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Modern assembly line
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A video showing new "SEAT, "Škoda & "Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at "Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the "design, "development, "manufacturing, "marketing, and "selling of "motor vehicles,[1] some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important "economic sectors by "revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as "automobile repair shops and "motor fuel "filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by "Elmer Sperry.[2]

Contents

History[edit]

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"Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
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"Citroën assembly line in 1918

The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the "horseless carriage. For many decades, the "United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the "Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3] After "World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[4] From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.[5]

Safety[edit]

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or "manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the autmobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. "Automobiles and other "motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard "ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive "functional safety.[6]

In case of safety issues, danger, "product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called "product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the "value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy[edit]

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[7] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of "Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four "BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[8] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[9] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are "Iran and "Indonesia.[10] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global "light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[11][12] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.[8] In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.[13]

World motor vehicle production[edit]

World Motor Vehicle Production[14]
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Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s; Post war increase

1970s; "Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s; production started in "NICs

2000s; rise of China as top producer

"Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
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to 1950; USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.[15]

1950s; UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s; Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s; Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s; China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country.

2013; The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%.

By year[edit]

[35]

Year Production Change Source
1997 54,434,000   [16]
1998 52,987,000 -2.7% [16]
1999 56,258,892 6.2% [17]
2000 58,374,162 3.8% [18]
2001 56,304,925 -3.5% [19]
2002 58,994,318 4.8% [20]
2003 60,663,225 2.8% [21]
2004 64,496,220 6.3% [22]
2005 66,482,439 3.1% [23]
2006 69,222,975 4.1% [24]
2007 73,266,061 5.8% [25]
2008 70,520,493 -3.7% [26]
2009 61,791,868 -12.4% [27]
2010 77,857,705 26.0% [28]
2011 79,989,155 3.1% [29]
2012 84,141,209 5.3% [30]
2013 87,300,115 3.7% [31]
2014 89,747,430 2.6% [32]
2015 90,086,346 0.4% [33]
2016 94,976,569 4.5% [34]
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Car Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
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Global automobile import and export in 2011

By country[edit]

The "OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble or manufacture automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.[36]

Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2016
Country Motor vehicle production (units)
 "China
28,118,794
 "United States
12,198,137
 "Japan
9,204,590
 "Germany
6,062,562
 "India
4,488,965
 "South Korea
4,228,509
 "Mexico
3,597,462
 "Spain
2,885,922
 "Canada
2,370,271
 "Brazil
2,156,356
 "France
2,082,000
 "Thailand
1,944,417
 "United Kingdom
1,816,622
 "Turkey
1,485,927
 "Czech Republic
1,349,896
 "Russia
1,303,989
 "Indonesia
1,177,389
 "Iran
1,164,710
 "Italy
1,103,516
 "Slovakia
1,040,000

"Production Statistics". "OICA. 

By manufacturer[edit]

This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2015[35]

Rank Group Country Vehicles
1 "Toyota  "Japan 10,083,831
2 "Volkswagen Group  "Germany 9,872,424
3 "General Motors
(with "SAIC-GM)
 "United States 7,485,587
(9,490,835)[a]
4 "Hyundai / Kia  "South Korea 7,988,479
5 "Ford  "United States 6,396,369
6 "Nissan  "Japan 5,170,074
7 "Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy /  "United States 4,865,233
8 "Honda  "Japan 4,543,838
9 "Suzuki  "Japan 3,034,081
10 "Renault  "France 3,032,652
11 "PSA  "France 2,982,035
12 "BMW  "Germany 2,279,503
13 "SAIC  "China 2,260,579
14 "Daimler  "Germany 2,134,645
15 "Mazda  "Japan 1,540,576

Company relationships[edit]

Stake holding[edit]

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:["citation needed]

Joint ventures[edit]

Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume[edit]

The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the "marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2015 production figures from the "International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[42][43]

"Marque "Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. "Toyota ( "Japan)
"Daihatsu "Japan Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea), Africa, South America
"Hino "Japan Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean
"Lexus "Japan Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
"Toyota "Japan Division Global, except Iran
2. "Volkswagen AG ( "Germany)
"Audi "Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran
"Bentley "United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
"Bugatti "France Subsidiary Global, except Australia
"Ducati "Italy Subsidiary Global
"Lamborghini "Italy Subsidiary Global
"MAN "Germany Subsidiary Global, except North America
"Navistar International "United States Subsidiary North America, South America, Russia, UK, Greece, Eastern Europe, India, Middle East, China, Singapore, South Korea
"Porsche "Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba
"Scania "Sweden Subsidiary Global, except North America
"SEAT "Spain Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa
"Škoda "Czech Republic Subsidiary Europe, Asia (Except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
"Volkswagen "Germany Division Global
"Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles "Germany Subsidiary Global
"VTB "Brazil Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa
3. "General Motors ( "United States)
"Buick "United States Business Unit North America, China, Israel
"Cadillac "United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea
"Chevrolet "United States Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand
"GMC "United States Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel)
"Holden "Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
"JieFang "China Business Unit China
"Opel[b] "Germany Business Unit Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile
"SAIC-GM "China Business Unit China
"Vauxhall[b] "United Kingdom Business Unit United Kingdom
"UzDaewoo "Uzbekistan Business Unit Central Asia, Russia
4. "Hyundai / Kia ( "South Korea)
"Genesis "South Korea Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Middle East
"Hyundai "South Korea Division Global
"Kia "South Korea Subsidiary Global, except Japan
5. "Ford ( "United States)
"Ford "United States Division Global
"Lincoln "United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
"Troller Veículos Especiais "Brazil Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe
6. "Nissan ( "Japan)
"Datsun "Japan Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
"Infiniti "Japan Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa)
"Nissan "Japan Division Global
7. "Fiat Chrysler Automobiles ( "Italy)
"Abarth "Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran
"Alfa Romeo "Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines
"Chrysler "United States Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
"Dodge "United States Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
"Fiat "Italy Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
"Fiat Professional "Italy Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada
"Jeep "United States Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
"Lancia "Italy Division Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland)
"Maserati "Italy Subsidiary Global
"Ram "United States Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru
8. "Honda ( "Japan)
"Acura "Japan Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia
"Honda "Japan Division Global
9. "Suzuki ( "Japan)
"Suzuki "Japan Division Global, except United States, Canada, North Korea, South Korea
"Maruti Suzuki "India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
10. "Renault ( "France)
"Alpine "France Subsidiary
"AvtoVAZ "Russia Joint venture ownership
"Dacia "Romania Subsidiary
"Renault "France Subsidiary
"Renault Samsung Motors "South Korea Subsidiary
"Renault Sport "France Subsidiary

Car makes and parent companies[edit]

The table below lists most car makes and their parent companies.

Parent (Owner) Parent Country Make Make Country
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Abarth  "Italy
"Honda  "Japan "Acura  "Japan
"Polaris Industries  "United States "Aixam  "France
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Alfa Romeo  "Italy
"Renault  "France "Alpine  "France
"Aston Martin  "United Kingdom "Aston Martin  "United Kingdom
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Audi  "Germany
"SAIC-GM-Wuling  "China/ "United States "Baojun  "China
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Bentley  "United Kingdom
"BMW  "Germany "BMW  "Germany
"Brilliance  "China "Brilliance  "China
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Bugatti  "France
"General Motors  "United States "Buick  "United States
"BYD  "China "BYD  "China
"General Motors  "United States "Cadillac  "United States
"Caterham  "United Kingdom "Caterham  "United Kingdom
"Chang'an  "China "Chang'an  "China
"General Motors  "United States "Chevrolet  "United States
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Chrysler  "United States
"Groupe PSA  "France "Citroën  "France
"Renault  "France "Dacia  "Romania
"Toyota  "Japan "Daihatsu  "Japan
"Nissan  "Japan "Datsun  "Japan
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Dodge  "United States
"Dongfeng Motor Corporation  "China Dongfeng  "China
"Groupe PSA  "France "DS  "France
"Dongfeng Motor Corporation  "China "Dongfeng Fengshen  "China
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Fiat  "Italy
"Wanxiang  "China "Karma  "United States
"Ford  "United States "Ford  "United States
"Ferrari  "Italy "Ferrari  "Italy
"Geely  "China "Geely  "China
"Hyundai Motor Group  "South Korea "Genesis  "South Korea
"General Motors  "United States "GMC  "United States
"Toyota  "Japan "Hino Motors  "Japan
"General Motors  "United States "Holden (HSV)  "Australia
"Honda  "Japan "Honda  "Japan
"Hyundai Motor Group  "South Korea "Hyundai  "South Korea
"Nissan  "Japan "Infiniti  "Japan
"Isuzu Motors  "Japan "Isuzu  "Japan
"Tata Motors  "India "Jaguar  "United Kingdom
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Jeep  "United States
"FAW Group / "FAW-GM  "China/ "United States "Jie Fang  "China
"Kantanka Group Conglomerate  "Ghana "Kantanka  "Ghana
"Koenigsegg  "Sweden "Koenigsegg  "Sweden
"Hyundai Motor Group  "South Korea "Kia  "South Korea
"Renault  "France "Lada  "Russia
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Lamborghini  "Italy
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Lancia  "Italy
"Tata Motors  "India "Land Rover  "United Kingdom
"Toyota  "Japan "Lexus  "Japan
"Ligier  "France "Ligier  "France
"Ford  "United States "Lincoln  "United States
"Geely  "China "Lotus  "United Kingdom
"Geely  "China "LTI  "United Kingdom
"Yulon Motor  "Taiwan "Luxgen  "Taiwan
"Mahindra & Mahindra  "India "Mahindra  "India
"Suzuki  "Japan "Maruti Suzuki  "India
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Maserati  "Italy
"Mastretta  "Mexico "Mastretta  "Mexico
"Daimler AG  "Germany "Maybach  "Germany
"Mazda  "Japan "Mazda  "Japan
"McLaren Automotive  "United Kingdom "McLaren  "United Kingdom
"Daimler AG  "Germany "Mercedes-Benz  "Germany
"SAIC Motor  "China "MG  "United Kingdom
"Ligier  "France "Microcar  "France
"BMW  "Germany "Mini  "United Kingdom
"Nissan / "Mitsubishi Group  "Japan "Mitsubishi  "Japan
"Morgan Motor Company  "United Kingdom "Morgan  "United Kingdom
"National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS)  "Sweden NEVS  "Sweden
"Nissan  "Japan "Nissan  "Japan
Peter Dyson  "United Kingdom "Noble  "United Kingdom
"Groupe PSA  "France "Opel  "Germany
"Pagani Automobili  "Italy "Pagani  "Italy
"Perodua  "Malaysia "Perodua  "Malaysia
"Groupe PSA  "France "Peugeot  "France
"PGO  "France "PGO  "France
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Porsche  "Germany
"Geely / "DRB-HICOM  "China /  "Malaysia "PROTON  "Malaysia
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles  "Italy "Ram  "United States
"GM Uzbekistan  "Uzbekistan "Ravon  "Uzbekistan
"Renault  "France "Renault  "France
"SAIC Motor  "China "Roewe  "China
"BMW  "Germany "Rolls Royce  "United Kingdom
"Saleen  "United States "Saleen  "United States
"Iran Khodro (IKCO)  "Iran "Samand  "Iran
"Renault  "France "Renault Samsung Motors  "South Korea
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "SEAT  "Spain
"BAIC Motor  "China "Senova  "China
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Škoda  "Czech Republic
"Daimler AG  "Germany "Smart  "Germany
"Mahindra & Mahindra  "India "SsangYong  "South Korea
"Subaru Corporation  "Japan "Subaru  "Japan
"Suzuki  "Japan "Suzuki  "Japan
"Tata Motors  "India "Tata  "India
"Tesla  "United States "Tesla  "United States
"Saipa  "Iran "Tiba/Miniator  "Iran
"Toyota  "Japan "Toyota  "Japan
"Uniti Sweden AB  "Sweden "Uniti  "Sweden
"Groupe PSA  "France "Vauxhall  "United Kingdom
"Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. (Dongfeng-"Nissan)  "China/ "Japan "Venucia  "China
"Volkswagen Group  "Germany "Volkswagen  "Germany
"Geely  "China "Volvo Cars  "Sweden
"Vuhl  "Mexico "Vuhl  "Mexico
"SAIC-GM-Wuling  "China/ "United States "Wuling  "China

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Including production figures from the Chinese "SAIC-GM joint venture,[37] which the OICA left out from the 2015 GM total contrary to prior practice; they are combined here for consistency with previous years.
  2. ^ a b GM sold Opel and Vauxhall to French Groupe PSA in 2017.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "automotive industry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States (Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 15 (1): 20–35. 
  6. ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  10. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com. 
  11. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  12. ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  13. ^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles) | Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Rita.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  15. ^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  16. ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  18. ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  19. ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  20. ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  21. ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  22. ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  23. ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  24. ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  25. ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  26. ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  27. ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  28. ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  29. ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  30. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  31. ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  32. ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  33. ^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  34. ^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  35. ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
  36. ^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". "The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  37. ^ See SGMW in "World Motor Vehicle Production: Group SAIC, Year 2015" (PDF). "OICA. Retrieved 2017-04-02. 
  38. ^ "China's Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  39. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  40. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  41. ^ http://www.caradvice.com.au/572997/toyota-buys-stake-in-mazda-joint-us-factory-ev-development-planned/
  42. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  43. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 

External links[edit]

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