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Automatic writing or psychography is a claimed psychic ability allowing a person to produce written words without consciously writing. The words purportedly arise from a subconscious, "spiritual or "supernatural source.[1] Scientists and skeptics consider automatic writing to be the result of the "ideomotor effect[2][3][4][5] and even proponents of automatic writing admit it has been the source of innumerable cases of self-delusion.[6] Automatic writing is not the same thing as "free writing.

Contents

History[edit]

An early example of the practice is the 16th century "Enochian language, allegedly dictated to "John Dee and "Edward Kelley by "Enochian angels and integral to the practice of "Enochian magic.[7]

"William Fletcher Barrett wrote "Automatic messages may take place either by the writer passively holding a pencil on a sheet of paper, or by the "planchette, or by a 'ouija board'."[8] In "spiritualism, spirits are claimed to take control of the hand of a "medium to write messages, letters, and even entire books. Automatic writing can happen in a trance or waking state.[9] The "Surrealist poet "Robert Desnos claimed he was among the most gifted in automatic writing.[10] Some "psychical researchers such as "Thomson Jay Hudson have claimed no spirits are involved in automatic writing and the "subconscious mind is the explanation.[11]

Automatic writing as a spiritual practice was reported by "Hyppolyte Taine in the preface to the third edition of his De l'intelligence, published in 1878.[12] Besides "ethereal visions" or "magnetic auras", "Fernando Pessoa claimed to have experienced automatic writing. He said he felt "owned by something else", sometimes feeling a sensation in the right arm he claimed was lifted into the air without his will.[13] Georgie Hyde-Lees, the wife of "William Butler Yeats, also claimed she could write automatically.[14] "Sri Aurobindo as well as The Mother ("Mirra Alfassa) regularly practiced Automatic writing.

A prominent alleged example of automatic writing is the Brattleboro hoax. When "Charles Dickens died in 1870 he left The "Mystery of Edwin Drood unfinished. According to the itinerent printer "T. P. James this angered Dicken's spirit so much that he channeled the rest of the novel through James's hand. This is supposed to have begun on Christmas eve 1872 and continued in thrice weekly sessions until completion.[15]

Shortly after his 1917 marriage to "Georgie Hyde-Lees the poet "W. B. Yeats came to be heavily influenced by her delving into what they referred to as "the automatic script".[16]

The medium "Pierre L. O. A. Keeler had an alleged spirit writing communication from "Abraham Lincoln currently exhibited at the Lily Dale Museum. Despite Lincoln being a well known skeptic and Keeler having been known to employ magician's tricks this is used as one of the many examples of skeptics purportedly endorsing spiritualism—posthumously.[6]

"Arthur Conan Doyle, in his book The New Revelation (1918), wrote automatic writing occurs either by the writer's subconscious or by external spirits operating through the writer.[17] Doyle and his wife led an automatic writing séance with "Harry Houdini where Lady Doyle wrote fifteen pages of purported messages from Houdini's mother although this information was immediately discounted as fraudulent by Houdini.[18]

There was an apocalyptic cult led by a lapsed "Scientologist named Keech. He and his followers were waiting for an alien ship to take them to the nonexistent planet Clarion and save them from a worldwide flood that was to commence at midnight on December 20, 1954. When that didn't occur Keech allegedly got an automatic writing message from God calling the whole thing off.[19][20]

In 1975, Wendy Hart of "Maidenhead claimed she wrote automatically about Nicholas Moore, a sea captain who died in 1642.[21] Also in 1975 the "CIA attempted to employ "remote viewing through the "Stargate Project. In the spring of 1989 "Defense Intelligence Agency's remote viewing unit was called in to assist in locating the fugitive Charlie Jordan. One Angela Dellafiora employed a form of automatic writing she called written remote viewing. Although there are conflicting accounts of exactly where she claimed Jordan was she was apparently able to describe his location "somewhere in northern Wyoming, near a campground" accurately.[22]

"David Icke claims to have been alerted he was a Son of the Godhead through his automatic writing.[23] "Vassula Ryden claims to receive and transcribe messages from her guardian angel Daniel, Jesus, Yahweh.[24] She has provoked both skepticism and credulity from Catholic laity and clergy, as well as the skeptical community at large.[25] Alleged cases of automatic writing have included "Joseph Smith[26], "Patience Worth[5], "Aleister Crowley[27], "Jane Roberts[28], "Helen Schucman [29] and "Neale Donald Walsch.[30][31]

Scientific analysis and skepticism[edit]

Scientists and skeptics consider automatic writing to be the result of the "ideomotor effect.[2][3][4][5]

In an 1890 paper on hypnotism "Morton Prince claims, "automatic writing is not a purely unconscious reflex act, but, the product of conscious individuality.", and further claims that the hand writing is under the control of a separate hypnotic personality during trances.[32][33]

Physician "Charles Arthur Mercier in the "British Medical Journal (1894) criticized the spiritualist interpretation of automatic writing, concluding, "there is no need nor room for the agency of spirits, and the invocation of such agency is the sign of a mind not merely unscientific, but uninformed".[34]

Psychology professor "Théodore Flournoy investigated the claim by nineteenth-century medium "Hélène Smith (Catherine Müller) she did automatic writing to convey messages from "Mars in Martian language. Flournoy concluded her "Martian" language had a strong resemblance to Ms. Smith's native language of French and her automatic writing was "romances of the subliminal imagination, derived largely from forgotten sources (for example, books read as a child)". He invented the term "cryptomnesia to describe this phenomenon.[35]

In 1927, psychiatrist "Harold Dearden wrote automatic writing is a psychological method of "tapping" the unconscious mind and there is nothing mysterious about it.[36]

According to skeptical investigator "Joe Nickell, "automatic writing is produced while one is in a dissociated state. It is a form of motor automatism, or unconscious muscular activity."[37]

Paranormal investigator "Harry Price exposed the supposed "spirit writing in the "Borley Rectory as the wall-scrawling of a housewife attempting to hide an extramarital affair.[5]

Neurologist "Terence Hines has written "automatic writing is an example of a milder form of "dissociative state".[38]

In 1986 A. B. Joseph investigated two female patients who were found to exhibit "ictal "hypergraphia.[39]

Automatic writing behavior was discovered by Dilek Evyapan and Emre Kumral in three patients with "right hemispheric damage.[40]

"Ian Stevenson claims the most likely origin for the phenomena is not "communication from discarnate persons" but instead alternate personalities or "cryptomnesia. Although he does allow for the possibility it may be spiritual communication.[41]

A 2012 study of ten "psychographers using "single photon emission computed tomography showed differences in brain activity and writing complexity during alleged trance states vs. normal state writing.[42]

Pop culture and media[edit]

In a "GQ interview, "David Byrne indicates an interest in automatic writing due to the influence of "Brian Eno.[43]

Automatic writing is touted by medium Bonnie Page in a Sentinel and Enterprise article as a method of accessing "claircognizance abilities.[44]

Portions of "Van Morrison's album "Astral Weeks are supposedly inspired by dreams, reveries, and automatic writing.[45]

Czech director "Jan Svankmajer claims he concocted the screenplay for his hybrid film Insect (Hmyz) in a fit of automatic writing.[46]

"William S. Burroughs has described his book "Naked Lunch as "automatic writing gone horribly wrong" and believed he found his subconscious taken over by a hostile entity.[47][48]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Spence, Lewis. (2003). An Encyclopaedia of Occultism. Dover Edition. p. 56. "ISBN "0-486-42613-0
  2. ^ a b Burgess, C.A., Kirsch, I., Shane, H., Niederauer, K.L., Graham, S.M., & Bacon, A. (1998). Facilitated Communication as an Ideomotor Response. Psychological Science 9: 71-74.
  3. ^ a b Heap, Michael. (2002). Ideomotor Effect (the Ouija Board Effect). In "Michael Shermer. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 127-129. "ISBN "1-57607-654-7
  4. ^ a b Erickson, Milton H; Hershman, Seymour: Secter, Irving I. (2014). The Practical Application of Medical and Dental Hypnosis. Routledge. pp. 68-69. "ISBN "0-87630-570-2
  5. ^ a b c d "Stollznow, Karen (2011). "Bad Language" (3). Skeptic Magazine. 
  6. ^ a b "Nickell, Joe. "Abraham Lincoln: An Instance of Alleged 'Spirit Writing'". csicop.org. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  7. ^ "Stollznow, Karen. (2014). Language Myths, Mysteries and Magic. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 114. "ISBN "978-1-137-40484-8
  8. ^ "William Fletcher Barrett On the Threshold of the Unseen Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 162
  9. ^ Dictionary Definition
  10. ^ "Thacker, Eugene. "THE PERIOD OF THE SLEEPING FITS". Metamute.org. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  11. ^ "Thomson Jay Hudson The Law of Psychic Phenomena Wildhern Press, 2009, p. 252
  12. ^ "Taine, Hippolyte (1870). De l'intelligence. p. 252. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  13. ^ "Pessoa, Fernando (1999), Correspondência 1905-1922, Assírio & Alvim, pp. 214–219, "ISBN "978-85-7164-916-3 .
  14. ^ Marjorie Elizabeth Howes, John S. Kelly The Cambridge Companion to W.B. Yeats 2006, p. 11
  15. ^ Heller, Paul. "DICKENS in the SPIRIT WORLD — the Brattleboro hoax". rutlandherald.com. The Rutland Herald. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  16. ^ Hedayati-Rad, Arjang. "W. B. Yeats, George Hyde-Lees, and the Automatic Script". CSUN.edu. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  17. ^ "Arthur Conan Doyle The New Revelation 2010 Reprint Edition, p. 47
  18. ^ "Loxton, James; Loxton, Daniel. "Great American Skeptics" (PDF). Skeptic.com. Pat Linse. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  19. ^ Sharps, Matthew J.; Liao, Schuyler W.; Herrera, Megan R. "Remembrance of Apocalypse Past: The Psychology of True Believers When Nothing Happens". csicop.org. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  20. ^ Debies-Carl, Jeffrey S. "Pizzagate and Beyond: Using Social Research to Understand Conspiracy Legends". csicop.org. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  21. ^ "Rabey, Arthur Ivan (1979). The book of St Columb & St Mawgan - the story of two ancient parishes. Buckingham - Barracuda Books. "ISBN "0860230589. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  22. ^ "Nickell, Joe. "Remotely Viewed? The Charlie Jordan Case". csicop.org. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "Richardson, Andy. "Controversial conspiracy theorist David Icke is doing a secret gig in Birmingham". birminghammail.co.uk. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  24. ^ Curty, Christian. "A Letter of Our Lord to His Church". True Life in God. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  25. ^ "Nickell, Joe. "Heaven's Stenographer: The 'Guided' Hand of Vassula Ryden". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Center for Inquiry. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  26. ^ Dunn, Scott C. (2002). "Automaticity and the Dictation of the Book of Mormon". American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon. Vogel, Dan, and Metcalfe, Brent Lee, Eds. Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books. "ISBN "1560851511. "OCLC 47870060. 
  27. ^ "Crowley, Aleister. "The Book of the Law". Archive.org. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  28. ^ Seth (Spirit); Roberts, Jane; Butts, Robert F. (1994). Seth Speaks: The Eternal Validity of the Soul. New World Library. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  29. ^ A Course in Miracles. A Course in Miracles (1975). 1975. "ISBN "9780670869756. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  30. ^ "Walsch, Neale D. (29 October 1996). Conversations with God: An Uncommon Dialogue Book 1. Tarcher Perigee. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  31. ^ Sue Lim Good Spirits, Bad Spirits: How to Distinguish Between Them 2002, p. 82
  32. ^ "Prince, Morton (1975). Psychotherapy and Multiple Personality: Selected Essays, Volume 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 37–60. "ISBN "0674722256. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  33. ^ "Prince, Morton (15 May 1890). "Some of the Revelations of Hypnotism — Post-Hypnotic Suggestion, Automatic Writing and Double Personality". Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. CXXII (20): 463–467. "doi:10.1056/NEJM189005151222001. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  34. ^ "Mercier, Charles Arthur. (1894). "Automatic Writing". British Medical Journal. 1 (1726): 198-199.
  35. ^ "Randi, James. (1995). "An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural. St. Martin's Press. p. 22. "ISBN "0-312-15119-5
  36. ^ "Dearden, Harold. (April 9, 1927). How Spiritualists are Deluded. "The Graphic pp. 50-51.
  37. ^ "Nickell, Joe. (2007). "A Case of Automatic Writing From Robert G. Ingersoll’s Spirit?". Csicop.org. Retrieved 2014-10-11.
  38. ^ "Hines, Terence. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 48. "ISBN "1-57392-979-4
  39. ^ Joseph, A. B. (1986). "A hypergraphic syndrome of automatic writing, affective disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy in two patients". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 47 (5): 255–257. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  40. ^ Evyapan, Dilek; Kumral, Emre, (2001). Visuospatial Stimulus-Bound Automatic Writing Behavior: A Right Hemispheric Stroke Syndrome. Neurology 56: 245-247.
  41. ^ "Stevenson, Ian (October 1978). "Some Comments on Automatic Writing" (PDF). Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. 72: 315–332. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  42. ^ Perez, Julio Fernando; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Caixeta, Leonardo; Leao, Frederico; Newberg, Andrew (16 November 2012). "Neuroimaging during Trance State: A Contribution to the Study of Dissociation". PLOS One. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  43. ^ Pappademas, Alex. "This Must Be David Byrne". GQ.com. GQ. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  44. ^ Page, Bonnie (17 April 2018). "'Know' something without knowing why? You could be claircognizant". Sentinel & Enterprise. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  45. ^ Michaud, Jon. "The Miracle of Van Morrison's "Astral Weeks"". Newyorker.com. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  46. ^ Mintzer, Jordan. "'Insect' ('Hmyz'): Film Review - Rotterdam 2018". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  47. ^ "WILLIAM S. BURROUGHS & SURREALIST WRITING METHODS". knowledgelost.org. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
  48. ^ Wills, David S. "What the Beats can teach us about writing". beatdom.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 

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External links[edit]

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