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> An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency and/or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies. List of autonomous subdivisions by designation List of other entities considered autonomous Overseas territories British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man are self-governing Crown dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom; however, the UK is responsible for their defence and international affairs. Gibraltar is a self-governing overseas territory of the UK. A number of other British Overseas Territories also have autonomy in internal affairs through local legislatures. New Zealand dependent territories New Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand. The Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago. The territory's council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, although notably it can also charge levies on goods entering or leaving the islands. Danish constituent countries The Faroe Islands and Greenland are two autonomous countries within the Kingdom of Denmark. Dutch constituent countries Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, each with their own parliament. In addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies. French overseas collectivities, New Caledonia, and Corsica The French constitution recognises 3 autonomous jurisdictions. Corsica, a region of France, enjoys a greater degree of autonomy on matters such as tax and education compared to mainland regions. New Caledonia, a sui generis collectivity, and French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity, are highly autonomous territories with their own government, legislature, currency and constitution. They do not, however, have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, defense, border control or university education. Other smaller overseas collectivities have a lesser degree of autonomy through local legislatures. The five overseas regions, French Guiana, Guadaloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, are generally governed the same as mainland regions; however, they enjoy some additional powers, including certain legislative powers for devolved areas. Ethiopian special woredas In Ethiopia, "special woredas" are a subgroup of woredas (districts) that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority, and are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region. These woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries. Areas designated for indigenous peoples Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas: Aboriginal (First Nation or Native American) reserves and reservations, in, respectively, Canada and the United States. the five comarcas indígenas ("indigenous regions") of Panama. List of historical autonomous administrative divisions Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus in Albania (1914). Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union (1922–1990) Bantustans of apartheid-era South Africa and Namibia. Subcarpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia within Czechoslovakia (1938–1939). Baltic Provinces of the Russian Empire. Grand Duchy of Finland of the Russian Empire. Magyar Autonomous Region of Socialist Republic of Romania (1952–1968) Southern Ireland (1921–22) and Northern Ireland (1921–72) within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Free imperial city of the medieval Holy Roman Empire Transjordan of British Palestine Autonomous caza of Kuwait, a subdivision of the Ottoman Empire See also List of autonomous areas by country Autonomous administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China Autonomous administrative divisions of India Autonomous administrative divisions of Russia Autonomous administrative divisions of Spain Administrative division Devolution Personal union List of autonomous regions leaders References Works cited M. Weller and S. Wolff (eds), Autonomy, Self-governance and Conflict Resolution: Innovative Approaches to Institutional Design in Divided Societies. Abingdon, Routledge, 2005 From Conflict to Autonomy in Nicaragua: Lessons Learnt, report by Minority Rights Group International P.M. Olausson, Autonomy and Islands, A Global Study of the Factors that determine Island Autonomy. Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2007. Thomas Benedikter (ed.), Solving Ethnic Conflict through Self-Government - A Short Guide to Autonomy in Europe and South Asia, EURAC Bozen 2009, http://www.eurac.edu/en/research/institutes/imr/Documents/Deliverable_No_9_Update_Set_educational_material.pdf Thomas Benedikter, The World's Modern Autonomy Systems, EURAC Bozen 2010; http://www.gfbv.at/publikationen/weitere_publikationen.php ) ) ) )
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Autonomous administrative division