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Aschaffenburg
""Schloss Johannisburg on the river Main
"Schloss Johannisburg on the river "Main
""Coat of arms of Aschaffenburg
Coat of arms
""Aschaffenburg   is located in Germany
Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
Coordinates: 49°58′0″N 9°09′0″E / 49.96667°N 9.15000°E / 49.96667; 9.15000"Coordinates: 49°58′0″N 9°09′0″E / 49.96667°N 9.15000°E / 49.96667; 9.15000
Country "Germany
"State "Bavaria
"Admin. region "Lower Franconia
"District "Urban district
Government
 • "Lord Mayor Klaus Herzog ("SPD)
Area
 • Total 62.45 km2 (24.11 sq mi)
Elevation 138 m (453 ft)
Population (2015-12-31)[1]
 • Total 68,986
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
"Time zone "CET/"CEST (UTC+1/+2)
"Postal codes 63739–63743 (old: 8750)
"Dialling codes 06021, 06028 (Obernau)
"Vehicle registration AB
Website www.aschaffenburg.de

Aschaffenburg (German pronunciation: "[aˈʃafn̩bʊɐ̯k]) is a town in northwest "Bavaria, "Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the "district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat.

Aschaffenburg belonged to the "Archbishopric of Mainz for more than 800 years. The town is located at the westernmost border of "Lower Franconia and separated from the central and eastern part of the "Regierungsbezirk (administrative region) by the "Spessart hills, whereas it opens towards the "Rhine-Main plain in the west and north-west. Therefore, the inhabitants speak neither Bavarian nor East Franconian but rather a local version of "Rhine Franconian.

Contents

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

The town is located on both sides of the "Main in the southwest part of "Germany, 41 kilometers (25 mi) southeast of "Frankfurt am Main. In the western part of the municipal territory, the smaller "Aschaff flows into the Main. The region is also known as Bayerischer Untermain ("Bavarian Lower Main"). Aschaffenburg lies in the far northwest of the state of Bavaria, close to the border to the state of "Hesse.

Climate[edit]

The climate is continental, typically with warm, dry summers and cold, damp winters. Aschaffenburg usually receives less snowfall during the winter than the nearby "Spessart.

Subdivision[edit]

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Austrian memorial in the Österreicher Kolonie

Aschaffenburg comprises 10 "Stadtteile:

Nilkheim and Leider are the only Stadtteile which are located on the left bank of the river Main.

Neighbouring communities[edit]

The following municipalities border Aschaffenburg (clockwise, from the north): "Johannesberg, "Glattbach, "Goldbach, "Haibach, "Bessenbach, "Sulzbach am Main, "Niedernberg, "Großostheim, "Stockstadt am Main and "Mainaschaff.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The name Aschaffenburg (Ascaffaburc, Ascapha or Ascaphaburg in the Middle Ages) originally meant "castle at the ash tree river" deriving from the river Aschaff that runs through parts of the town.

Pre-history to Middle Ages[edit]

The earliest remains of settlements in the area of Aschaffenburg date from the "Stone Age.

Aschaffenburg was originally a settlement of the "Alamanni. "Roman legions were stationed here. In c. 700 AD, the "Ravenna Cosmography names two settlements in region: Uburzis ("Würzburg) and Ascapha (Aschaffenburg).[2]:69

Around 550, the area had been conquered by the "Franks, and their "Hausmeier built a castle here. In the 8th century, a "Benedictine monastery was founded, dedicated to St. Michael, reportedly by "Saint Boniface. This became the "Kollegiatstift St. Peter und Alexander in the second half of the 10th century (957). In 869, King "Louis the Younger married "Liutgard of Saxony at Aschaffenburg. She also died here in 885 and was later laid to rest with her daughter Hildegard in the Stiftskirche. Ascaffinburg is mentioned first in 974 in a gift document by "Otto II, in which he gave several villages including "Wertheim am Main and a stretch of forest in the Spessart to the collegiate church.[2]:69[3]:56

In the "Middle Ages the town was known as Ascaffaburc, Ascapha or Ascaphaburg. A stone bridge over the Main was reportedly built by Archbishop "Willigis in 989, who also made the town his second residence. The town (referred to in 975 as a civitas) was part of the "Archbishopric of Mainz from 982, when "Duke Otto died. A Vizedom is mentioned for the first time in 1122 as the top local representative of the Archbishop. In 1292 a synod was held here, and in 1447 an "imperial diet, preliminary to that of "Vienna, approved a concordat (sometimes called the Aschaffenburg Concordat). In the "German Peasants' War (1525), the town backed the losing side.[4][3]:56–7

Modern times through 19th century[edit]

In 1552, the late-"Gothic castle of Johannisburg was destroyed. It was replaced in 1605-14 by the "Renaissance Schloss Johannisburg.[3]:57 The town suffered greatly during the "Thirty Years' War, being held in turn by the various belligerents. During the "Battle of Dettingen (1743), which took place to the north, the town was occupied by French troops. It formed part of the electorate of the "Archbishop of Mainz, and in 1803 was made over to Archbishop "Karl Theodor von Dalberg as the "Principality of Aschaffenburg.

Aschaffenburg was the site of the "Forstliche Hochschule Aschaffenburg (de)" ( Königlich Bayerische Centralforstlehranstalt ), established in 1807, "made famous by the researches of Professor Dr Ernst Ebermayer." The Academy was "dissolved in 1832, but re-organized under the Ministry of Finance in 1874"; and, as "of 30th March, 1874, united to the "University of Munich."[5]

In 1810, the Principality of Aschaffenburg was merged into the new "Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, although Dalberg retained Aschaffenburg as his residence. In 1814 the town was transferred to the "Kingdom of Bavaria by an Austrian-Bavarian treaty. In 1817 it was included within Bavarian "Lower Franconia. From 1840–1848, King "Ludwig I of Bavaria had a Roman villa built to the west of town. It was named "Pompejanum after its model, the house of "Castor and Pollux at "Pompeii.[6][7]

In 1866, the "Prussian Army inflicted a severe defeat on the "Austrians in the vicinity during the "Austro-Prussian War.

World War II[edit]

In "World War II, Aschaffenburg was heavily damaged by Allied "area bombing, including "Schloss Johannisburg which was completely restored several years later. The Germans chose to defend Aschaffenburg with particular steadfastness, which resulted in the "Battle of Aschaffenburg" fought 28 March - 3 April 1945. The U.S. "45th Infantry Division was forced to take the fortified town against stiff German resistance in a series of frontal assaults that involved house-to-house fighting and vicious close combat. The resulting widespread urban destruction was quite severe, as cannon fire was used point-blank to blast through structures.[8]

Aschaffenburg displaced persons camps[edit]

At the end of World War II the "United States Army occupied military facilities formerly used and controlled by the "Wehrmacht. These were converted for use by U.S. military personnel as processing centres for "displaced persons at the end of the war.[9] From 1945 7,000 "Ukrainians were accommodated in four "displaced persons camps:[10]

Two other camps, Alte (old) Kaserne and Jäger Kaserne housed mainly "Poles and "Lithuanians.[15]["better source needed]

Post-war development[edit]

In the decades following the war, Aschaffenburg and the surrounding region experienced robust economic prosperity, partially due to its close proximity to "Frankfurt am Main.

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Civilians clearing away the rubble, 3 April 1945

According to an online 2002 survey in "Stern magazine, [Stern 14/2002], 82 percent of residents living in the Bayerischer Untermain region where Aschaffenburg is located were satisfied with the place where they lived. This was the highest level recorded in the survey, making the region the #1 place to live in Germany, based on several factors including employment opportunities in the region, educational facilities, public services, transportation, recreational options, shopping, cultural facilities/events, climate, etc.

Another survey taken in 2006 by McKinsey, Stern magazine, "ZDF, and web.de again showed that Aschaffenburg has one of the highest ratings for quality of life in Germany.["citation needed]

U.S. military presence (1945–2007)[edit]

Aschaffenburg was the location of several United States Army installations throughout the "Cold War. After initially taking over the administration of the ex-Wehrmacht installations, which were then used as displaced persons camps, the American presence in the Aschaffenburg military community began after general renovations in 1948.[9] The installation sites were known as Ready Kaserne (previously Artillerie Kaserne), Smith Kaserne (previously LaGarde Kaserne), Graves Kaserne (previously Bois Brulé Kaserne), Fiori Kaserne (previously Pionier Kaserne), and Jaeger Kaserne (previously Jäger Kaserne). These housed armour, infantry, engineer, maintenance and artillery elements of the U.S. Army 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and various VII Corps elements including the 9th Engineer Battalion, the 3rd Bn 21st Field Artillery (Honest John), and the 1st Bn 80th Field Artillery (LANCE). Much of the U.S. Army presence in Aschaffenburg ended in 1992 with the ending of the Cold War. The last buildings, which were primarily used for housing, were handed back to the local government in 2007.

Demographics[edit]

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Schloss Johannisburg reflected in the river "Main at night

Population[edit]

Year Population
1900 18,093
1910 29,892
1925 34,056
1939 45,379
1945 30,861
1946 36,383
1950 45,499
Year Population
1961 54,131
1970 55,193
1980 59,257
1987 60,964
1990 64,098[16]
1995 66,360[16]
2000 67,592[16]
Year Population
2003 68,607[16]
2007 68,646[16]
2010 68,648[17]
2015 68,986[18]

Age distribution of current population[edit]

Age Population
0-19 13,888[16]
20-39 19,505[16]
40-59 18,951[16]
60+ 16,556[16]

Governance[edit]

Lord Mayors[edit]

Economy[edit]

In 2013 (latest data available) the "GDP per inhabitant was €68,460. This places the kreisfreie Stadt 7th out of 96 districts (rural and urban) in Bavaria (overall average: €36,691).[19]

Well-known companies in Aschaffenburg are (e.g.): Linde Material Handling, "Linde Hydraulics, Takata, DPD and redcoon.[20]

Shopping[edit]

The City Galerie, opened in 1974 and located in the town center (Stadtmitte), is the largest shopping mall in northern Bavaria. It was one of the first indoor shopping malls to open in Germany. Aschaffenburg also has a pedestrian shopping zone (Fußgängerzone in German) closed to motor vehicles, except for deliveries. It is located in the town center.

Arts and culture[edit]

Cultural events[edit]

Aschaffenburg hosts numerous festivals, fairs, exhibitions, markets and concerts throughout the year including the annual Stadtfest, held on the last weekend in August.

Theaters and entertainment venues[edit]

Museums and galleries[edit]

Library[edit]

Cinemas[edit]

Recreation[edit]

A large recreational complex is located in the Stadtteil of Leider. It includes an indoor and outdoor swimming pool complex as well as an indoor ice rink and tennis courts, which are open to the general public. There's also a marina on the "Main between the Willigis and Adenauer bridges.

Attractions[edit]

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Schloss Schönbusch in Schönbusch Park

Sights[edit]

The main sights of Aschaffenburg are the "Schloss Johannisburg, built 1605–1614 by Archbishop "Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg, which contains a library with a number of "incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; the "Pompejanum, a replica of a Roman town house discovered in "Pompeii commissioned by King Ludwig I. and opened in 1850; the "St. Peter und Alexander "collegiate church, founded in the second half of the 10th century, but dating in the main from the early 12th century on, in which are preserved various monuments by the "Vischers, a sarcophagus with the relics of "Saint Margaret, and a painting by "Matthias Grünewald; the "Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly a house of the "Teutonic Order; several mansions of the nobility; and the historical old town. Across the river are the Park and Schloss "Schönbusch.

The graves of "Clemens Brentano and his brother "Christian Brentano (died 1851) and that of "Wilhelm Heinse can be found in the Altstadtfriedhof (Old Town Cemetery).[22]

Parks[edit]

Aschaffenburg has numerous parks including the following:

Sports[edit]

Football[edit]

"Viktoria Aschaffenburg is the primary football club. The club was formed on 24 June 1904 out of the merger of FC Aschaffenburg (6 August 1901) and FC Viktoria Aschaffenburg (12 April 1902). It was renamed Sportverein Viktoria 01 Aschaffenburg on 3 June 1906. Their homefield is Stadion am Schönbusch (Schönbusch stadium), a modern stadium located in Nilkheim .

American football[edit]

In 1991, the Aschaffenburg Stallions began playing "American football at Schönbusch stadium. A "cheerleader squad also exists.

Baseball and softball[edit]

Aschaffenburg is also home to the Aschaffenburg Mohawks Baseball and Softball team. The softball team won the 2010 German Championship. The adult baseball team won the 2011 Landesliga South Championship and will play in the highest league of the state Hessen in 2012.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Roads[edit]

Aschaffenburg is located on "Bundesautobahn 3 between "Frankfurt am Main and "Würzburg. The southern terminus of "Bundesautobahn 45 is located just west of the town. Bundesstrasse B 26 passes through the town. Bundestrasse B 8 used to pass through Aschaffenburg, but has now been rerouted along the "Bundesautobahn 3. Three road bridges cross the river "Main at Aschaffenburg: "Friedrich Ebert Bridge (a new span opened in 2008), Willigis Bridge and "Konrad Adenauer Bridge. In the 1980s, a road tunnel was constructed under the Schlossplatz to improve traffic flow through the Stadtmitte (town center).

After 43 years of planning and construction, the limited-access Innenstadtring or "inner-town-ring" road was completed in July 2013. It allows motorists to bypass the Stadtmitte (town center) and reduces traffic congestion in Aschaffenburg, which has been a problem in recent years. Another road project called Bahnparallele is currently under construction, with a small section already opened. It is located in the Stadtteil of Damm and runs parallel to the railway tracks.

Parking[edit]

There are approximately 7,500 parking spaces in the ten Stadtteile of Aschaffenburg and eight public parking garages.

Public transport[edit]

Aschaffenburg has a comprehensive bus network serving the town and surrounding region. The 15 main bus lines which serve the Stadtteile of Aschaffenburg are run by Stadtwerke Aschaffenburg. There are several other bus lines which link Aschaffenburg with the surrounding region. Those lines are run by other companies, including the "Deutsche Bahn. A new regional bus terminal opened in 2008, adjacent to the "Aschaffenburg Hauptbahnhof (main railway station). The Regionale Omnibusbahnhof Aschaffenburg (ROB) was built to consolidate all of the scattered bus stops in the area around the main railway station into one central location and reduce traffic congestion in the area.

Railway stations and stops[edit]

All passenger train service is provided by the "Deutsche Bahn.

Harbor[edit]

Aschaffenburg has an active port along the Main in the Stadtteil of Leider. There is railway access to the port. In 2005, 2.8 million tons of cargo passed through the port.

Airports[edit]

A small "general aviation airport (Flugplatz Aschaffenburg, ICAO-Code: EDFC) is located in nearby "Großostheim. "Frankfurt Airport is located 46 kilometers (29 mi) from Aschaffenburg and offers flights to destinations all over the world. The trip to and from the airport takes about 30 minutes by car or approximately 45 minutes by "InterCityExpress train.

Medical[edit]

The three primary medical centers in Aschaffenburg are:

There are approximately 789 hospital beds, 159 doctors, 68 dentists and 38 pharmacies in the Stadtteile of Aschaffenburg.

Education[edit]

There are various types of schools in Aschaffenburg serving approximately 18,000 students from the town and surrounding region.

University[edit]

Hochschule Aschaffenburg (de) is a university of applied sciences (or Fachhochschule ).

Media[edit]

Printed media[edit]

Radio and television[edit]

Internet[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Born in Aschaffenburg[edit]

Before 1900[edit]

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Hefner-Alteneck
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Joseph von Lindwurm

1900 to 1959[edit]

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Hanns Seidel (left) in 1957 with Konrad Adenauer (right) CDU party convention

from 1960[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

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Alois Alzheimer
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Emil Erlenmeyer around 1863

Town twinning[edit]

Aschaffenburg is twinned with:

In 2006, Aschaffenburg and Perth celebrated the 50th anniversary of their partnership.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". "Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). June 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Dettelbacher, Werner (1974). Franken - Kunst, Geschichte und Landschaft (German). Dumont Verlag. "ISBN "3-7701-0746-2. 
  3. ^ a b c Schumacher, Karin; Schumacher, Hans-Jürgen (2003). Zeitreise durch den Spessart (German). Wartberg Verlag. "ISBN "3-8313-1075-0. 
  4. ^ "Aschaffenburg" in "The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: "Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 617.
  5. ^ Barnard, Henry. 1870. "Technical instruction. Special report of the Commissioner of Education." United States House of Representatives, January 19. Accessed: May 7, 2012.
  6. ^ "Aschaffenburg - Johannisburg Palace" (PDF). Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  7. ^ "Pompeiianum". Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  8. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 134-135
  9. ^ a b U.S. ARMY INSTALLATIONS - ASCHAFFENBURG
  10. ^ 'Ашаффенбурґ', Енциклопедія українознавства (""Encyclopedia of Ukraine") Vol. І, p. 77
  11. ^ Artillerie Kaserne, Sälzerweg, Aschaffenburg 49°57′48.18″N 9°10′22.89″E / 49.9633833°N 9.1730250°E / 49.9633833; 9.1730250
  12. ^ Bois Brulé Kaserne, Würzburger Strasse, Aschaffenburg 49°57′48.32″N 9°10′38″E / 49.9634222°N 9.17722°E / 49.9634222; 9.17722
  13. ^ LaGarde Kaserne, Würzburger Strasse, Aschaffenburg 49°58′1.02″N 9°9′57.75″E / 49.9669500°N 9.1660417°E / 49.9669500; 9.1660417
  14. ^ Pionier Kaserne, Schweinheimer Strasse, Aschaffenburg 49°57′59.06″N 9°9′33.61″E / 49.9664056°N 9.1593361°E / 49.9664056; 9.1593361
  15. ^ DP Camps in Aschaffenburg
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bevölkerungsentwicklung in der Stadt Aschaffenburg (PDF) Archived December 18, 2008, at the "Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ 2010-09-30
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "VGR der Länder, Kreisergebnisse für Deutschland - Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Bruttowertschöpfung in den kreisfreien Städten und Landkreisen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2000 bis 2013 (German)". Statistische Ämter der Länder und des Bundes. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  20. ^ "Companies in Aschaffenburg". 
  21. ^ Homepage Christian Schad Museum
  22. ^ LoveToKnow 1911 Archived 2007-07-14 at the "Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

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