armenian dialects have become extinct due to the effects of the Armenian Genocide. In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several subdialects. Although Western and Eastern Armenian are often described as different dialects of the same language, many subdialects are not readily mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, a fluent speaker of one of two greatly varying dialects who is also literate in one of the standards, when exposed to the other dialect for a period of time will be able to understand the other with relative ease.

Distinct Western Armenian varieties currently in use include "Homshetsi, spoken by the "Hemshin people;[61] the dialects of Armenians of "Kessab (Քեսապի բարբառ), "Latakia and "Jisr al-Shughur (Syria), "Anjar, Lebanon, and "Vakıflı, Samandağ (Turkey), part of the "Sueidia" dialect (Սուէտիայի բարբառ).

Forms of the "Karin dialect of Western Armenian are spoken by several hundred thousand people in Northern Armenia, mostly in "Gyumri, "Artik, "Akhuryan, and around 130 villages in "Shirak Province,[62] and by "Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti province of Georgia ("Akhalkalaki, "Akhaltsikhe).[63]

"Nakhichevan-on-Don Armenians speak another Western Armenian variety based on the dialect of "Armenians in Crimea, where they came from in order to establish the town and surrounding villages in 1779 (Նոր Նախիջևանի բարբառ).

Western Armenian dialects are currently spoken also in "Gavar (formerly Nor Bayazet and Kamo, on the west of "Lake Sevan), "Aparan, and "Talin in Armenia ("Mush dialect), and by the large Armenian population residing in "Abkhazia, where they are considered to be the first or second ethnic minority, or even equal in number to the local Abkhaz population[64]

Examples
English "Eastern Armenian "Western Armenian
Yes Ayo (այո) Ayo (այո)
No Voč' (ոչ) Voč' (ոչ)
I see you K'ez em tesnum (քեզ եմ տեսնում) Gdesnem kez(i) (կը տեսնեմ քեզ(ի))
Hello Barev (բարև) Parev (բարեւ)
I'm going Gnum em (գնում եմ) Gertam (gor) (կ՚երթամ (կոր))
Come! Ari! (արի՛) Yegur! (եկո՛ւր)
I will eat Utelu em (ուտելու եմ) Bidi udem (պիտի ուտեմ)
I must do Piti anem (պիտի անեմ) Enelu em (ընելու եմ)
I was going to eat Utelu ei (ուտելու էի) Bidi udei (պիտի ուտէի)
Is this yours? Sa k'onn e? (սա քո՞նն է) Asiga k'ugt e? (ասիկա քո՞ւկդ է)
His granma Nra tatikə (նրա տատիկը) Anor nenen/mecmaman (անոր նէնէն/մեծմաման)
Look at that one! Dran nayir (դրան նայիր) Ador naye (ատոր նայէ)
Have you brought these? Du es berel sranc'? (դո՞ւ ես բերել սրանց) Tun perir asonk? (դո՞ւն բերիր ասոնք)
How are you? I'm OK. Vonc' es? Voč'inč' (Ո՞նց ես։ Ոչինչ։) Inč'bes es? Lav (Ինչպէ՞ս ես։ Լաւ։)
Did you say it? Say it! Asac'ir? Asa! (Ասացի՞ր։ Ասա՛։) əsir? əse! (Ըսի՞ր։ Ըսէ՛։)
Have you taken it from us? Mezanic' es arel? (մեզանի՞ց ես առել) Mezme arac es? (մեզմէ՞ առած ես)
Good morning Bari louys (բարի լույս) Pari louys (բարի լոյս)
Good evening Bari yereko (բարի երեկո) Pari irigoun (բարի իրիկուն)
Good night Bari gišer (բարի գիշեր) Kišer pari (գիշեր բարի)
You love me Siroum es inc' (սիրում ես ինձ) Zis gë sires (զիս կը սիրես)
I am Armenian Yes hay em (ես հայ եմ) Yes hay em (ես հայ եմ)
I missed you Karotel em k'ez (կարոտել եմ քեզ) K'ez garodtser em (քեզ կարօտցեր եմ)

Orthography[edit]

""
""
Armenian "keyboard layout using the "Armenian alphabet.

The "Armenian alphabet (Armenian: Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique "alphabetical writing system that is used to write the Armenian language. It was introduced around 405 AD by "Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader, and originally contained 36 letters. Two more letters, օ (o) and ֆ (f), were added in the Middle Ages. During the "1920s orthography reform in Soviet Armenia, a new letter և (capital ԵՎ) was added, which was a ligature before ե+ւ, whereas the letter Ւ ւ was discarded and reintroduced as part of a new letter ՈՒ ու (which was a digraph before). This alphabet and associated orthography is used by most Armenian speakers of the Republic of Armenia and the countries of the former Soviet Union. Neither the alphabet, nor the orthography have been adopted by Diaspora Armenians, including Eastern Armenian speakers of Iran and all Western Armenian speakers, who keep using the traditional alphabet and spelling.

Indo-European cognates[edit]

Armenian is an "Indo-European language, so many of its "Proto-Indo-European-descended words are "cognates of words in other Indo-European languages such as "English, "Latin, "Greek, and "Sanskrit. This table lists only some of the more recognizable cognates that Armenian shares with English (more specifically, with English words descended from "Old English). (Source: Online Etymology Dictionary.[65])

Armenian "English "Latin "Persian "Classical and Hellenistic Greek "Sanskrit "Russian "Old Irish "PIE
մայր mayr "mother" mother ( ← "OE mōdor) māter "mother" مادر mɒdær "mother" μήτηρ mētēr "mother" मातृ mātṛ "mother" мать mat' máthair "mother" *máH₂ter- "mother"
հայր hayr "father" father ( ← "OE fæder) pater "father" پدر pedær "father" πατήρ patēr "father" पितृ pitṛ "father" папа

papa

athair "father" *pH₂tér- "father"
եղբայր eġbayr "brother" brother ( ← "OE brōþor) frāter "brother" برادر bærɒdær "brother" φράτηρ phrātēr "brother" भ्रातृ bhrātṛ "brother" брат brat bráthair "brother" *bʱráH₂ter- "brother"
դուստր dustr "daughter" daughter ( ← "OE dohtor) (Oscan futrei "daughter") دختر doxtær "daughter" θυγάτηρ thugatēr "daughter" दुहितृ duhitṛ "daughter" дочь doč' der, Dar- "daughter (of)" *dʱugH₂-tér- "daughter"
կին kin "woman" queen ( ← "OE cwēn "queen, woman, wife") کیانه kianæ "woman, wife" γυνή gunē "a woman, a wife" ग्ना gnā/ जनि jani "woman" жена žena "wife" ben "woman" *gʷén-eH₂- "woman, wife"
իմ im "my" my, mine ( ← "OE min) me-us, -a, -um etc. "my" من/ـم mæn/æm "my" ἐμ-ός, -ή, -όν em-os, , -on etc. "my, of mine" मम mama "my" мой moy mo "my, me" *mene- "my, mine"
անուն anun "name" name ( ← "OE nama) nōmen "name" نام nɒm "name" ὄνομα onoma "name" नामन् nāman "name" имя im'a ainm "name" *H₁noH₃m-n̥- "name"
ութ utʿ "8" eight ( ← "OE eahta) octō "eight" هشت hæʃt "eight" ὀκτώ oktō "eight" अष्ट aṣṭa "eight" во́семь vosem' ocht "eight" *H₁oḱtō(u) "eight"
ինն inn "9" nine ( ← "OE nigon) novem "nine" نه noh "nine" ἐννέα ennea "nine" नवन् navan "nine" де́вять dev'at' noí "nine" *(H₁)néwn̥ "nine"
տաս tas "10" ten ( ← "OE tien) ( ← "P.Gmc. *tekhan) decem "ten" ده dæh "ten" δέκα deka "ten" दश daśa "ten" де́сять des'at' deich "ten" *déḱm̥ "ten"
աչք ačʿkʿ "eye" eye ( ← "OE ēge) oculus "eye" ὀφθαλμός ophthalmos "eye" अक्षि akṣi "eye" око oko *H₃okʷ- "to see"
արմունկ armunk "elbow" arm ( ← "OE earm "joined body parts below shoulder") armus "shoulder" آرنج ɒrendʒ "elbow" ἄρθρον arthron "a joint" ईर्म īrma "arm" рамо ramo "shoulder" (archaic) *H₁ar-mo- "fit, join (that which is fitted together)"
ծունկ cunk[66] "knee" knee ( ← "OE cnēo) genū "knee" زانو zɒnu "knee" γόνυ gonu "knee" जानु jānu "knee" glún "knee" *ǵénu- "knee"
ոտք otkʿ "foot" foot ( ← "OE fōt) pedis "foot" پا، پای pɒ, pɒj "foot" πούς pous "foot" पाद् pād "foot" пята p'ata

"heel"

(Gaul. ades "feet") *pod-, *ped- "foot"
սիրտ sirt "heart" heart ( ← "OE heorte) cor "heart" دل del "heart" καρδία kardia "heart" हृदय hṛdaya "heart" се́рдце serdce cride "heart" *ḱerd- "heart"
կաշի kaši "skin" hide ( ← "OE hȳdan "animal skin cover") cutis "skin" پوست pust "skin" κεύθω keuthō "I cover, I hide" कुटीर kuṭīra "hut" кожа koža (Welsh cudd "hiding place") *keu- "to cover, conceal"
մուկ muk "mouse" mouse ( ← "OE mūs) mūs "mouse" موش musc "mouse" μῦς mūs "mouse" मूष् mūṣ "mouse" мышь myš' *muH₁s- "mouse, small rodent"
կով kov "cow" cow ( ← "OE ) bos "cow" گاو gɒv "cow" βοῦς bous "cow" गो go "cow" говядина gov'adina "beef" "cow" *gʷou- "cow"
շուն šun "dog" hound ( ← "OE hund "hound, dog") canis "hound, dog" سگ sæg "dog" κύων kuōn "hound, dog" श्वन् śvan "dog" сука suka "bitch" "dog" *ḱwon- "hound, dog"
տարի tari "year" year ( ← "OE gēar) hōrnus "of this year" یاره، سال jɒre, sɒl[67] "year" ὥρα hōra "time, year" यरे yare[67] "year" яра jara "springtime" (archaic) *yeH₁r- "year"
ամիս amis "month" moon, month ( ← "OE mōnaþ) mēnsis "month" ماه mɒh "moon, month" μήν mēn "moon, month" मास māsa "moon, month" месяц mes'ac "month" *meH₁ns- "moon, month"
ամառ amaṙ "summer" summer ( ← "OE sumor) समा samā "season" saṃ "summer" *sem- "hot season of the year"
ջերմ ǰerm "warm" warm ( ← "OE wearm) formus "warm" گرم gærm "warm" θερμός thermos "warm" घर्म gharma "heat" жарко žarko "hot" geirid "warm (v)" *gʷʰerm- "warm"
լույս luys "light" light ( ← "OE lēoht "brightness") lux "light" روز ruz "day" λευκός leukos "bright, shining, white" लोक loka "shining" луч luč' "beam" lóch "bright" *leuk- "light, brightness"
հուր hur "flame" fire ( ← "OE fȳr) (Umbrian pir "fire") آذر، آدور ɒzær, ɒdur "fire" πῦρ pur "fire" पु pu "fire" *péH₂wr̥- "fire"
հեռու heṙu "far" far ( ← "OE feor "to a great distance") per "through" فرا færɒ "beyond" πέρα pera "beyond" परस् paras "beyond" пере- pere-, про- pro- ír "further" *per- "through, across, beyond"
հեղել heġel "to pour" flow ( ← "OE flōwan) pluĕre "to rain" پور pur "pour" πλύνω plunō "I wash" प्लु plu "to swim" плавать plavat' "swim" luí "rudder" *pleu- "flow, float"
ուտել utel "to eat" eat ( ← "OE etan) edō "I eat" هور hvor "eat" ἔδω edō "I eat" अद्मि admi "I eat" есть jest' ithid "eat" *ed- "to eat"
գիտեմ gitem "I know" wit ( ← "OE wit, witan "intelligence, to know") vidēre "to see" ویده vidæ "knowledge" εἰδέναι eidenai "to know" विद् vid "to know" видеть videt' "see, understand" adfet "tells" *weid- "to know, to see"
գետ get "river" water ( ← "OE wæter) (Umbrian utur "water") رود rud "river" ὕδωρ hudōr "water" उदन् udan "water" вода voda uisce "water" (*wodor, *wedor, *uder-) from *wed- "water"
գործ gorc[66] "work " work ( ← "OE weorc) urgēre "push, drive" کار kɒr "work" ἔργον ergon "work" वर्चस् varcas "activity" *werǵ- "to work"
մեծ mec[66] "great " much ( ← "OE mycel "great, big, many") magnus "great" مه، مهست meh, mæhest "great, large" μέγας megas "great, large" महति mahati "great" много mnogo "many" maige "great, mighty" *meǵ- "great"
անծանոթ ancanotʿ[66] "stranger, unfamiliar" unknown[68] ( ← "OE uncnawen) ignōtus[68] "unknown" ἄγνωστος agnōstos[68] "unknown" अज्ञात ajñāta[68] "unfamiliar" незнакомый neznakomyj *n- + *ǵneH₃- "not" + "to know"
մեռած meṙac "dead" murder ( ← "OE morþor) mors "death" مرگ mærg "death" / مرده morde "dead" βροτός brotos "mortal" मृत mṛta "dead" смерть smert'

"death"

marb "dead" *mrtro-, from (*mor-, *mr-) "to die"
միջին miǰin "middle" mid, middle ( ← "OE mid, middel) medius "middle" میان miɒn "middle" μέσος mesos "middle" मध्य madhya "middle" между meždu "between" mide "middle" *medʱyo- from *me- "mid, middle"
այլ ayl "other" else ( ← "OE elles "other, otherwise, different") alius "other" ἄλλος allos "other, another" अन्य anya "other" иной

inoj

aile "other" *al- "beyond, other"
նոր nor "new" new ( ← "OE nīwe) novus "new" نو now "new" νέος neos "new" नव nava "new" новый novyj núae "new" *néwo- "new"
դուռ duṙ "door" door ( ← "OE dor, duru) fores "door" در dær "door" θύρα thurā "door" द्वार dvāra "door" дверь dver' dorus "door" *dʱwer- "door, doorway, gate"
տուն tun "house" timber ( ← "OE timber "trees used for building material, structure") domus "house" مان، خانه mɒn, xɒne "home" δόμος domos "house" दम dama "house" дом dom dún "fort" (Welsh dinas "city") *domo-, *domu- "house"
բերրի berri, berel "fertile, to carry" bear ( ← "OE beran "give birth, carry") ferre "to bear" بردن، برـ bordæn, bær- "to bear, carry" φέρειν pherein "to bear, carry" भरति bharati "he/she/it carries" брать brat' "to take" beirid "carry" *bʱer- "to bear, to carry"

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Armenian has no legal status in Samtske-Javakheti, but it is widely spoken by its Armenian population, which is concentrated in Ninotsminda and Akhalkalaki districts (over 90% of the total population in these two districts).[8] There were 144 state-funded schools in the region as of 2010 where Armenian is the main language of instruction.[9][10]
  2. ^ The Lebanese government recognizes Armenian as a minority language,[11] particularly for educational purposes.[12][13]
  3. ^ In education, according to the "Treaty of Lausanne[14][15]
  4. ^ Various "state government agencies in California provide Armenian translations of their documents, namely the "California Department of Social Services,[16] "California Department of Motor Vehicles,[17] "California superior courts.[18] In the city of "Glendale, there are street signs in Armenian.[19][20]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Modern Armenian at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Classical Armenian at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Middle Armenian at "Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Implementation of the Charter in Cyprus". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "Implementation of the Charter in Hungary". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "Iraqi Constitution: Article 4" (PDF). The Republic of Iraq Ministry of Interior General Directorate for Nationality. Retrieved 16 June 2014. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Syriac, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions. 
  5. ^ "Territorial languages in the Republic of Poland" (PDF). Strasbourg: "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 30 September 2010. p. 9. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Implementation of the Charter in Romania". Database for the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Public Foundation for European Comparative Minority Research. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  7. ^ "Law of Ukraine "On Principles of State Language Policy" (Current version — Revision from 01.02.2014)". Document 5029-17, Article 7: Regional or minority languages Ukraine, Paragraph 2. rada.gov.ua. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Hille, Charlotte (2010). State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus. Leiden, Netherlands: "Brill Publishers. p. 241. "ISBN "9789004179011. 
  9. ^ "Javakhk Armenians Looks Ahead to Local Elections". "Asbarez. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ...Javakheti for use in the region’s 144 Armenian schools... 
  10. ^ Mezhdoyan, Slava (28 November 2012). "Challenges and problems of the Armenian community of Georgia" (PDF). Tbilisi: European Armenian Federation for Justice and Democracy. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Armenian schools in Georgia are fully funded by the government... 
  11. ^ "About Lebanon". Central Administration of Statistics of the Republic of Lebanon. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Other Languages: French, English and Armenian 
  12. ^ "Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention. Third periodic reports of states parties due in 2003: Lebanon" (PDF). "Committee on the Rights of the Child. 25 October 2005. p. 108. Retrieved 26 May 2014. Right of minorities to learn their language. The Lebanese curriculum allows Armenian schools to teach the Armenian language as a basic language. 
  13. ^ Sanjian, Ara. "Armenians and the 2000 Parliamentary Elections in Lebanon". Armenian News Network / Groong. "University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Moreover, the Lebanese government approved a plan whereby the Armenian language was to be considered from now on as one of the few 'second foreign languages' that students can take as part of the official Lebanese secondary school certificate (Baccalaureate) exams. 
  14. ^ Saib, Jilali (2001). "Languages in Turkey". In Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk. The Other Languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters. p. 423. "ISBN "9781853595097. No other language can be taught as a mother language other than Armenian, Greek and Hebrew, as agreed in the Lausanne Treaty.... 
  15. ^ Okçabol, Rıfat (2008). "Secondary Education in Turkey". In Nohl, Arnd-Michael; Akkoyunlu-Wigley, Arzu; Wigley, Simon. Education in Turkey. Berlin: Waxmann Verlag. p. 65. "ISBN "9783830970699. Private Minority Schools are the school established by Greek, Armenian and Hebrew minorities during the era of the Ottoman Empire and covered by Lausanne Treaty. 
  16. ^ "Armenian Translations". California Department of Social Services. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Վարորդների ձեռնարկ [Driver's Manual]" (PDF). California Department of Motor Vehicles. 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  18. ^ "English/Armenian Legal Glossary" (PDF). Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  19. ^ Rocha, Veronica (11 January 2011). "New Glendale traffic safety warnings in English, Armenian, Spanish". "Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  20. ^ Aghajanian, Liana (4 September 2012). "Intersections: Bad driving signals a need for reflection". Glendale News-Press. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ...trilingual street signs in English, Armenian, and Spanish at intersections... 
  21. ^ "H. Acharian Institute of Language". sci.am. Archived from the original on 5 October 2014. Main Fields of Activity: investigation of the structure and functioning, history and comparative grammar of the Armenian language, exploration of the literary Eastern and Western Armenian Language, dialectology, regulation of literary language, development of terminology 
  22. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Armenian". "Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  23. ^ Armenian language – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  24. ^ a b Handbook of Formal Languages (1997) p. 6.
  25. ^ a b Indo-European tree with Armeno-Aryan, exclusion of Greek
  26. ^ Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, Benjamin W. Fortson, John Wiley and Sons, 2009, p383.
  27. ^ Hans J. Holm (2011): “Swadesh lists” of Albanian Revisited and Consequences for its position in the Indo-European Languages. The Journal of Indo-European Studies, Volume 39, Number 1&2.
  28. ^ Hrach Martirosyan. The place of Armenian in the Indo-European language family: the relationship with Greek and Indo-Iranian. Journal of Language Relationship • Вопросы языкового родства • 10 (2013) • Pp. 85—137
  29. ^ Strabo, Geographica, XI, 14, 5; Հայոց լեզվի համառոտ պատմություն, Ս. Ղ. Ղազարյան։ Երևան, 1981, էջ 33 (Concise History of Armenian Language, S. Gh. Ghazaryan. Yerevan, 1981, p. 33).
  30. ^ "Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia. Lanham, Maryland: "Scarecrow Press. p. 396. "ISBN "978-0-8108-7450-3. Although mutually intelligible, eastern Armenian preserved classical phonology, whereas western Armenian demonstrated sound loss among closely related consonants. 
  31. ^ "Baliozian, Ara (1975). The Armenians: Their History and Culture. Kar Publishing House. p. 65. There are two main dialects: Eastern Armenian (Soviet Armenia, Persia), and Western Armenian (Middle East, Europe, and America) . They are mutually intelligible. 
  32. ^ "Campbell, George (2003). "Armenian, Modern Standard". Concise Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. p. 33. "ISBN "9781134720279. This second form is known as Western Armenian; Eastern Armenian is the written and spoken language used in the CIS. The two forms are mutually intelligible, indeed very close to each other. 
  33. ^ Sanjian, Avedis K. (1996). "The Armenian Alphabet". In "Daniels, Peter T.; "Bight, William. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 356. "ISBN "9780195079937. ...Classical (Grabar), Middle, and Modern: two mutually intelligible literary dialects, East and West Armenian. 
  34. ^ "Armenia as Xenophon Saw It", p. 47, A History of Armenia. Vahan Kurkjian, 2008
  35. ^ "Xenophon. "Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9. 
  36. ^ Austin, William M. (January–March 1942). "Is Armenian an Anatolian Language?". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 18 (1): 22–25. "doi:10.2307/409074. "JSTOR 409074. 
  37. ^ Igor Mikhailovich Diakonov, "Hurro-Urartian Borrowings in Old Armenian", Journal of the American Oriental Society 105.4 (1985) text
  38. ^ a b "ARMENIA AND IRAN iv. Iranian influences in Armenian Language". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  39. ^ "A Reader in Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics: On the Position of Armenian in the Sphere of the Indo-European Languages". Utexas.edu. 2007-03-20. Archived from the original on 2012-04-30. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  40. ^ Renfrew, A.C., 1987, Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins, London: Pimlico. "ISBN "0-7126-6612-5; "T. V. Gamkrelidze and "V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European Languages, Scientific American, March 1990; Renfrew, Colin (2003). "Time Depth, Convergence Theory, and Innovation in Proto-Indo-European". Languages in Prehistoric Europe. "ISBN "3-8253-1449-9. 
  41. ^ Russell D. Gray and Quentin D. Atkinson, Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin, Nature 426 (27 November 2003) 435-439
  42. ^ "Mallory, James P. (1997). "Kuro-Araxes Culture". "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn: 341–42. 
  43. ^ A. Bammesberger in The Cambridge History of the "English Language, 1992, "ISBN "978-0-521-26474-7, p. 32: the model "still remains the background of much creative work in Indo-European reconstruction" even though it is "by no means uniformly accepted by all scholars".
  44. ^ Indoiranisch-griechische Gemeinsamkeiten der Nominalbildung und deren indogermanische Grundlagen (= Aryan-Greek Communities in Nominal Morphology and their Indoeuropean Origins; in German) (282 p.), Innsbruck, 1979
  45. ^ a b c Hurro-Urartian Borrowings in Old Armenian, I. M. Diakonoff, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 105, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1985), 597.
  46. ^ How Did New Persian and Arabic Words Penetrate the Middle Armenian Vocabulary? Remarks on the Material of Kostandin Erznkac'i's Poetry, Andrzej Pisowicz, New Approaches to Medieval Armenian Language and Literature, edited by Joseph Johannes Sicco Weitenberg, (Rodopi B.V., 1995), 96.
  47. ^ Tangsux in Armenia, E. SCHÜTZ, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. 17, No. 1 (1964), 106.
  48. ^ Razmik Panossian, The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars, (Columbia University Press, 2006), 39.
  49. ^ Ouzounian, Nourhan (2000). Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; et al., eds. The heritage of Armenian literature. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press. p. 88. "ISBN "0814328156. 
  50. ^ Mirzoyan, H. (2005). "Նարեկացու բառաշխարհը" [Narekatsi's World of Words]. Banber Erewani Hamalsarani (in Armenian). 1 (115): 85–114. 
  51. ^ Švejcer, Aleksandr D. (1986). Contemporary Sociolinguistics: Theory, Problems, Methods. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 70. "ISBN "9027215189. 
  52. ^ Khachaturian, Lisa (2009). Cultivating nationhood in imperial Russia the periodical press and the formation of a modern Armenian identity. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 1. "ISBN "1412813727. 
  53. ^ Krikor Beledian (2014). Berghaus, Günter, ed. International Yearbook of Futurism. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 264. "ISBN "3110334100. 
  54. ^ Waters, Bella (2009). Armenia in pictures. Minneapolis: VGS/Twenty-First Century Books. p. 48. "ISBN "0822585766. 
  55. ^ James Clackson, Indo-European Linguistics, An Introduction (2007, Cambridge)
    Robert S.P. Beekes, Comparative Indo-European Linguistics, An Introduction (1995, John Benjamins)
    Oswald J.L. Szemerényi, Introduction to Indo-European Linguistics (1996, Oxford)
  56. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  57. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:17–20)
  58. ^ Price (1998)
  59. ^ Kortmann, Bernd; van der Auwera, Johan (2011). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide. Walter de Gruyter. p. 129. "ISBN "978-3110220261. 
  60. ^ The New Armenia, Vol. 11-12. New Armenia Publishing Company. 1919. p. 160. "ISBN "1248372786. 
  61. ^ Victor A. Friedman (2009). "Sociolinguistics in the Caucasus". In Ball, Martin J. The Routledge Handbook of Sociolinguistics Around the World: A Handbook. Routledge. p. 128. "ISBN "978-0415422789. 
  62. ^ Baghdassarian-Thapaltsian, S. H. (1970). Շիրակի դաշտավայրի բարբառային նկարագիրը. Լրաբեր հասարակական գիտությունների (Bulletin of Social Sciences) (in Armenian) (6): 51-60. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  External link in |journal= ("help)
  63. ^ "Hovannisian, Richard, ed. (2003). Armenian Karin/Erzerum. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publ. p. 48. "ISBN "9781568591513. Thus, even today the Erzerum dialect is widely spoken in the northernmost districts of the Armenian republic as well as in the Akhalkalak (Javakheti; Javakhk) and Akhaltskha (Akhaltsikh) districts of southern Georgia 
  64. ^ Islam Tekushev (5 January 2016). "An unlikely home". "openDemocracy. Retrieved 22 August 2016. 
  65. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  66. ^ a b c d The letter ⟨c⟩ represents /ts/. In the Armenian words cunk, gorc, mec, and ancanotʿ, it corresponds to PIE *ǵ-.
  67. ^ a b The word "yare" (year) in the Persian and Sanskrit columns is actually from an "Indo-Iranian sister language called "Avestan.
  68. ^ a b c d The prefix for "not" in English is "un-", "i(n)-" in Latin, "a(n)- or nē-" in Greek and "a(n)-" in Sanskrit, which correspond to the PIE *n-.

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