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An uncooked "rib roast
"Wagyu cattle are an example of a breed raised primarily for beef.
Beef as part of a meal with potatoes and spinach

Beef is the "culinary name for "meat from "cattle, particularly "skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times.[1] Beef is a source of high-quality protein and essential nutrients.[2]

Beef skeletal muscle meat can be used as is by merely cutting into certain parts "roasts, "short ribs or "steak ("filet mignon, "sirloin steak, "rump steak, "rib steak, "rib eye steak, "hanger steak, etc.), while other cuts are processed ("corned beef or "beef jerky). Trimmings, on the other hand, are usually mixed with meat from older, leaner (therefore tougher) cattle, are "ground, "minced or used in "sausages. The blood is used in some varieties called "blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and "offal, such as the "oxtail, "liver, "tongue, "tripe from the "reticulum or "rumen, "glands (particularly the "pancreas and "thymus, referred to as "sweetbread), the "heart, the "brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of "bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE, commonly referred to as mad cow disease), the "kidneys, and the tender "testicles of the bull (known in the United States as calf fries, prairie oysters, or "Rocky Mountain oysters). Some "intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making "beef stock.

Beef from "steers and heifers is similar.[3] Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for "breeding varies. The meat from older bulls, because it is usually tougher, is frequently used for "mince (known as "ground beef in the "United States). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on "grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a "feedlot (or "concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of "grain, protein, "roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.

Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after "pork and "poultry at 38% and 30% respectively.[4] In absolute numbers, the United States, "Brazil, and the "People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita.

Cows are considered sacred in the "Hinduism and most observant "Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef.

In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef, (including "buffalo meat), were "India (buffalo meat only), "Brazil and "Australia.[5][6] Beef production is also important to the "economies of "Uruguay, "Canada, "Paraguay, "Mexico, "Argentina, "Belarus and "Nicaragua.



The word beef is from the Latin bōs,[7] in contrast to cow which is from Middle English cou (both words have the same "Indo-European root *gʷou-).[8] After the "Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely "Germanic origins) and their meat (with "Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry.[9] Beef is cognate with bovine through the "Late Latin bovīnus.[10]


People have eaten the flesh of "bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known "cave paintings, such as those of "Lascaux, show "aurochs in hunting scenes. People "domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef, "milk, and "leather.[11] Most "cattle originated in the "Old World, with the exception of "bison hybrids, which originated in the "Americas. Examples include the "Wagyū from "Japan, "Ankole-Watusi from "Egypt, and longhorn "Zebu from the Indian subcontinent.[12]

It is unknown exactly when people started "cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the "Old World as "draft animals ("oxen), for milk, or specifically for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, "some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in "Chianina and "Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the "Murray Grey, "Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss ("Braunvieh).

In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the "Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the "Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets.[13]

Farming of beef cattle[edit]

"Beef cattle are raised and "fed using a variety of methods, including "feedlots, "free range, "ranching, "backgrounding and "Intensive animal farming. Typically, the production of one pound (0.45 kg) of cooked beef requires 27 lb (12 kg) of "fodder, over 200 US gal (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water and nearly three hundred square feet (28 m2) of land.[14]


Beef is first divided into "primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering. These are basic sections from which "steaks and other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.

Special beef designations[edit]

Breed and origin based designations[edit]

Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare
Spain – "Carne de Ávila, Carne de "Cantabria, Carne de la "Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de "Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela, Ternera Galega
France – Taureau de "Camargue, Boeuf charolais du "Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du "Maine
Portugal – Carne Alentejana, Carne "Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, "Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos "Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa
United Kingdom – "Orkney Beef, "Scotch Beef, "Welsh Beef
Belgium – "Belgian Blue

Process based designations[edit]

Some certifications are based upon the way the cattle are treated fed and or slaughtered.

Output based standards[edit]

Some standards are based upon the inspected quality of the meat after slaughter.

Beef grading[edit]

Countries regulate the marketing and sale of Beef by observing criteria post slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat. This classification, sometimes optional, can suggest a market demand for a particular animal's attributes and therefore the price owed to the producer.

Aging and tenderization[edit]

To improve "tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses.

Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness.

Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes ("papain, "bromelin or "ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor.

Cooking and preparation[edit]

Cooked ground beef.

These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs.

Dry heat[edit]

Roast beef cooked under high heat
Method Description
"Grilling is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 340 °C (650 °F). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorsome crust. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany and The Netherlands, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as "barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ". When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling.
"Barbecue refers to a technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire.
"Broiling is a term used in North America. It is similar to grilling, but with the heat source always above the meat. Elsewhere this is considered a way of grilling.
"Griddle Meat may be cooked on a hot metal griddle. A little oil or fat may be added to inhibit sticking; the dividing line when the method becomes shallow frying is not well-defined.
"Roasting is a way of cooking meat in a hot "oven, producing "roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be "basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A "gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat. Roasting is suitable for thicker pieces of meat; the other methods listed are usually for steaks and similar cuts.

Internal temperature[edit]

Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a "meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the "sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as "broiling or "roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.


Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by "shallow frying, although "deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with "breadcrumbs as in "milanesas. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in "stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot "wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables. The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'.

Moist heat[edit]

Moist heat cooking methods include "braising, "pot roasting, "stewing and "sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking.

simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings. This technique may be used as part of "pressure cooking.
cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step.
Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food.
Beef roasted with "vinegar and sliced with spiced paste, often called "cold beef".

Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just "simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract. Since "thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) (sous-vide) to 90 °C (194 °F) ("slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough "collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through "hydrolysis, with minimal toughening.

With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, "pathogens, such as "bacteria will be killed, and "pasteurization can be achieved. Because browning ("Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo "searing in a very hot pan, "grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after).

Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely. The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.)

Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques. In "hot pot cooking, such as "shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In "fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful "sauces to complement the meat.

Raw beef[edit]

Sliced beef

"Steak tartare is a "French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef). More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk.

The "Belgian or Dutch dish "filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. "Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar "Lebanese and "Syrian dish. And in "Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or "kitfo is eaten (upon availability).

"Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut.

"Yukhoe is a variety of "hoe, raw dishes in "Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender "rump steak. For the seasoning, "soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae ("Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg.

Cured, smoked, and dried beef[edit]

Beef "curry in "Dhaka, "Bangladesh

"Bresaola is an "air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in "Valtellina, a valley in the "Alps of northern "Italy's "Lombardy region. "Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring "Switzerland. "Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty."[19]

"Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.

"Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa.

"Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is "salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and "smoked.

"Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned "brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered "delicatessen fare.

"Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at "Christmas in "Ireland. It is a form of "salt beef, cured with spices and "saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in "Guinness or a similar "stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after.[20] There are various other recipes for "pickled beef. "Sauerbraten is a German variant.

Religious prohibitions[edit]

A pamphlet protesting against the Muslim practice of beef-eating. The propagandists equate the Muslims to the demon in the far right and the sacred cow as "Kamadhenu. It was run by the Ravi Varma Press (c. 1912).

Most "Hindus consider killing cattle and eating beef a sin. They consider the cow to be a god and worship it.[21] Bovines have a sacred status in "India especially the cow, from the idealization due to their provision of sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be integral to the landscape. In Hinduism, the entire cosmic creation is considered to be sacred and are venerated like celestial bodies such as Sun, Moon to Fig trees and rivers like Ganga, Saraswati...etc.[22]

India as a developing country, many of its rural area economies depend upon cattle farming, hence they have been revered in the society.[23][24] From vedic periods role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like "ploughing, row planting, ridging, and weeding made people to revere the importance of cow in their daily lives, and this rose with the advent of "Jainism and "Gupta period.[25] Lack of secular tolerance and "caste politics has also given birth to Hindu right-wing vigilante cow protection groups. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that has led to loss of human life and in an 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause.[26] A. N. Bose in Social and Rural Economy of Northern India says any taboo or the cow worship itself is a relatively recent development in India. The sacred white Cow is considered as the abode of cores of 33 type Hindu Deities. Products of Cow's milk like curd, butter, cheese, milk sweets are sold commercially and used in religious rituals.

For religious reasons the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine.[27] In the "Indigenous American tradition a white buffalo calf is considered sacred, they call it Pte Ska Win ("White Buffalo Calf Woman).

During the season of "Lent, "Orthodox Christians and "Catholics give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant "Jews[28] and "Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been "slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws.

Legal prohibition[edit]


India is one of the biggest exporters of beef. Though some "states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by "Caste and Religion based Politics.[29][30][31][32][33] Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts concur. However certain Hindu castes and sects continue to avoid beef from their "diets.[34][35] In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of cattle and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. The original act, however, does permits the humane slaughter of animals for use as food.[36][37]

Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone-in meat, a carcass, or half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited from export. Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export.[38][39] In 2017, India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that this would create market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers there and elsewhere. Their predicted estimates claim a twenty percent shortage of beef and a thirteen percent shortage of leather in the world market.[40]


In 2003, "Cuba banned cow slaughter due to severe shortage of milk and milk products.[41]

Nutrition and health[edit]

Ground Beef 15% fat, broiled
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
"Energy 1,047 kJ (250 kcal)
0 g
"Starch 0 g
"Dietary fiber 0 g
15 g
"Saturated 5.887 g
"Monounsaturated 6.662 g
"Polyunsaturated 0.485 g
26 g
"Thiamine (B1)
0.046 mg
"Riboflavin (B2)
0.176 mg
"Niacin (B3)
5.378 mg
"Vitamin B6
0.383 mg
"Folate (B9)
9 μg
"Vitamin B12
2.64 μg
82.4 mg
"Vitamin D
7 IU
"Vitamin E
0.45 mg
"Vitamin K
1.2 μg
18 mg
0.85 mg
2.6 mg
21 mg
0.012 mg
198 mg
318 mg
21.6 μg
72 mg
6.31 mg
Other constituents
Water 58 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using "US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the "Daily Value, DV) of "Niacin, "Vitamin B6, "Vitamin B12, "iron, "phosphorus and "zinc.[42] Red meat is the most significant dietary source of "carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of "creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking.[43]

Health concerns[edit]


Excessive consumption of red processed meat is known to increase the risk of "bowel cancer and some other cancers.[44][45][46]

Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease

The "Harvard School of Public Health recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable "saturated fat.[47] This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The "Harvard School of Public Health appearing in "Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus."[48]

This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat."[49]


Some cattle raised in the "United States feed on pastures fertilized with "sewage sludge. Elevated "dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle.[50]


Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the "United States, due to "Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination:

Mad cow disease[edit]

In 1984, the use of "meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of "bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the "United Kingdom.[61]

Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE:

In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban.[65] EU Regulation No 999/2001 had outlined a complete ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle.[66] A regulation that modified Annex IV of 999/2001, was published in 2013 that allowed for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.[67]

World producers[edit]

Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries – 2016

Beef exports, including "buffalo meat, in metric tons(2016)[68]

Rank Country 2015 %of the World
1 "Brazil 1,850,000 19.60%
1 "India 1,850,000 19.60%
3 "Australia 1,385,000 14.67%
4 "United States 1,120,000 11.87%
5 "New Zealand 580,000 6.14%

Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009,2010) [69]

Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009)

Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg
1 "United States 11,889 11,789 −0.8%
2 "Brazil 8,935 9,300 4%
3 "EU-27 7,970 7,920 −0.6%
4 "China 5,764 5,550 −4%
5 "Argentina 3,400 2,800 −18%
6 "India 2,610 2,760 6%
7 "Australia 2,100 2,075 −1%
8 "Mexico 1,700 1,735 2%
9 "Russia 1,285 1,260 −2%
10 "Pakistan 1,226 1,250 2%

National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head)

Rank Country 2009 2010 %Chg
1 "India 57,960 58,300 0.6%
2 "Brazil 49,150 49,400 0.5%
3 "China 42,572 41,000 −4%
4 "United States 35,819 35,300 −1.4%
5 "EU-27 30,400 30,150 −0.8%
6 "Argentina 12,300 13,200 7%
7 "Australia 9,213 10,158 10%
8 "Russia 7,010 6,970 −0.6%
9 "Mexico 6,775 6,797 0.3%
10 "Colombia 5,675 5,675 0.0%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Piatti-Farnell, Lorna (2013). Beef: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books. p. 7. "ISBN "1780231172 – via EBL Reader. In prehistoric times, our ancestors were known to have hunted aurochs, a type of wild—and rather ferocious—cattle that were the ancestor to modern livestock. 
  2. ^ Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao (2016). "Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut". Meat Science. 119: 16–21. "doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.04.016. "PMID 27115864 – via Science Direct. Beef is one of the main animal food resources providing high-quality protein and essential nutrients, including essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins, for human consumption. 
  3. ^ Schweihofer, Jeannine and Buskirk, Dan (10 April 2014) Do steers or heifers produce better beef?. Michigan State University.
  4. ^ Raloff, Janet (31 May 2003). Food for Thought: Global Food Trends. Science News.
  5. ^ Beef and Veal Meat Exports by Country in 1000 MT CWE. 25 March 2013
  6. ^ Raghavan, TCA Sharad (10 August 2015). "India on top in exporting beef". The Hindu. India. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "beef". "Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  8. ^ "Beef". The Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  9. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000: beef.
  10. ^ "Beef". The American Heritage College Dictionary, 4th ed. 
  11. ^ "Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa". Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008. 
  12. ^ "History of Cattle Breeds". Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2007. 
  13. ^ Horowitz, Roger (2006). Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. "ISBN "0801882419.
  14. ^ Foster, Tom. (18 November 2013) Can Artificial Meat Save The World?. Popsci.com. Retrieved on 19 December 2016.
  15. ^ "Certified Angus Beef in Ireland". Angus producer group. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "Exported Beef". Kobe Beef Marketing & Distribution Promotion Association. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)/Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)". European Commission — Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007. 
  18. ^ "Is a Halal food market boom on its way?". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  19. ^ "Dried Beef Products". "Hormel. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  20. ^ Recipe for traditional dry spiced beef – An Bord Bia
  21. ^ Bankim Chandra Chatterji (1940). Letters on Hinduism. M.M. Bose. 
  22. ^ Owen Cole; V P Hermant Kanit (25 June 2010). Hinduism - An Introduction. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 43. "ISBN "978-1-4441-3100-0. 
  23. ^ "Holy Cows: Hinduism's Blessed Bovines". Hinduism.about.com. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "Switzerland loves its cows. But unlike India, there is no merging of the bovine and divine". The Wire. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  25. ^ Chatterjee, Suhas (1998). Indian Civilization and Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 232. "ISBN "978-81-7533-083-2. 
  26. ^ "The cow keepers: Some cattle vigilante groups operating in Delhi and neighbouring states". 11 October 2015. 
  27. ^ Kenneth F. Kiple (30 April 2007). A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53+. "ISBN "978-1-139-46354-6. 
  28. ^ Maimonodies, Yad Hachazaka; Kedusha; Hilchos Shechita 1:1
  29. ^ "Milking beef issue could tear social fabric". 28 May 2017. 
  30. ^ Safi, Michael (5 April 2017). "Muslim man dies in India after attack by Hindu 'cow protectors'". The Guardian. 
  31. ^ "'Women raped in fatal attack over beef'". 12 September 2016 – via www.bbc.com. 
  32. ^ Doshi, Vidhi (6 June 2017). "To protest Modi, these Indians are cooking beef in public". The Washington Post. 
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