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Modern assembly line
A video showing new "SEAT, "Škoda & "Volkswagen cars being transported by rail at "Kutná Hora město train station in the Czech Republic

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the "design, "development, "manufacturing, "marketing, and "selling of "motor vehicles,[1] some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important "economic sectors by "revenue. The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as "automobile repair shops and "motor fuel "filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by "Elmer Sperry.[2]



"Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916
"Fiat assembly line in 1961

The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the "horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the "Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[3] After "World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and then became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[4] From 1970 (140 models) over 1998 (260 models) to 2012 (684 models), the number of automobile models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.[5]


Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or "manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the autmobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. "Automobiles and other "motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard "ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive "functional safety.[6]

In case of safety issues, danger, "product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called "product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the "value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences.


Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[7] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of "Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four "BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down.[8] It is also expected that this trend will continue, especially as the younger generations of people (in highly urbanized countries) no longer want to own a car anymore, and prefer other modes of transport.[9] Other potentially powerful automotive markets are "Iran and "Indonesia.[10] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global "light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate.[11][12] However, more recent reports (2012) confirmed the opposite; namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries.[8] In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units.[13]

World motor vehicle production[edit]

World Motor Vehicle Production[14]
Production volume (1000 vehicles)

1960s: Post war increase

1970s: "Oil crisis and tighter safety and emission regulation.

1990s: production started in "NICs

2000s: rise of China as top producer

"Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010
to 1950: USA had produced more than 80% of motor vehicles.[15]

1950s: UK, Germany and France restarted production.

1960s: Japan started production and increased volume through the 1980s. US, Japan, Germany, France and UK produced about 80% of motor vehicles through the 1980s.

1990s: Korea became a volume producer. In 2004, Korea became No. 5 passing France.

2000s: China increased its production drastically, and 2009 became the world largest producing country.

2013: The share of China (25.4%), Korea, India, Brazil and Mexico rose to 43%, while the share of USA (12.7%), Japan, Germany, France and UK fell to 34%.

By year[edit]


Year Production Change Source
1997 54,434,000 [16]
1998 52,987,000 Decrease 2.7% [16]
1999 56,258,892 Increase 6.2% [17]
2000 58,374,162 Increase 3.8% [18]
2001 56,304,925 Decrease 3.5% [19]
2002 58,994,318 Increase 4.8% [20]
2003 60,663,225 Increase 2.8% [21]
2004 64,496,220 Increase 6.3% [22]
2005 66,482,439 Increase 3.1% [23]
2006 69,222,975 Increase 4.1% [24]
2007 73,266,061 Increase 5.8% [25]
2008 70,520,493 Decrease 3.7% [26]
2009 61,791,868 Decrease 12.4% [27]
2010 77,857,705 Increase 26.0% [28]
2011 79,989,155 Increase 3.1% [29]
2012 84,141,209 Increase 5.3% [30]
2013 87,300,115 Increase 3.7% [31]
2014 89,747,430 Increase 2.6% [32]
2015 Increase 90,086,346 0.4% [33]
2016 Increase 94,976,569 4.5% [34]
Car exports by country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity
Global automobile import and export in 2011

By country[edit]

The "OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up.[36][37]

Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries (2016)
Country Motor vehicle production (units)
United States
South Korea
United Kingdom
"Czech Republic

"Production Statistics". "OICA. 

By manufacturer[edit]

This is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.[35]

Rank Group Country Vehicles
1 "Toyota Japan 10,213,486
2 "Volkswagen Group Germany 10,126,281
3 "Hyundai South Korea 7,889,538
4 "General Motors United States 7,793,066
5 "Ford United States 6,429,485
6 "Nissan Japan 5,556,241
7 "Honda Japan 4,999,266
8 "Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy / United States 4,681,457
9 "Renault France 3,373,278
10 "PSA France 3,152,787
11 "Suzuki Japan 2,945,295
12 "SAIC China 2,566,793
13 "Daimler Germany 2,526,450
14 "BMW Germany 2,359,756
15 "Changan China 1,715,871

By market segment[edit]

Company relationships[edit]

Stake holding[edit]

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:["citation needed]

Joint ventures[edit]

Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume[edit]

The table below shows the world's 10 largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the "marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2016 production figures from the "International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[42][43]

"Marque "Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. "Toyota (Japan)
"Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except South Korea, South Asia (excluding Sri Lanka)), Africa, South America
"Hino Japan Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America, Central America, South America, Caribbean
"Lexus Japan Business Unit South East Asia, China, Japan, South Korea, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
"Toyota Japan Division Global, except Iran
2. "Volkswagen AG (Germany)
"Audi Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran
"Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
"Bugatti France Subsidiary Global, except Australia
"Ducati Italy Subsidiary Global
"Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
"MAN Germany Subsidiary Global, except North America
"Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba
"Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global, except North America
"SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, China, Singapore, Mexico, Central America, South America, Middle East, Northern Africa
"Škoda "Czech Republic Subsidiary Europe, Asia (except Indonesia, The Philippines, Iran, Japan, South Korea, North Korea), Central America, South America, Dominican Republic, Northern Africa, Western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
"Volkswagen Germany Division Global
"Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global
"VTB Brazil Business Unit Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa
3. "Hyundai (South Korea)
"Genesis South Korea Business Unit South Korea, Russia, United States, Canada, Middle East
"Hyundai South Korea Division Global
"Kia South Korea Subsidiary Global, except Japan
4. "General Motors (United States)
"Buick United States Business Unit North America, China, Israel
"Cadillac United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea
"Chevrolet United States Business Unit Global, except Australia, New Zealand
"GMC United States Business Unit North America, Middle East (except Israel)
"Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
"JieFang China Business Unit China
"SAIC-GM China Business Unit China
"UzDaewoo "Uzbekistan Business Unit Central Asia, Russia
5. "Ford (United States)
"Ford United States Division Global
"Lincoln United States Business Unit North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
"Troller Veículos Especiais Brazil Subsidiary South America, Africa, Australia, Europe
6. "Nissan (Japan)
"Datsun Japan Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
"Infiniti Japan Subsidiary Global, except Japan, South America (excluding Chile), Africa (excluding South Africa)
"Nissan Japan Division Global
7. "Honda (Japan)
"Acura Japan Division China, Kuwait, North America, Russia
"Honda Japan Division Global
8. "Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (Italy)
"Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran
"Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan, the Philippines
"Chrysler United States Division Global, except Europe (excluding United Kingdom, Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)
"Dodge United States Division Global, except Europe, Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding Indonesia, the Philippines)
"Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
"Fiat Professional Italy Business Unit Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia, United States, Canada
"Jeep United States Division Global, except Africa (excluding South Africa, Egypt), South Asia (excluding India, Sri Lanka), South East Asia (excluding Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore)
"Lancia Italy Division Europe, except United Kingdom, Ireland
"Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
"Ram United States Division North America, Brazil, Middle East, Peru
9. "Renault (France)
"Dacia "Romania Subsidiary Europe, North Africa
"Lada Russia Subsidiary Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Egypt
"Renault France Subsidiary Global
"Renault Samsung Motors South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
10. "Groupe PSA (France)
"Citroën France Division Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)
"DS France Division Europe, China
"Peugeot France Division Global, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
"Opel Germany Subsidiary Europe (except United Kingdom), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile
"Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom

Car brands and parent companies[edit]

The table below lists most car brands and their parent companies.

Parent (Owner) Parent Origin Brand Brand Origin
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Abarth Italy
"Honda Japan "Acura Japan
"Polaris Industries United States "Aixam France
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Alfa Romeo Italy
"Renault France "Alpine France
"Aston Martin United Kingdom "Aston Martin United Kingdom
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Audi Germany
"SAIC-GM-Wuling China/United States "Baojun China
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Bentley United Kingdom
"BMW Germany "BMW Germany
"Brilliance China "Brilliance China
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Bugatti France
"General Motors United States "Buick United States
"BYD China "BYD China
"General Motors United States "Cadillac United States
"Caterham United Kingdom "Caterham United Kingdom
"Chang'an China "Chang'an China
"General Motors United States "Chevrolet United States
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Chrysler United States
"Groupe PSA France "Citroën France
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Cupra Spain
"Renault France "Dacia "Romania
"Toyota Japan "Daihatsu Japan
"Nissan Japan "Datsun Japan
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Dodge United States
"Dongfeng Motor Corporation China Dongfeng China
"Groupe PSA France "DS France
"Dongfeng Motor Corporation China "Dongfeng Fengshen China
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Fiat Italy
"Wanxiang China "Karma United States
"Ford United States "Ford United States
"Ferrari Italy "Ferrari Italy
"Geely China "Geely China
"Hyundai Motor Group South Korea "Genesis South Korea
"General Motors United States "GMC United States
"Toyota Japan "Hino Motors Japan
"General Motors United States "Holden (HSV) Australia
"Honda Japan "Honda Japan
"Hyundai Motor Group South Korea "Hyundai South Korea
"Nissan Japan "Infiniti Japan
"Isuzu Motors Japan "Isuzu Japan
"Jaguar Land Rover United Kingdom "Jaguar United Kingdom
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Jeep United States
"FAW Group / "FAW-GM China/United States "Jie Fang China
"Kantanka Group Conglomerate "Ghana "Kantanka "Ghana
"Koenigsegg Sweden "Koenigsegg Sweden
"Hyundai Motor Group South Korea "Kia South Korea
"Renault France "Lada Russia
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Lamborghini Italy
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Lancia Italy
"Jaguar Land Rover United Kingdom "Land Rover United Kingdom
"Toyota Japan "Lexus Japan
"Ligier France "Ligier France
"Ford United States "Lincoln United States
"Geely China "Lotus United Kingdom
"Geely China "LTI United Kingdom
"Yulon "Taiwan "Luxgen "Taiwan
"Mahindra & Mahindra India "Mahindra India
"Suzuki Japan "Maruti Suzuki India
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Maserati Italy
"Mastretta Mexico "Mastretta Mexico
"Daimler AG Germany "Maybach Germany
"Mazda Japan "Mazda Japan
"McLaren Automotive United Kingdom "McLaren United Kingdom
"Daimler AG Germany "Mercedes-Benz Germany
"SAIC Motor China "MG United Kingdom
"Ligier France "Microcar France
"BMW Germany "Mini United Kingdom
"Nissan / "Mitsubishi Group Japan "Mitsubishi Japan
"Morgan Motor Company United Kingdom "Morgan United Kingdom
"National Electric Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) Sweden NEVS Sweden
"Nissan Japan "Nissan Japan
Peter Dyson United Kingdom "Noble United Kingdom
"Groupe PSA France "Opel Germany
"Pagani Automobili Italy "Pagani Italy
"Perodua Malaysia "Perodua Malaysia
"Groupe PSA France "Peugeot France
"PGO France "PGO France
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Porsche Germany
"Geely / "DRB-HICOM China / Malaysia "PROTON Malaysia
"Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy "Ram United States
"GM Uzbekistan "Uzbekistan "Ravon "Uzbekistan
"Renault France "Renault France
"Rimac Automobili "Croatia "Rimac "Croatia
"SAIC Motor China "Roewe China
"BMW Germany "Rolls Royce United Kingdom
"Saleen United States "Saleen United States
"Iran Khodro "Iran "Samand "Iran
"Renault France "Renault Samsung Motors South Korea
"Volkswagen Group Germany "SEAT Spain
"BAIC Motor China "Senova China
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Škoda "Czech Republic
"Daimler AG Germany "Smart Germany
"Mahindra & Mahindra India "SsangYong South Korea
"Subaru Corporation Japan "Subaru Japan
"Suzuki Japan "Suzuki Japan
"Tata Motors India "Tata India
"Tesla United States "Tesla United States
"Saipa "Iran "Tiba/Miniator "Iran
"Toyota Japan "Toyota Japan
"Uniti Sweden AB Sweden "Uniti Sweden
"Groupe PSA France "Vauxhall United Kingdom
"Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd. (Dongfeng-"Nissan) China/Japan "Venucia China
"Volkswagen Group Germany "Volkswagen Germany
"Geely China "Volvo Cars Sweden
"Vuhl Mexico "Vuhl Mexico
"SAIC-GM-Wuling China/United States "Wuling China
Innoson "Nigeria "IVM "Nigeria

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "automotive industry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Scientific and Technical Societies of the United States (Eighth ed.). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences. 1968. p. 164. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles". Popular Science. 115 (5): 84. November 1929. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Aichner, T.; Coletti, P (2013). "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice. 15 (1): 20–35. 
  6. ^ "ISO 26262-10:2012 Road vehicles -- Functional safety -- Part 10: Guideline on ISO 26262". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Khor, Martin. "Developing economies slowing down". twnside.org.sg. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "2014 Global Automotive Consumer Study : Exploring consumer preferences and mobility choices in Europe" (PDF). Deloittelcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  10. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. "Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World". TheDetroitBureau.com. 
  11. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  12. ^ "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand". J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  13. ^ "U.S. vehicle sales peaked in 2000". thecherrycreeknews.com. 2015-05-27. Retrieved 2015-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries (Thousands of vehicles) | Bureau of Transportation Statistics". Rita.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  15. ^ "Arno A. Evers FAIR-PR". Hydrogenambassadors.com. Retrieved 2015-07-03. 
  16. ^ a b "1998 - 1997 WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE AND ECONOMIC AREA" (pdf). oica.net. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "1999 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  18. ^ "2000 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  19. ^ "2001 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  20. ^ "2002 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  21. ^ "2003 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  22. ^ "2004 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  23. ^ "2005 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  24. ^ "2006 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  25. ^ "2007 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  26. ^ "2008 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  27. ^ "2009 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  28. ^ "2010 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  29. ^ "2011 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  30. ^ "2012 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  31. ^ "2013 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  32. ^ "2014 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  33. ^ "2015 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  34. ^ "2016 Production Statistics". oica.net. 
  35. ^ a b OICA: World Motor Vehicle Production
  36. ^ Jared Lynch, Mark Hawthorne (17 October 2015). "Australia's car industry one year from closing its doors". "The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  37. ^ http://www.oica.net/wp-content/uploads/By-country.pdf
  38. ^ "China's Geely to Acquire Stake in Malaysian Carmaker Proton". Bloomberg.com. 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  39. ^ "Nissan to take 34% stake in Mitsubishi Motors - BBC News". Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  40. ^ "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-06-28. 
  41. ^ http://www.caradvice.com.au/572997/toyota-buys-stake-in-mazda-joint-us-factory-ev-development-planned/
  42. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  43. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 

External links[edit]

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