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An art school is an educational institution with a primary focus on the "visual arts, including "fine art, especially "illustration, "painting, "photography, "sculpture, and "graphic design. Art schools are institutions with elementary, secondary, post-secondary or undergraduate, or part of a broad-based range of programs (such as the "liberal arts and "sciences). France's "École des Beaux-Arts is, perhaps, the first model for such organized institution, breaking with a tradition of master and apprentice system when it was formed.
There are four independent art and design universities in Canada, all public institutions. They are "Emily Carr University of Art and Design ("Vancouver), "NSCAD University ("Halifax), "OCAD University ("Toronto), and "Alberta College of Art and Design ("Calgary).
Emily Carr University has the most active research program among the four with over $15 million in research over the last five years.["citation needed] OCAD University's research intensity has reached $3.2 million in 2011/12. All four schools teach in the major disciplines from painting through to new media and design. Over the last five years, Emily Carr has garnered the most of the major awards for students and alums across the country. The most recent RBC Painting Competition was won by Vanessa Maltese, a graduate of OCAD University.
NSCAD University was founded in 1887 by "Anna Leonowens and other Halifax women. The school gained international prominence in the 1970s for innovation in conceptual art under the leadership of "Garry Kennedy. In spite of its modest size, "Art in America suggested in 1973 that NSCAD was "the best art school in North America", while more recently "The Globe and Mail called it Canada's "most illustrious".
"Claude Watson School for the Arts and Karen Kain School of the Arts are intermediate-age public art schools in Toronto, Ontario. They are continued by the Claude Watson program at "Earl Haig Secondary School and by the "Etobicoke School of the Arts, "Rosedale Heights School of the Arts, "Wexford Collegiate School for the Arts, and the Catholic board "Cardinal Carter Academy for the Arts.
In Brampton, "Mayfield Secondary School's Regional Arts Program offers a public high school-level art school. "St. Roch Catholic Secondary School and "St. Thomas Aquinas Secondary School have Regional Arts Programs at the Catholic high school level.
In France, art schools have a long history. The oldest is "Paris fine art school, established in 1682, but most present public art schools are over two centuries old too : Nancy (1708), Toulouse (1726), Rouen (1741), etc. Some of those schools were called academies and were prestigious institutions, devoted to the education of great painters or sculptors. Others were called "école gratuite de dessin" (free school for drawing), and were devoted to the education of arts and craft artists.
As of today, there is in France 45 national or territorial public high schools of art, that deliver bachelor (DNA) and Master (DNSEP) degrees. They don't belong to universities.["citation needed]
The "Academy of Fine Arts Nuremberg ("German: Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg) was founded in 1662 by "Jacob von Sandrart and is the oldest art academy in German-speaking Central Europe. Fine and applied arts have since formed key sectors of learning, although emphasises have shifted in one direction or the other over the centuries. Today learning takes the form of interdisciplinary interaction, the dialogue between fine and applied disciplines. It is flanked by new degree courses and a new media technology study programme.
Art schools have had a history in Sweden since the first half of the 18th century. Students may attend the "Royal Institute of Art, which got its start in 1735. Established in 1844 originally as a part-time art school for Sunday artisans, the "University College of Arts, Crafts and Design known as "Konstfack" is an arts college offering bachelor's and master's degrees in ceramics, glass, textiles, metalworking, and more.
There are also tertiary art schools attached to universities in Gothenburg, Malmö and Umeå.
Perhaps those generally felt most applicable to the definition of 'art school' are the autonomous colleges or schools of art offering courses across both "further and "higher education boundaries, of which there are approximately eighteen, under the banner of United Kingdom Art & Design Institutions Association. Others, whose existence ties in indelibly with that of larger, non-discipline-specific universities (such as the "Slade School of Art) exist. Most art schools of either orientation are equipped to offer opportunities spanning from post-16 to "postgraduate level.
The range of colleges span from predominantly further education establishments to research-led specialist institutes. The "University of the Arts London, for example, is a federally structured institution that comprises six previously independent schools situated in London. These include "Camberwell College of Arts, "Central Saint Martins, "Chelsea College of Arts, "London College of Communication, "London College of Fashion, and "Wimbledon College of Arts; others include "The Slade School of Fine Art, The "Royal College of Art and "Goldsmiths College, University of London, which each grant "undergraduate and "postgraduate awards under one collegiate arm. The "Royal College of Art with its "degree-awarding arm and singular focus on "postgraduate awards being a most singular exception.
Outside of London art schools in the UK include "Arts University Bournemouth, "Cleveland College of Art and Design, "Coventry School of Art and Design, "University for the Creative Arts, "Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art & Design, "Edinburgh College of Art (part of "University of Edinburgh), "Glasgow School of Art, "Gray's School of Art, "Hereford College of Arts, "Leeds College of Art, Liverpool School of Art (part of "Liverpool John Moores University), "Loughborough University School of Art and Design, "Manchester School of Art (part of "Manchester Metropolitan University), "Norwich University of the Arts, Moray School of Art ("University of the Highlands and Islands) and "Plymouth College of Art and Design among others.
Since the 1970s, degrees have replaced diplomas as the top-tier qualification in the field.
In the case of wholly freestanding institutions, degree "validation agreements in liaison with a university have long been the custom for "Bachelor of Arts (Hons) level upward. There has been a general trend for all-encompassing universities to offer programs in the visual arts, and formerly independent art schools have merged with "polytechnics and universities to offer such degrees. A notable exception to this is the "City and Guilds of London Art School, an independent art school solely focused on fine art and related disciplines such as carving and conservation. A few art schools have taken on university status themselves, namely "Arts University Bournemouth, "University for the Creative Arts, "University of the Arts London, and "Norwich University of the Arts. While "Courtauld Institute of Art, "Leeds College of Art and "Royal College of Art are recognised institutions - some with degree awarding powers.
Most specialist institutions in the United Kingdom can trace their histories back to the nineteenth century or beyond, originating usually from government initiatives. Also there is Denver School of Performing Arts, which is a middle through high school.
The most highly rated schools belong to a consortium formed in 1991 and called the "Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design (AICAD). These schools differ from for-profit career schools in that they require a strong component of liberal arts courses in addition to art and design courses, providing a well-rounded college degree.
There also are partnerships between art schools and universities such as "School of the Art Institute of Chicago with "Roosevelt University, the New England School of Art and Design at "Suffolk University, "Art Institute of Boston at "Lesley University, the "Rhode Island School of Design with "Brown University, "Maryland Institute College of Art and "Johns Hopkins University, the "Corcoran College of Art and Design with "The George Washington University, the "School of the Museum of Fine Arts in conjunction with "Tufts University, "Tyler School of Art at "Temple University, "Parsons The New School for Design at "The New School, or "Herron School of Art at Indiana University.
"Cooper Union in New York City is among the most selective of art schools, admitting 4%, with every student on half scholarship. The "Yale School of Art at "Yale University offers only graduate classes in its two-year MFA programs. The "Yale Daily News reported on Thursday, February 1, 2007 that the School had 1215 applications for its class of 2009 and would offer admission to fifty-five students.
Next up the scale in size for an art school would be a large art or design department, school, or college at a university. If it is a college, such as the College of Design,  at "Iowa State University typically, it would contain programs that teach studio art, graphic design, photography, architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, or interior architecture, as well as art, design, and architectural history areas. Sometimes these are simply the schools of art, architecture, and design such as those at the "College of Fine and Applied Arts at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign or the "Yale School of Art. With over 3,000 students, "VCU School of the Arts at "Virginia Commonwealth University is one of the largest art schools in the nation and is also has achieved the highest ranking ever for a "public university. Variation exists among art schools that are larger institutions, however, the essential element is that programs at universities tend to include more liberal arts courses and slightly less studio work, when compared to dedicated, but independent, schools of art.
The final and most common type of art school, a state supported or private program, would be at a university or college. It typically is a BA program, but also might be a BFA, MA, or MFA. These programs tend to emphasize a more general degree in art and do not require a major in a specific field, but might offer "concentrations. A concentration is not accepted by some accrediting or professional organizations as being adequate preparation in some fields that would lead to success as a professional. This is the case for graphic design, where typically, the minimal degree is a BFA major in graphic design.
Many of the degree-offering institutions do not offer intense training in classical "realism and academic "painting and "drawing. The "Lyme Academy College of Fine Arts is considered a collegiate version of this educational model. This gap is filled by "Atelier art schools (schools located inside an artist's studio) or in separate locations, such as the "New York Academy of Art, the "National Academy of Design, the "New York Studio School, the "Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA), established 1805, the "Art Students League of New York, established in 1875.
In recent years a number of art schools have begun to offer some or all of their curricula online, which by nature, transcends national boundaries. Among these are "The Art Institute of Pittsburgh Online and "Academy of Art University. As with on-ground schools, many of the majors involve computer-based work, such as compositions created in Photoshop, Illustrator, or 3D-Studio Max. Submission and review of these materials proceeds virtually identically for on-ground and online classes. When online courses require production of traditional drawings or other such materials, they usually are photographed or scanned for submission and review by instructors.
In contrast to the contemporary stereotype professional art and design education accredited by the "National Association of Schools of Art and Design or offered by the members of the "Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design incorporates rigorous liberal arts and general education requirements so that students receive an authentic college or university degree.