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Athena
Goddess of wisdom, craft, war, diplomacy, weaving, poetry, medicine, and commerce
""Mattei Athena Louvre Ma530 n2.jpg
Mattei Athena at "Louvre. Roman copy from the 1st century BC/AD after a Greek original of the 4th century BC, attributed to Cephisodotos or Euphranor.
Abode "Mount Olympus
Symbol "Owls, "olive trees, "snakes, "Aegis, "armour, "helmets, "spears, "Gorgoneion
Personal Information
Parents "Metis and "Zeus[Notes 1]
Siblings "Aeacus, "Angelos, "Aphrodite, "Apollo, "Ares, "Artemis, "Dionysus, "Eileithyia, "Enyo, "Eris, "Ersa, "Hebe, "Helen of Troy, "Hephaestus, "Heracles, "Hermes, "Minos, "Pandia, "Persephone, "Perseus, "Rhadamanthus, the "Graces, the "Horae, the "Litae, the "Muses, the "Moirai
Roman equivalent "Minerva

Athena ("/əˈθnə/; "Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; "Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; "Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or Athene ("/əˈθn/; "Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē), often given the "epithet Pallas ("/ˈpæləs/; Παλλὰς), is the goddess of wisdom, craft, and war[1] in "ancient Greek religion and "mythology. In later times, Athena was "syncretized with the "Roman goddess "Minerva.[2]

In "ancient Greek literature, Athena is portrayed as the astute companion of "heroes and as the patron "goddess of heroic endeavour. Athena probably takes her name from the city of "Athens,[3] of which she was the patron.[3] The Athenians constructed the "Parthenon atop their "Acropolis as a temple to Athena; it takes its name from her epithet Parthenos, which means ""Virgin".[2] Throughout the Greek world, Athena was venerated as the protectress of the city ("polis);[4] she was known as Polias and Poliouchos[4] and her temples were usually located atop the fortified "Acropolis in the central part of the city.[4]

Contents

Etymology[edit]

Athena is associated with the city of "Athens.[3] The name of the city in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι (Athenai), a plural "toponym, designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai.[5] In ancient times, scholars argued whether Athena was named after Athens or Athens after Athena.[3] Now scholars generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city;[3] the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names.[3] Testimonies from different cities in "ancient Greece attest that similar "city goddesses were worshipped in other cities[5] and, like Athena, took their names from the cities where they were worshipped.[5] For example, in "Mycenae there was a goddess called Mykene, whose sisterhood was known as Mykenai,[5] whereas at "Thebes an analogous deity was called Thebe, and the city was known under the plural form Thebai (or Thebes, in English, where the ‘s’ is the plural formation).[5] The name Athenai is likely of "Pre-Greek origin[6] because it contains the presumably Pre-Greek morpheme *-ān-.[6]

In his dialogue "Cratylus, the Greek philosopher "Plato (428–347 BC) gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological speculations:

That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients. For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he meant by Athena "mind" [νοῦς, "noũs] and "intelligence" [διάνοια, diánoia], and the maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her; and indeed calls her by a still higher title, "divine intelligence" [θεοῦ νόησις, theoũ nóēsis], as though he would say: This is she who has the mind of God [ἁ θεονόα, a theonóa). Perhaps, however, the name Theonoe may mean "she who knows divine things" [τὰ θεῖα νοοῦσα, ta theia noousa] better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence [εν έθει νόεσιν, en éthei nóesin], and therefore gave her the name Etheonoe; which, however, either he or his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and called her Athena.

— Plato, Cratylus 407b

Thus, Plato believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the later Greeks rationalised as from the deity's (θεός, theós) mind (νοῦς, noũs). Other Greek authors["who?] attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air, earth, and moon.[7]

Origins[edit]

Athena was originally the "Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king.[8][4][9][10] A single "Mycenaean Greek inscription 𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊 a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/ appears at "Knossos in the "Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets"; these comprise the earliest Linear B archive anywhere.[11][12] Although Athana potnia often is translated Mistress Athena,[13] it could also mean "the "Potnia of Athana", and thus perhaps the Lady of Athens.[13] However, any connection to the city of Athens in the Knossos inscription is uncertain.[14] In the still undeciphered corpus of "Linear A tablets—written in the unclassified "Minoan language—a sign series a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is to be found.[15] This could be connected with the Linear B Mycenaean expressions a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja and di-u-ja or di-wi-ja (Diwia, "of Zeus" or, possibly, related to a "homonymous goddess),[16] resulting in a translation "Athena of Zeus" or "divine Athena". Similarly, in the Greek mythology and epic tradition, Athena figures as a daughter of Zeus (Διός θυγάτηρ; cfr. "Dyeus).[17] However, the inscription quoted seems to be very similar to "a-ta-nū-tī wa-ya", quoted as "SY Za 1 by Jan Best.[17] Best translates the initial a-ta-nū-tī, which is recurrent in line beginnings, as "I have given".[17]

In a "Mycenean fresco, there is a composition of two women extending their hands towards a central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield;[18] this may depict the warrior-goddess with her "palladium, or her palladium in an aniconic representation.[18] In the ""Procession Fresco" at "Knossos, which was reconstructed by the Mycenaeans,[19] two rows of figures carrying vessels seem to meet in front of a central figure,[19] which is probably the Minoan precursor to Athena.[19] The early twentieth-century scholar "Martin Persson Nilsson argued that the "Minoan snake goddess figurines are early representations of Athena.[8][4]

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Marble Greek copy signed "Antiokhos", a 1st-century BC variant of "Phidias' 5th century "Athena Promachos that stood on the "Acropolis

Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena was either an "owl herself or a "bird goddess in general.[20] In the third book of the "Odyssey, she takes the form of a "sea-eagle.[20] Proponents of this view argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before she lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen Harrison remarks, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but occasionally in "black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with wings."[21]

It is generally agreed that the cult of Athena preserves some aspects of the Proto-Indo-European "transfunctional goddess.[22][23] The cult of Athena may have also been influenced by those of Near Eastern warrior goddesses such as the "East Semitic "Ishtar and the "Ugaritic "Anat,[4] both of whom were often portrayed bearing arms.[4]

Miriam Robbins Dexter has suggested that, at least at some point in her history, Athena was a "solar deity.[24] Athena bears traits common with "Indo-European solar goddesses,[24] including the possession of a mirror and the invention of weaving, characteristics which are also held by the Baltic goddess "Saulė.[24] Athena's association with Medusa, who is also suspected of being a solar goddess,[24] adds further solar iconography to her cultus.[24] Athena was later syncretized with "Sulis, a Celtic goddess whose name is derived from the common Proto-Indo-European root for many solar deities.[24] Though the sun in Greek myth is personified as the male "Helios, several relictual solar goddesses are known, such as "Alectrona.[24]

Plato notes that the citizens of "Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess known as "Neith,[Notes 2] whom he identifies with Athena.[25] Neith was the ancient Egyptian goddess of war and hunting, who was also associated with weaving; her worship began during the Egyptian Pre-Dynastic period. In Greek mythology, Athena was reported to have visited mythological sites in North Africa, including Libya's "Triton River and the "Phlegraean plain.[Notes 3] Based on these similarities, the "sinologist "Martin Bernal created the ""Black Athena" hypothesis, which claimed that Neith was brought to Greece from Egypt, along with "an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the third and second millennia".[26] The "Black Athena" hypothesis stirred up widespread controversy near the end of the twentieth century,[27] but it has now been widely rejected by modern scholars.[28]

Cult and patronages[edit]

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Athenian "tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena
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A new "peplos was woven for Athena and ceremonially brought to dress her "cult image ("British Museum).

In her aspect of Athena Polias, Athena was venerated as the goddess of the city and the protectress of the citadel.[4][29] In Athens, the "Plynteria, or "Feast of the Bath", was observed every year at the end of the month of "Thargelion.[30] The festival lasted for five days. During this period, the priestesses of Athena, or plyntrídes, performed a cleansing ritual within the "Erechtheion, a sanctuary devoted to Athena and Poseidon.[31] Here Athena's statue was undressed, her clothes washed, and body purified.[31]

Athena was worshipped at festivals such as "Chalceia as Athena Ergane,[32] the patroness of various crafts, especially "weaving.[32] She was also the patron of metalworkers and was believed to aid in the forging of armor and weapons.[32] During the late 5th century BC, the role of goddess of philosophy became a major aspect of Athena's "cult.[33]

As "Athena Promachos, she was believed to lead soldiers into battle.[34][35] Athena represented the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother "Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust, and slaughter—"the raw force of war".[36] Athena was believed to only support those fighting for a just cause[36] and was thought to view war primarily as a means to resolve conflict.[36] In this aspect, Athena was also known as "Parthenos,[37] which means "virgin",[38][39] because she was believed to have never married or taken a lover.[40] Athena was especially worshipped in this role during the festivals of the "Panathenaea and "Pamboeotia,[41] both of which prominently featured displays of athletic and military prowess.[41] As the patroness of heroes and warriors,[42] Athena was believed to favor those who used cunning and intelligence rather than brute strength.[42]

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Athena depicted on a coin of "Attalus I, ruler of "Pergamon, c. 200 BC

Athena was not only the patron goddess of Athens, but also other cities, including "Argos, "Sparta, "Gortyn, "Lindos, and "Larisa.[35] The various cults of Athena were all branches of her panhellenic cult[35] and often proctored various initiation rites of Grecian youth, such as the passage into citizenship by young men or the passage of young women into marriage.[35] These cults were portals of a uniform socialization, even beyond mainland Greece.[35]

Athena was frequently equated with "Aphaea, a local goddess of the island of "Aegina, originally from "Crete and also associated with "Artemis and the nymph "Britomartis.[43] In "Arcadia, she was assimilated with the ancient goddess Alea and worshiped as "Athena Alea.[44] Sanctuaries dedicated to Athena Alea were located in the "Laconian towns of "Mantineia and "Tegea. The temple of Athena Alea in Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece.[Notes 4] The geographer "Pausanias was informed that the temenos had been founded by "Aleus.[45] Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and "fibulae. In the Archaic period, the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a "synoecism to form one city.[Notes 5] Tegea was listed in "Homer's "Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the "Achaean assault on Troy.

In Sparta, the temple of Athena Khalkíoikos (Athena "of the Brazen House", often "latinized as Chalcioecus) was the grandest and located on the Spartan acropolis; presumably it had a roof of bronze. The forecourt of the Brazen House was the place where the most solemn religious functions in Sparta took place.

Epithets and attributes[edit]

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Bust of the Velletri Pallas type, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in Athens (c. 425 BC)

Athena was known as Atrytone (Άτρυτώνη "the Unwearying"), Parthenos (Παρθένος "Virgin"), and Promachos (Πρόμαχος "she who fights in front"). The epithet Polias (Πολιάς "of the city"), refers to Athena's role as protectress of the city.[35] The epithet Ergane (Εργάνη "the Industrious") pointed her out as the patron of craftsmen and artisans.[35] After serving as the judge at the trial of "Orestes in which he was acquitted of having murdered his mother "Clytemnestra, Athena won the epithet Areia (Αρεία).[35]

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The "owl of Athena, surrounded by an olive wreath. Reverse of an Athenian silver tetradrachm, c. 175 BC

In "Homer's "epic works, Athena's most common "epithet is Glaukopis (γλαυκῶπις), which usually is translated as, "bright-eyed" or "with gleaming eyes".[46] The word is a combination of glaukós (γλαυκός, meaning "gleaming, silvery", and later, "bluish-green" or "gray")[47] and ṓps (ὤψ, "eye, face").[48] The word glaúx (γλαύξ,[49] "little owl")[50] is from the same root, presumably according to some, because of the bird's own distinctive eyes. Athena was clearly associated with the owl from very early on;[51] in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an "owl perched on her hand.[51] Through its association with Athena, the owl evolved into the national mascot of the Athenians and eventually became a symbol of wisdom.[2]

Other epithets include "Ageleia, "Itonia and Aethyia under which she was worshiped in "Megara.[52] The word aíthyia (αἴθυια) signifies a "diver", also some diving bird species (possibly the "shearwater) and figuratively, a "ship", so the name must reference Athena teaching the art of shipbuilding or navigation.[53][54] In a temple at Phrixa in "Elis, reportedly built by "Clymenus, she was known as Cydonia (Κυδωνία),[55] which is possibly connected to Greek kũdos (κῦδος "glory").

In the "Iliad (4.514), the "Homeric Hymns, and in "Hesiod's "Theogony, Athena is also given the curious epithet Tritogeneia (Τριτογένεια), whose significance remains unclear. It could mean various things, including "Triton-born", perhaps indicating that the "homonymous sea-deity was her parent according to some early myths. In fact there is a myth relating the foster father relationship of this Triton towards the half-orphan Athena, whom he raised besides his own daughter "Pallas. "Karl Kerényi suggests that "Tritogeneia did not mean that she came into the world on any particular river or lake, but that she was born of the water itself; for the name Triton seems to be associated with water generally."[56][57] In "Ovid's "Metamorphoses Athena is occasionally referred to as "Tritonia".

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Cult statue of Athena with the face of the Carpegna type (late 1st century BC to early 1st century AD), from the Piazza dell'Emporio, Rome

Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child.[58] Several scholars have suggested a connection to the "Rigvedic god "Trita,[59] who was sometimes grouped in a body of three mythological poets.[59] Michael Janda has connected the myth of Trita to the scene in the "Iliad in which the "three brothers" Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades divide the world between them, receiving the "broad sky", the sea, and the underworld respectively.[60][61] Janda further connects the myth of Athena being born of the head (i. e. the uppermost part) of Zeus, understanding Trito- (which perhaps originally meant "the third") as another word for "the sky".[60] In Janda's analysis of Indo-European mythology, this heavenly sphere is also associated with the mythological body of water surrounding the inhabited world (cfr. Triton's mother, "Amphitrite).[60]

She was given the epithet Hippia (Ἵππια "of the horses", "equestrian"), as the inventor of the "chariot, and was worshiped under this title at Athens, "Tegea and "Olympia. As Athena Hippia she was given an alternative parentage: "Poseidon and Polyphe, daughter of "Oceanus.[62][63] In each of these cities her temple frequently was the major temple on the acropolis.[4]

The Greek biographer "Plutarch (46–120 AD) refers to an instance during the Parthenon's construction of her being called Athena "Hygieia (Ὑγίεια, i. e. personified "Health"):

A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When "Pericles was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena Hygeia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before. But it was "Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.[64]

In "Macedonia Athena was also given the surname Alcis, meaning 'the strong'.[65]

Mythology[edit]

Birth[edit]

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Athena is "born" from Zeus's forehead as a result of him having swallowed her mother "Metis, as he grasps the clothing of "Eileithyia on the right; "black-figured "amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.

Although Athena appears before "Zeus at "Knossos—in "Linear B, as 𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊, a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress Athena"[66]—in the Classical "Olympian pantheon, Athena was remade as the favourite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead.[Notes 6] The story of her birth comes in several versions.[67] In the version recounted by "Hesiod in his "Theogony, Zeus lay with "Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom,[68] but he immediately feared the consequences[68] because Gaia and "Ouranos had prophesized that Metis would bear children wiser than he himself.[69][Notes 7] In order to prevent this, Zeus swallowed Metis,[70] but it was too late because Metis had already conceived.[70][71]

Eventually Zeus experienced an enormous headache;[72] "Prometheus, "Hephaestus, "Hermes, "Ares, or Palaemon (depending on the sources examined)[73] cleaved Zeus’ head with the double-headed "Minoan "axe, the "labrys.[73] Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and armed,[73] with a shout—"and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And Ouranos trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia…"[74] Plato, in the "Laws, attributes the cult of Athena to the culture of "Crete, introduced, he thought, from Libya during the dawn of Greek culture. Classical myths thereafter note that "Hera was so annoyed at Zeus for having produced a child that she conceived and bore "Hephaestus by "herself, but in Imagines 2. 27 (trans. Fairbanks), the third-century AD Greek rhetorician "Philostratus the Elder writes that Hera "rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though Athena were her daughter also." In accordance with this mythological tradition, Plato, in "Cratylus (407B), gives the etymology of her name as signifying "the mind of god", theou noesis. The second-century AD Christian apologist "Justin Martyr takes issue with those pagans who erect at springs images of "Kore, whom he interprets as Athena:

They said that Athena was the daughter of Zeus not from intercourse, but when the god had in mind the making of a world through a word ("logos) his first thought was Athena.[75]

Other tales[edit]

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Atena farnese, Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, c. 430 AD, Museo Archeologico, Naples

A "scholium on the Iliad[76] makes Athena the daughter of "Brontes the Cyclops,[77] who seduced Metis and impregnated her, prompting Zeus to swallow her.[77] The "Etymologicum Magnum[76] instead deems Athena the daughter of the "Daktyl "Itonos.[78] Fragments attributed by the Christian "Eusebius of Caesarea to the semi-legendary "Phoenician historian "Sanchuniathon, which Eusebius thought had been written before the "Trojan war, make Athena instead the daughter of "Cronus, a king of "Byblos who visited 'the inhabitable world' and bequeathed "Attica to Athena.[79] Sanchuniathon's account would make Athena the sister of Zeus and Hera, not Zeus' daughter.

Pallas Athena[edit]

The tradition regarding Athena's parentage involves some of her more mysterious "epithets: Pallas, as in the ancient-Greek Παλλάς Ἀθήνη (also Pallantias) and Tritogeneia (also Trito, Tritonis, Tritoneia, Tritogenes). A distant archaic separate entity named Pallas is invoked as Athena's father, sister, foster sister, companion, or opponent in battle. One of these is "Pallas, a daughter of "Triton (a sea god) and, according to some later sources, a childhood friend of Athena.[80]

In every case, Athena kills Pallas, accidentally, and thereby gains the name for herself. In one telling, they practice the arts of war together until one day they have a falling out. As Pallas is about to strike Athena, Zeus intervenes. With Pallas stunned by a blow from Zeus, Athena takes advantage and kills her. Distraught over what she has done, Athena takes the name Pallas for herself.

When Pallas is Athena's father, the events, including her birth, are located near a body of water named Triton or "Tritonis. When Pallas is Athena's sister or foster-sister, Athena's father or foster-father is "Triton, the son and herald of "Poseidon. Athena may be called the daughter of Poseidon and a nymph named Tritonis, without involving Pallas. Likewise, Pallas may be Athena's father or opponent, without involving Triton.[81] On this topic, Walter Burkert says "she is the Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as Hera of Argos is Here Argeie.[3] Burkert notes that the Athenians sometimes simply called Athena "the Goddess", hē theós (ἡ θεός), certainly an ancient title.[3]

In fact, "Pallas" is derived either from πάλλω, "brandish" (as a weapon), or, more likely, from παλλακίς and related words, "youth, young woman."[82] The story that Athena kills a friend or relation called "Pallas" and takes the name to honor her is only attested quite late, in Apollodorus and Philodemus. It seems to have been invented to explain the name.[83]

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"The Parthenon, Temple of Athena Parthenos

Athena Parthenos[edit]

Athena never had a consort or lover and is thus known as "Athena Parthenos, "Virgin Athena".[84] Her most famous temple, the "Parthenon, on the "Acropolis in "Athens takes its name from this title.[84] It is not merely an observation of her virginity, but a recognition of her role as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and ritual mystery.[84] Even beyond recognition, the Athenians allotted the goddess value based on this pureness of virginity as it upheld a rudiment of female behavior in the patriarchal society.[84] Kerényi's study and theory of Athena accredits her virginal epithet to be a result of the relationship to her father Zeus and a vital, cohesive piece of her character throughout the ages.[84]

This role is expressed in a number of stories about Athena. "Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from the "Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to "Proclus, a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.[85]

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The "Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena with her serpent, "Erichthonius

Erichthonius[edit]

The ancient mythographer "Pseudo-Apollodorus[76] records an archaic legend, which claims that "Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to "ejaculate on her thigh.[86][87] Athena wiped the "semen off using a tuft of "wool,[86][87] which she tossed into the dust,[86][87] impregnating "Gaia and causing her to give birth to "Erichthonius,[86][87] whom Athena adopted as her own child.[86] The Roman mythographer "Hyginus[76] records a similar story in which Hephaestus demanded Zeus to let him marry Athena since he was the one who had smashed open Zeus's skull, allowing Athena to be born.[86] Zeus agreed to this and Hephaestus and Athena were married,[86] but, when Hephaestus was about to consummate the union, Athena vanished from the bridal bed, causing him to ejaculate on the floor, thus impregnating Gaia with Erichthonius.[86]

The geographer "Pausanias[76] records that Athena placed the infant Erichthonius into a small chest[88] (cista), which she entrusted to the care of the three daughters of "Cecrops: "Herse, "Pandrosos, and "Aglauros of Athens.[88] She warned the three sisters not the open the chest,[88] but did not explain to them why or what was in it.[88] Aglauros, and possibly one of the other sisters,[88] opened the chest.[88] Differing reports say that they either found that the child itself was a serpent, that it was guarded by a serpent, that it was guarded by two serpents, or that it had the legs of a serpent.[89] In Pausanias's story, the two sisters were driven mad by the sight of the chest's contents and hurled themselves off the "Acropolis, dying instantly,[90] but an Attic vase painting shows them being chased by the serpent off the edge of the cliff instead.[90] Erichthonius was one of the most important founding heroes of Athens[87] and the legend of the daughters of Cecrops was a cult myth linked to the rituals of the "Arrhephoria festival.[87]

Another version of the myth of the Athenian maidens is told in "Metamorphoses by the Roman poet "Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD); in this late variant "Hermes falls in love with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse. Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes gives her the money the sisters have already offered to Athena. As punishment for Aglaulus's greed, Athena asks the goddess "Envy to make Aglaulus jealous of Herse. When Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to stone.[91]

Medusa and Tiresias[edit]

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Classical Greek depiction of "Medusa from the fourth century BC

In a late myth, "Medusa, unlike her sister "Gorgons, came to be viewed by the Greeks of the 5th century as a beautiful mortal that served as priestess in Athena's temple. Poseidon lusted after Medusa, and decided to rape her in the temple of Athena, refusing to allow her vow of chastity to stand in his way.[92] Upon discovering the desecration of her temple, Athena changed Medusa's form to match that of her sister Gorgons as punishment. Medusa's hair turned into snakes, her lower body was transformed also, and meeting her gaze would turn any living man to stone. In the earliest myths, there is only one Gorgon, but there are two snakes that form a belt around her waist.

In one version of the "Tiresias myth, Tiresias stumbled upon Athena bathing, and he was struck blind by her to ensure he would never again see what man was not intended to see but having lost his eyesight, he was given a special gift—to be able to understand the language of the birds and thus foretell the future.[93]

Lady of Athens[edit]

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The Dispute of "Minerva and "Neptune by "René-Antoine Houasse (circa 1689 or 1706)

In a "founding myth reported by "Pseudo-Apollodorus,[76] Athena competed with "Poseidon for the patronage of Athens.[94] They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift[94] and that "Cecrops, the king of Athens, would determine which gift was better.[94] Poseidon struck the ground with his "trident and a salt water spring sprang up;[94] this gave the Athenians access to trade and water.[95] Athens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the "Persian fleet at the "Battle of Salamis[95]—but the water was salty and undrinkable.[95] In an alternative version of the myth from "Vergil's "Georgics,[76] Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse.[94]

Athena offered the first domesticated "olive tree.[94][39] Cecrops accepted this gift[94] and declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens.[94] The olive tree brought wood, oil, and food,[95] and became a symbol of Athenian economic prosperity.[39][96] "Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths",[95] which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions.[95]

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Athena and Heracles on an "Attic red-figure "kylix, 480–470 BC

Counselor[edit]

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Silver coin showing Athena with "Scylla decorated helmet and Heracles fighting the Nemean lion ("Heraclea Lucania, 390-340 BC)

According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's "Bibliotheca, Athena guided the hero "Perseus in his quest to behead "Medusa.[97] Other late sources report that she instructed "Heracles to skin the "Nemean Lion by using its own claws to cut through its thick hide. She also helped Heracles to defeat the "Stymphalian Birds, and to navigate the underworld so as to capture "Cerberus.

In "The Odyssey, "Odysseus' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins Athena's favour. For the first part of the poem, however, she largely is confined to aiding him only from afar, mainly by implanting thoughts in his head during his journey home from Troy. Her guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as mythologian "Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing.[98] It is not until he washes up on the shore of the island of the "Phaeacians, where "Nausicaa is washing her clothes that Athena arrives personally to provide more tangible assistance. She appears in Nausicaa's dreams to ensure that the princess rescues Odysseus and plays a role in his eventual escort to Ithaca.

Athena appears in disguise to Odysseus upon his arrival, initially lying and telling him that Penelope, his wife, has remarried and that he is believed to be dead; but Odysseus lies back to her, employing skillful prevarications to protect himself.[99] Impressed by his resolve and shrewdness, she reveals herself and tells him what he needs to know in order to win back his kingdom. She disguises him as an elderly man or beggar so that he cannot be noticed by the suitors or Penelope, and helps him to defeat the suitors.

Athena also appears to Odysseus's son Telemachos. Her actions lead him to travel around to Odysseus's comrades and ask about his father. He hears stories about some of Odysseus's journey. Athena's push for Telemachos's journey helps him grow into the man role, that his father once held.

She also plays a role in ending the resultant feud against the suitors' relatives. She instructs "Laertes to throw his spear and to kill "Eupeithes, the father of "Antinous.

Judgment of Paris[edit]

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Urteil des Paris by "Anton Raphael Mengs, c. 1857. Paris is awarding the golden apple to Aphrodite; Athena is the one on the right with the scowl, shown facing away.

In one myth, all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of "Peleus and "Thetis (the eventual parents of "Achilles). Only "Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited. She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.

The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a "Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of "Mount Ida where Troy was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his decision. The goddesses undressed before him to be evaluated, either at his request or by their own choice.

Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera tried to bribe Paris with control over all "Asia and "Europe, while Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle, but Aphrodite came forth and whispered to Paris that if he were to choose her as the fairest he would have the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was "Helen, who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King "Menelaus of "Sparta. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks in the "Trojan War.

Roman fable of Arachne[edit]

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The "fable of "Arachne is a late Roman addition to Classical "Greek mythology[Notes 8] that does not appear in any Greek texts from the "Classical Era or in the myth repertoire of the Attic vase-painters. Arachne's name means spider in ancient Greek.[100] Arachne was the daughter of a famous dyer in "Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of "Lydia, and a weaving student of Athena. She became so conceited of her skill as a weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena herself.

Athena gave Arachne a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form of an old woman and warning Arachne not to offend the deities. Arachne scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so she could prove her skill.

Athena wove the scene of her victory over "Poseidon that had inspired her patronage of Athens. According to Ovid's Latin narrative, Arachne's tapestry featured twenty-one episodes of the infidelity of the deities, including "Zeus being unfaithful with "Leda, with "Europa, and with "Danaë. Athena admitted that Arachne's work was flawless, but was outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subjects that displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities. Finally, losing her temper, Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it with her shuttle.

Athena then struck Arachne with her staff, which changed her into a spider. In some versions, the destruction of her loom leads Arachne to hang herself in despair; Athena takes pity on her, and transforms her into a spider. In the aforementioned version, Arachne weaved scenes of joy while Athena weaved scenes of horror.

The fable suggests that the origin of weaving lay in imitation of spiders and that it was considered to have been perfected first in "Asia Minor.

Classical art[edit]

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Restoration of the "polychrome decoration of the Athena statue from the "Aphaea temple at "Aegina, c. 490 BC (from the exposition "Bunte Götter" by the Munich "Glyptothek)

Classically, Athena is portrayed wearing a full-length "chiton, and sometimes in armor, with her helmet raised high on the forehead to reveal the image of "Nike. Her shield bears at its centre the aegis with the head of the gorgon (gorgoneion) in the center and snakes around the edge. It is in this standing posture that she was depicted in "Phidias's famous lost "gold and ivory statue of her, 36 m tall, the "Athena Parthenos in the "Parthenon. Athena also often is depicted with an "owl sitting on one of her shoulders.[Notes 9]

The "Mourning Athena is a relief sculpture that dates around 460 BC and portrays a weary Athena resting on a staff. In earlier, archaic portraits of Athena in "black-figure pottery, the goddess retains some of her Minoan-Mycenaean character, such as great bird wings although this is not true of archaic sculpture such as those of "Aphaean Athena, where Athena has subsumed an earlier, invisibly numinous—"Aphaea—goddess with Cretan connections in her mythos.

Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in late sculpture from the Classical period, the 5th century onward, as to what Athena looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps the full round strong, chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as a natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is depicted fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The neck is somewhat long. The net result is a serene, serious, somewhat aloof, and very classical beauty.

Post-classical culture[edit]

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"Minerva and the Triumph of "Jupiter by "René-Antoine Houasse (1706)

Early Christian writers such as "Clement of Alexandria and "Firmicus denigrated Athena as representative of all the things that were detestable about paganism;[101] they condemned her as "immodest and immoral".[102] During the Middle Ages, however, many attributes of Athena were given to the "Virgin Mary,[102] who, in fourth century portrayals, was often depicted wearing the "Gorgoneion.[102] Some even viewed the Virgin Mary as a warrior maiden, much like Athena Parthenos;[102] one anecdote tells that the Virgin Mary once appeared upon the walls of "Constantinople when it was under siege by the Avars, clutching a spear and urging the people to fight.[103] During the Middle Ages, Athena became widely used as a Christian symbol and allegory; she appeared on the family crests of certain noble houses.[104]

During the Renaissance, Athena donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human endeavor;[105] allegorical paintings involving Athena were a favorite of the Italian Renaissance painters.[105] During the "French Revolution, statues of pagan gods were torn down all throughout France, but statues of Athena were not.[106] Instead, Athena was transformed into the personification of freedom and the republic and a statue of the goddess stood in the center of the "Place de la Revolution in Paris.[106] In the years following the Revolution, artistic representations of Athena proliferated.[107]

For over a century, "a full-scale replica of the Parthenon has stood in "Nashville, Tennessee.[108] In 1990, the curators added a gilded forty-two foot (12.5 m) tall "replica of Phidias's Athena Parthenos, built from concrete and fiberglass.[108] The state "seal of California features an image of Athena (or Minerva) kneeling next to a brown grizzly bear.[109]

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Modern silver medallion depicting Athena from the Academie voor Beeldende Kunst en Technische Wetenshappen in "Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Athena is a natural patron of universities: she is the symbol of the "Darmstadt University of Technology, in Germany, and the "Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. Her image can be found in the shields of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters and the Faculty of Sciences of the "National Autonomous University of Mexico, where her owl is the symbol of the Faculty of Chemistry. Her helmet appears upon the shield of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. At "Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania a statue of Athena (a replica of the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library) resides in the Great Hall. It is traditional at exam time for students to leave offerings to the goddess with a note asking for good luck, or to repent for accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other traditions. Athena's owl also serves as the mascot of the college, and one of the college hymns is "Pallas Athena". Pallas Athena is the tutelary goddess of the international social fraternity "Phi Delta Theta.[110] Her owl is also a symbol of the fraternity.[110]

"Jean Boucher's statue of the seated skeptical thinker "Ernest Renan caused great controversy when it was installed in Tréguier, "Brittany in 1902. Renan's 1862 biography of Jesus had denied his divinity, and he had written the "Prayer on the Acropolis" addressed to the goddess Athena. The statue was placed in the square fronted by the cathedral. Renan's head was turned away from the building, while Athena, beside him, was depicted raising her arm, which was interpreted as indicating a challenge to the church during an anti-clerical phase in French official culture. The installation was accompanied by a mass protest from local Roman Catholics and a religious service against the growth of "skepticism and "secularism.[111]

Athena has been used numerous times as a symbol of a republic by different countries and appears on currency as she did on the ancient "drachma of Athens. Athena (Minerva) is the subject of the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific "commemorative coin. At 2.5 troy oz (78 g) gold, this is the largest (by "weight) coin ever produced by the "U.S. Mint. This was the first $50 coin issued by the U.S. Mint and no higher was produced until the production of the $100 platinum coins in 1997. Of course, in terms of face-value in adjusted dollars, the 1915 is the highest denomination ever issued by the U.S. Mint.["citation needed]

Genealogy[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to "Hesiod's "Theogony, Metis was Athena's mother, but, according to "Homer's "Iliad, after Zeus swallowed Metis because she was pregnant with Athena (to prevent the birth), Athena sprang forth from the head of Zeus nonetheless and later it was declared that she "had no mother"
  2. ^ "The citizens have a deity for their foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athena; they are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them." ("Timaeus 21e.)
  3. ^ "Aeschylus, "Eumenides, v. 292 f.. Cf. the tradition that she was the daughter of Neilos: see, e. g. Clement of Alexandria Protr. 2.28.2; Cicero, "De Natura Deorum 3.59.
  4. ^ "This sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the "Peloponnesians, and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants" (Pausanias, Description of Greece iii.5.6)
  5. ^ Compare the origin of "Sparta.
  6. ^ Jane Ellen Harrison's famous characterization of this myth-element as, "a desperate theological expedient to rid an earth-born Kore of her matriarchal conditions" (Harrison 1922:302) has never been refuted nor confirmed.
  7. ^ The prophecy concerning "Thetis bears certain similarities to this account.
  8. ^ The Arachne narrative is in "Ovid's "Metamorphoses (vi.5–54 and 129–145) and mentioned in "Virgil's "Georgics, iv, 246.
  9. ^ The owl's role as a symbol of wisdom originates in this association with Athena.
  10. ^ According to "Hesiod's "Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  11. ^ According to "Homer, "Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, "Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  12. ^ According to "Hesiod, "Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  13. ^ According to "Hesiod, "Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  14. ^ According to "Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus ("Iliad 3.374, 20.105; "Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione ("Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c Deacy & Villing 2001.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Burkert 1985, p. 139.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Burkert 1985, p. 140.
  5. ^ a b c d e Ruck & Staples 1994, p. 24.
  6. ^ a b Beekes 2009, p. 29.
  7. ^ Johrens 1981, pp. 438-452.
  8. ^ a b Nilsson 1967, pp. 347, 433.
  9. ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 133.
  10. ^ Kinsely 1989, pp. 141-142.
  11. ^ "KN V 52, text 208 in Ventris and Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, p. 126 f.
  12. ^ "Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages". Palaeolexicon.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
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  15. ^ "KO Za 1 inscription, line 1.
  16. ^ Cfr. Ventris and Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, p. 126 f.
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  18. ^ a b Mylonas 1966, p. 159.
  19. ^ a b c Fururmark 1978, p. 672.
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  47. ^ γλαυκός in "Liddell and "Scott.
  48. ^ ὤψ in "Liddell and "Scott.
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  74. ^ "Pindar, Seventh Olympian Ode
  75. ^ Justin, Apology 64.5, quoted in Robert McQueen Grant, Gods and the One God, vol. 1:155, who observes that it is "Porphyry "who similarly identifies Athena with 'forethought'".
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Bibliography[edit]

Ancient sources[edit]

Modern sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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