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Main article: "Comparison of the Benelux countries


"Country "Kingdom of Belgium[13] "Kingdom of the Netherlands[14] "Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[15]
"Flag "Belgium "Netherlands "Luxembourg
"Coat of arms "Royal Arms of Belgium.svg "Royal Arms of the Netherlands.svg "Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg
Official local name Koninkrijk België[13]
Royaume de Belgique[13]
Königreich Belgien[13]
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden[14] Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg[15]
Großherzogtum Luxemburg[15]
Grand-Duché de Luxembourg[15]
Common name Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg
(2015 estimate)
11,323,973[13] 17,246,591[16] 562,958[15]
"Area 30,528[13] km2 41,543[14] km2 2,586.4[15] km2
"Population density 363.6/km2 407.8/km2 194.1/km2
"Capital city "Brussels[13] "Amsterdam[14] "Luxembourg City[15]
"Largest urban areas "Brussels : 1,830,000
"Antwerp : 1,200,000
"Liège : 749,110
"Ghent : 594,582
"Charleroi : 522,522[17][18][19][20][21][22]
"Amsterdam : 2,431,000
"Rotterdam : 1,181,284
"The Hague : 1,054,793
"Utrecht : 656,342
"Eindhoven : 419,045[23]
"Luxembourg City : 180,000
"Esch-sur-Alzette : 33,939
"Differdange : 24,805
"Dudelange : 20,003
"Ettelbruck : 8,544
"Form of government "Federal "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[13] "Unitary "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[14] "Unitary "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[15]
Current heads of "state and "government "Philippe of Belgium (Monarch)
"Charles Michel (Prime Minister)[13]
"Willem-Alexander (Monarch)
"Mark Rutte (Prime Minister)[14]
"Henri (Monarch)
"Xavier Bettel (Prime Minister)[15]
Main "languages "Dutch, "French, "German[13] "Dutch[14] "Luxembourgish,[15] "French,[15] "German[15]
Main "religions 58% "Roman Catholic
16% Other Christian
5% "Islam
2% Other religion[24]
49.2% "Non-Religious
24.4% "Roman Catholic
5.7% "Protestant
4.9% "Islam[25]
68% "Roman Catholic
3% "Protestant
3% Other Christian
2% "Islam[26]
"GDP (nominal)[27]

[28] [29] [30]

$454,687 million[27][28][29][30] $738,419 million[27][28][29][30] $57,423 million[27][28][29][30]
"GDP (nominal) per capita[31][32][33] $40,107[31][32][33] $43,603[31][32][33] $101,994[31][32][33]
"GDP (PPP)[34]

[35] [36]

$494,121 million[34][35][36] $832,623 million[34][35][36] $55,730 million[34][35][36]
"GDP (PPP) per capita $43,585[37]


$49,166[37][38][39] $98,987[37][38][39]
"Real GDP growth rate[40][41] 1.30 %[40][41] 1.80 %[40][41] 4.40 %[40][41]
"Currency "Euro[13] "Euro[14]
"US dollar[42]
"Military personnel 37,500[43] 46,500[44] 1,510[45]
"Labour force 5,279,000[46] 7,884,000[46] 265,800[46]

Associated territories[edit]

Associated territory "Aruba[47] "Curaçao[48] "Sint Maarten[49]
"Flag "Aruba "Curaçao "Sint Maarten
"Coat of arms "Insigne Arubae.svg "Blason an Curaçao.svg "Insigne Insulae Sancti Martini (Nederlandia).svg
Official local name Aruba[47] Land Curaçao/ Pais Kòrsou[48] Sint Maarten[49]
(2015 estimate)
112,162[47] 148,406[48] 33,609[49]
"Area 180 km2[47] 444 km2[48] 34 km2[49]
"Population density 575.21/km2 344/km2 1110/km2
"Capital city "Oranjestad[47] "Willemstad[48] "Philipsburg[49]
"Form of government "Unitary "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[47] "Unitary "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[48] "Unitary "parliamentary "constitutional monarchy[49]
"Sovereign state  "Kingdom of the Netherlands[47][48][49]
Current heads of "state and "government "Willem-Alexander (Monarch)[47]
"Mike Eman (Prime Minister)[47]
"Willem-Alexander (Monarch)[48]
"Ben Whiteman (Prime Minister)[48]
"Willem-Alexander (Monarch)[49]
"William Marlin (Prime Minister)[49]
Main "languages "Dutch, "Papiamento[47] "Dutch, "Papiamentu, "English, "Spanish[48] "Dutch, "English[49]
Main "religions 75.3% "Roman Catholic[47]
4.9% "Protestant [47]
1.7% "Jehovah's Witness[47]
1.2% Other Religion[47]
72.8%, "Roman Catholic[48]
6.6% "Pentecostal[48]
3.2% "Protestant[48]
3% "Adventist[48]
41.9% "Protestant[49]
33.1% "Roman Catholic[49]
5.2% "Hindu[49]
4.1% Other Christian[49]
"GDP (nominal) $2,664 millions[27][28][29][30] $3,159 millions[27][28][29][30] $1,059 millions[27][28][29][30]
"GDP (nominal) per capita $25,751[31][32][33] $18,360[31][32][33] $18,360[31][32][33]
"GDP (PPP) $2.516 billions[34][35][36] $3.128 billions[34][35][36] $0.3658 billions[34][35][36]
"GDP (PPP) per capita $36,015[37][38][39] $15,000[37][38][39] $36,327[37][38][39]
"Real GDP growth rate 2.40 %[40][41] 3.60 %[40][41] 3.60 %[40][41]
"Currency "Aruban florin[47] "Netherlands Antillean guilder[47] "Netherlands Antillean guilder[49]


In 2000, Belgium and the Netherlands jointly hosted the "UEFA European Championship. In June 2007, representatives of the three countries announced they would bid, as a single political entity, for the "2018 FIFA World Cup.[50]

Renewal of the agreement[edit]

The Benelux Union office in Brussels

The Treaty between the Benelux countries establishing the Benelux Economic Union was limited to a period of 50 years. During the following years, and even more so after the creation of the European Union, the Benelux cooperation focused on developing other fields of activity within a constantly changing international context.

At the end of the 50 years, the governments of the three Benelux countries decided to renew the agreement, taking into account the new aspects of the Benelux-cooperation – such as security – and the new "federal government structure of Belgium. The original establishing treaty, set to expire in 2010, was replaced by a new legal framework (called the Treaty revising the Treaty establishing the Benelux Economic Union), which was signed on 17 June 2008.

The new treaty has no set time limit and the name of the Benelux Economic Union changed to Benelux Union to reflect the broad scope on the union.[51] The main objectives of the treaty are the continuation and enlargement of the cooperation between the three member states within a larger European context. The renewed treaty explicitly foresees the possibility that the Benelux countries will cooperate with other European member States or with regional cooperation structures. The new Benelux cooperation focuses on three main topics: internal market and economic union, sustainability, justice and internal affairs. The number of structures in the renewed Treaty has been reduced and thus simplified. Five Benelux institutions remain: the Benelux Committee of Ministers, the Benelux Council, the Benelux Parliament, the Benelux Court of Justice, the Benelux Secretariat General. Beside these five institutions, the Benelux Organization for Intellectual Property is also present in this Treaty.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Révision portant sur le traité de 1958" (PDF) (in French). 2008. Article 38 : le français et le néerlandais sont les langues officielles des institutions de l'Union Benelux 
  2. ^ a b Peaslee, Amos Jenkins; Xydis, Dorothy Peaslee (1974). International governmental organizations. BRILL. p. 165. "ISBN "978-90-247-1601-2. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  3. ^ [1] International Monetary Fund Statistics
  4. ^ "Over de Benelux" (in Dutch). Benelux. Retrieved 2015-02-09. Dit alles onder een nieuwe naam: de Benelux Unie. 
  5. ^ "A propos du Benelux" (in French). Benelux. Retrieved 2015-02-09. Le 17 juin 2008, un nouveau Traité Benelux était signé. Désormais, la coopération va se concentrer sur trois thèmes-clés: le marché intérieur & l’union économique, le développement durable et la justice & les affaires intérieures et tout ceci sous un nouveau nom:l’Union Benelux. 
  6. ^ "Benelux Treaty of Economic Union - Belgium-Luxembourg-Netherlands [1958]". 
  7. ^ Revue de l'Institut International de Statistique (1947) Vol. 15, No. 1/4, page 43. However, according to "The Economist, it was coined in August 1946 by that newspaper's correspondent in Belgium ("Going Dutch". The Economist. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2012. ).
  8. ^ https://www.urm.lt/default/en/foreign-policy/lithuania-in-the-region-and-the-world/regional-cooperation/intergovernmental-cooperation-of-the-baltic-and-the-benelux-countries
  9. ^ "Cass. 27 mei 1971, Franco-Suisse Le Ski". Pasicrisie. I: 886. 1971. 
  10. ^ "Benelux in a nutshell". General Secretariat of the Benelux. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2008. 
  11. ^ "Algemene voorstelling van het Benelux-Gerechtshof". Benelux-Gerechtshof. Retrieved 2016-05-10. 
  12. ^ [2] Archived 4 June 2015 at the "Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Europe :: Belgium". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "Europe :: Netherlands". CIA The World Factbook. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Europe :: Luxembourg". CIA The World Factbook. 
  16. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". 
  17. ^ De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 Archived 29 October 2008 at the "Wayback Machine., Sarah Luyten, Etienne Van Hecke, Instituut voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, "K. U.Leuven
  18. ^ "Urbanaudit.org". 
  19. ^ "Urbanaudit.org". 
  20. ^ "Urbanaudit.org". 
  21. ^ "Urbanaudit.org". 
  22. ^ "Urbanaudit.org". 
  23. ^ Statistics Netherlands.
  24. ^ Eurobarometer 393: Discrimination in the EU in 2012 (pdf). European Commission. pp. 233–234. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 
  25. ^ Schmeets, Hans; Mensvoort, Carly van (2015). Religieuze betrokkenheid van bevolkingsgroepen, 2010–2014, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
  26. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012 – Special Eurobarometer 393 (The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?")" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "World Economic Outlook Database". "International Monetary Fund. April 2016. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g "GDP (current US$)" (PDF). "World Development Indicators. "World Bank. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "GDP and its breakdown at current prices in US Dollars". "United Nations Statistics Division. December 2015. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g "GDP (Official Exchange Rate)". "The World Factbook. "Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Some data refers to IMF staff estimates but some are actual figures for the year 2015, made in April 2016. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2016, "International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 12 April 2016.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Data refer mostly to the year 2014. [3] (selecting all countries, GDP per capita (current US$), , "World Bank. Accessed on 9 July 2015.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, December 2014, (Select all countries, "GDP, Per Capita GDP - US Dollars", and 2014 to generate table), "United Nations Statistics Division. Accessed on 4 Jan 2016.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved June 13, 2016. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Data (July 2, 2015). ""Gross domestic product 2014, PPP", World Bank, accessed on 2 July 2015" (PDF). Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved July 2, 2015. ; European Union calculated by sum of individual countries.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". 
  37. ^ a b c d e f World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2016. Accessed on 14 April 2016.
  38. ^ a b c d e f "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 11 April 2016. Accessed on 14 April 2016.
  39. ^ a b c d e f GDP - per capita (PPP), "The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/pdf/text.pdf
  42. ^ In the Caribbean parts of the Netherlands, namely "Saba, "Sint Eustatius and "Bonaire.
  43. ^ IISS 2014, pp. 77-79
  44. ^ IISS 2014, pp. 121-123
  45. ^ IISS 2014, p. 117
  46. ^ a b c "COUNTRY COMPARISON :: LABOR FORCE". cia.gov. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Central America and Caribbean :: Aruba". CIA The World Factbook. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Central America and Caribbean :: Curacao". CIA The World Factbook. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Central America and Caribbean :: Sint Maarten". CIA The World Factbook. 
  50. ^ "Benelux countries launch 2018 World Cup bid". "ESPN. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007. 
  51. ^ Benelux union Archived 1 October 2009 at the "Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Official sites
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