|"Africa, mostly "Southern Hemisphere|
|"ISO 639-2 / "5||bnt|
The Bantu languages (English: "//, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to ""Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other ""Bantoid" languages) are a large family of languages spoken by the "Bantu peoples throughout "Sub-Saharan Africa.
The total number of Bantu languages ranges in the hundreds, depending on the definition of ""language" vs. "dialect" estimated at between 440 and 680 distinct languages. The total number of Bantu speakers is in the hundreds of millions, ranging at roughly 350 million in the mid-2010s (roughly 30% of the total "population of Africa, or roughly 5% of "world population). Bantu languages are largely spoken east and south of present-day "Cameroon, throughout "Central Africa, "Southeast Africa and "Southern Africa.
Estimates of number of speakers of most languages vary widely, due to the lack of accurate statistics in most sub-Saharan countries. The number of Bantu speakers accounts for roughly half of all speakers of Niger-Congo languages, or more than a quarter of the entire "population of Africa, roughly 350 million people in the mid-2010s. About one sixth of the Bantu speakers, and about one third of Bantu languages, are found in the "Democratic Republic of Congo alone (c. 60 million speakers as of 2015). (see "list of Bantu peoples).
Other major Bantu languages include "Zulu, with 27 million speakers (15.7 million L2), and "Shona, with about 11 million speakers (if "Manyika and "Ndau are included). "Ethnologue separates the largely mutually intelligible "Kinyarwanda and "Kirundi, which, if grouped together, have 12.4 million speakers.
The name of the family of languages was coined by "Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 in his manuscript entitled "Zulu legends", since it is a word in a large portion of these languages meaning "people" (abantu /aɓaⁿt’u/ in "Zulu or "Xhosa, for example).
The "noun class prefix ba- is the plural human class, the singular form being mu- in many varieties. Thus, muntu "person" and bantu "people" is commonly attested. Idiomatically, however, it also may have the connotations of "person par excellence" in many languages, and so does not necessarily include all human beings but distinguishes the character thereof.
The "root *ntʊ̀ "some (entity), any", is reconstructed in "Proto-Bantu and has a large number of reflexes in the different languages, occurring in all 16 of Guthrie's zones, with a major portion attesting it as /ntu/. The root is usually considered monosyllabic and the nasal is analysed as "prenasalisation of the following consonant /ⁿt/.
The term as used for the family of languages has been criticised in the contemporary era because of stigma associated with its use as an "Apartheid-era racial classification. Because of this and to distinguish it from an anthropological or ethnic class, Kintu has been suggested as a substitute, with the noun class prefix ki- referring to cultural objects like languages in many varieties (and reconstructed as such in Proto-Bantu). This is then sometimes preferred to Bantu, particularly by African scholars, since the ba- prefix implies anthropological connotations, rather than purely linguistic ones.
The Bantu languages descend from a common "Proto-Bantu language, which is believed to have been spoken in what is now "Cameroon in "Central Africa. An estimated 2,500–3,000 years ago (1000 BC to 500 BC), although other sources put the start of the Bantu Expansion closer to 3000 BC, speakers of the Proto-Bantu language began a series of migrations eastward and southward, carrying agriculture with them. This "Bantu expansion came to dominate Sub-Saharan Africa east of Cameroon, an area where "Bantu peoples now constitute nearly the entire population.
The technical term Bantu, meaning "human beings" or simply "people", was first used by "Wilhelm Bleek (1827–1875), as this is reflected in many of the languages of this group. A common characteristic of Bantu languages is that they use words such as muntu or mutu for "human being" or in simplistic terms "person", and the plural prefix for human nouns starting with mu- (class 1) in most languages is ba- (class 2), thus giving bantu for "people". Bleek, and later "Carl Meinhof, pursued extensive studies comparing the grammatical structures of Bantu languages.
The most widely used classification is an alphanumeric coding system developed by "Malcolm Guthrie in his 1948 classification of the Bantu languages. is mainly geographic. The term 'narrow Bantu' was coined by the Benue–Congo Working Group to distinguish Bantu as recognized by Guthrie, from the "Bantoid languages not recognized as Bantu by Guthrie.["citation needed]
In recent times,["when?] the distinctiveness of Narrow Bantu as opposed to the other "Southern Bantoid languages has been called into doubt (cf. Piron 1995, Williamson & Blench 2000, Blench 2011), but the term is still widely used. A coherent classification of Narrow Bantu will likely need to exclude many of the Zone A and perhaps Zone B languages.["speculation?]
There is no true genealogical classification of the (Narrow) Bantu languages. Until recently["when?] most attempted classifications only considered languages that happen to fall within traditional Narrow Bantu, but there seems to be a continuum with the related languages of South Bantoid.["citation needed]
At a broader level, the family is commonly split in two depending on the reflexes of proto-Bantu tone patterns: Many Bantuists group together parts of zones A through D (the extent depending on the author) as Northwest Bantu or Forest Bantu, and the remainder as Central Bantu or Savanna Bantu. The two groups have been described as having mirror-image tone systems: where Northwest Bantu has a high tone in a cognate, Central Bantu languages generally have a low tone, and vice versa.
Northwest Bantu is more divergent internally than Central Bantu, and perhaps less "conservative due to contact with non-Bantu Niger–Congo languages; Central Bantu is likely the innovative line cladistically. Northwest Bantu is clearly not a coherent family, but even for Central Bantu the evidence is lexical, with little evidence that it is a historically valid group.
Another attempt at a detailed genetic classification to replace the Guthrie system is the 1999 "Tervuren" proposal of Bastin, Coupez, and Mann. However, it relies on "lexicostatistics, which, because of its reliance on similarity rather than "shared innovations, may predict spurious groups of "conservative languages that are not closely related. Meanwhile, "Ethnologue has added languages to the Guthrie classification which Guthrie overlooked, while removing the "Mbam languages (much of zone A), and shifting some languages between groups (much of zones D and E to a new zone J, for example, and part of zone L to K, and part of M to F) in an apparent effort at a semi-genetic, or at least semi-areal, classification. This has been criticized for sowing confusion in one of the few unambiguous ways to distinguish Bantu languages. Nurse & Philippson (2006) evaluate many proposals for low-level groups of Bantu languages, but the result is not a complete portrayal of the family.["citation needed] "Glottolog has incorporated many of these into their classification.
The languages that share "Dahl's law may also form a valid group, "Northeast Bantu. The infobox at right lists these together with various low-level groups that are fairly uncontroversial, though they continue to be revised. The development of a rigorous genealogical classification of many branches of Niger–Congo, not just Bantu, is hampered by insufficient data.["citation needed]
Guthrie reconstructed both the phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu.["citation needed]
The most prominent "grammatical characteristic of Bantu languages is the extensive use of "affixes (see "Sotho grammar and "Ganda noun classes for detailed discussions of these affixes). Each noun belongs to a "class, and each language may have several numbered classes, somewhat like "grammatical gender in European languages. The class is indicated by a prefix that is part of the noun, as well as agreement markers on verb and qualificative roots connected with the noun. Plural is indicated by a change of class, with a resulting change of prefix.["citation needed]
The verb has a number of prefixes, though in the western languages these are often treated as independent words. In "Swahili, for example, Kitoto kidogo amekisoma (for comparison, Kamwana kadoko karikuverenga in "Shona language) means 'The small child has read it [a book]'. Kitoto 'child' governs the adjective prefix ki-('ki' being a prefix representing the diminuitive form of the word) and the verb subject prefix a-. Then comes perfect tense -me- and an object marker -ki- agreeing with implicit kitabu 'book' (from Arabic kitab). Pluralizing to 'children' gives Watoto wadogo wamekisoma (Vana vadoko varikuverenga in Shona), and "pluralizing to 'books' (vitabu) gives Watoto wadogo wamevisoma.["citation needed]
Bantu words are typically made up of "open syllables of the type CV (consonant-vowel) with most languages having syllables exclusively of this type. The "Bushong language recorded by Vansina, however, has final consonants, while slurring of the final syllable (though written) is reported as common among the "Tonga of Malawi. The morphological shape of Bantu words is typically CV, VCV, CVCV, VCVCV, etc.; that is, any combination of CV (with possibly a V- syllable at the start). In other words, a strong claim for this language family is that almost all words end in a vowel, precisely because closed syllables (CVC) are not permissible in most of the documented languages, as far as is understood.["citation needed]
This tendency to avoid "consonant clusters in some positions is important when words are imported from "English or other non-Bantu languages. An example from "Chewa: the word "school", borrowed from English, and then transformed to fit the sound patterns of this language, is sukulu. That is, sk- has been broken up by inserting an "epenthetic -u-; -u has also been added at the end of the word. Another example is buledi for "bread". Similar effects are seen in "loanwords for other non-African CV languages like "Japanese. However, a clustering of sounds at the beginning of a syllable can be readily observed in such languages as Shona, and the "Makua languages.
Well-known words and names that have reduplication include
Repetition emphasizes the repeated word in the context that it is used. For instance, "Mwenda pole hajikwai," while, "Pole pole ndio mwendo," has two to emphasize the consistency of slowness of the pace. The meaning of the former in translation is, "He who goes slowly doesn't trip," and that of the latter is, "A slow but steady pace wins the race." Haraka haraka would mean hurrying just for the sake of hurrying, reckless hurry, as in "Njoo! Haraka haraka" [come here! Hurry, hurry].
In contrast, there are some words in some of the languages in which reduplication has the opposite meaning. It usually denotes short durations, and or lower intensity of the action and also means a few repetitions or a little bit more.
The following is a list of nominal classes in Bantu:
|Singular classes||Plural classes||Typical meaning(s)|
|5||*dɪ-||6||*ma-||Various; class 6 for liquids ("mass nouns)|
|7||*ki-||8||*bɪ-||Various, diminutives, manner/way/language|
|16||*pa-||Locatives (proximal, exact)|
|17||*ku-||Locatives (distal, approximate)|
Following is an incomplete list of the principal Bantu languages of each country. Included are those languages that constitute at least 1% of the population and have at least 10% the number of speakers of the largest Bantu language in the country. An attempt at a full list of Bantu languages (with various conflations and a puzzlingly diverse nomenclature) can be found in The Bantu Languages of Africa, 1959.
Most languages are best known in English without the class prefix (Swahili, Tswana, Ndebele), but are sometimes seen with the (language-specific) prefix (Kiswahili, Setswana, Sindebele). In a few cases prefixes are used to distinguish languages with the same root in their name, such as "Tshiluba and "Kiluba (both Luba), "Umbundu and "Kimbundu (both Mbundu). The bare (prefixless) form typically does not occur in the language itself, but is the basis for other words based on the ethnicity. So, in the country of "Botswana the people are the "Batswana, one person is a Motswana, and the language is "Setswana; and in "Uganda, centred on the kingdom of "Buganda, the dominant ethnicity are the "Baganda (sg. Muganda), whose language is "Luganda.
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville)
Map 1 shows Bantu languages in Africa and map 2 a magnification of the Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon area, as of July 2017.["citation needed]
Some words from various Bantu languages have been borrowed into western languages. These include:
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“Here we go looby-loo; here we go looby-la (or looby-light) / Here we go looby-loo; all on a Saturday night!” Both of these Luba words, lubilu (quickly, in a hurry), and lubila (a shout) are words still in common usage in the Republic of Zaïre.