Greece joined the Bologna Process in 1999. Since 2007, more-intensive steps towards the establishment of the European Higher Education Area were completed.
In "Hungary, the Bologna system applies to those who began their university education in or after September 2006. One hundred eight majors were available for selection (compared with over 400 in 2005), of which six are exempt from the bachelor's-master's division: law, human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and architecture.
According to an online poll by the National Tertiary Education Information Centre, 65 percent of respondents thought it unnecessary to adopt the system. The new system provides less of a guarantee that students will obtain a master's degree, because many will complete their education after the three-year bachelor's degree. Students are expected to study more unrelated subjects during the first three years, due to the smaller number of majors.
In "Iceland, bachelor's degrees are usually three years in duration; master's degrees are two years, and doctoral degrees range from three to six years.
In "Ireland, bachelor's degrees are commonly three to four years in duration; master's and doctoral degrees are basically similar to those in the UK. Bachelor's degrees are first-cycle qualifications. Except for the "MA at the "University of Dublin, a master's degree is always a postgraduate degree (teaching or research). The generic outcomes for Irish degrees are laid out in the 2003 National Framework of Qualifications. In 2006, Ireland was the first country to verify the compatibility of its national framework with that of the EHEA.
"Italy fits the framework since its 1999 adoption of the 3+2 system. The first degree is the "Laurea triennale, which may be obtained after three years of study. Selected students may then complete their studies with two additional years of specialization leading to the Laurea Magistrale.
The Laurea corresponds to a bachelor's degree; the Laurea magistrale, corresponding to a master's degree, grants access to third-cycle programmes (post-MA degrees, doctorates or specialized schools) lasting two to five years (completing a PhD usually takes three years). A five-year degree, Laurea Magistrale Quinquennale (Five-Year Master of Arts) is awarded in law (Facoltà di Giurisprudenza), the arts ("Accademia di Belle Arti) and music (Conservatorio di Musica). The title for BA and BS undergraduate students is Dottore and for MA, MFA, MD and MEd graduate students Dottore magistrale (abbreviated Dott., Dott.ssa or Dr.). This should not be confused with PhD and post-MA graduates, whose title is Dottore di Ricerca (Research Doctor).
The Italian system has two types of master's degree. Laurea Magistrale (120 ECTS) allows access to third-cycle programmes, and Master universitario (at least 60 ECTS) may be divided into first- (second cycle) and second-level master's degrees (third cycle). A first-level master's degree is accessible by a first-cycle degree and "does not allow access to PhD and to 3rd cycle programmes, since this type of course does not belong to the general requirements established at national level, but it is offered under the autonomous responsibility of each university".
The "Netherlands differentiates between HBO (higher professional or polytechnic education) and WO (scientific education or research universities). HBO has become the bachelor's-master's system. It generally requires three years of education to obtain a bachelor's degree; graduates may then apply for a master's program at a university, which generally require one to two years to complete. An HBO bachelor graduate may have to pass one year of pre-master's education to bridge the gap between their HBO study and (research-oriented) WO study to be admitted to a WO Master's programme, which may grant degrees such as MA, MSc and LLM. There are also HBO master's studies, granting the title "Master of" rather than MA, MSc and LLM.
Due to the Bologna Process, in 2005 new licenciatura ("licentiate) degrees were organized at "university and polytechnic institutions of Portugal. Previously a four- to six-year programme, equivalent to 300 ECTS, it is now a three-year first cycle and the only requirement for the two-year second cycle which awards a master's degree. Some Bologna courses are integrated five- or six-year programmes awarding a joint master's degree, a common practice in medicine. In engineering, despite the use of two cycles, an engineer may be licensed only after obtaining a master's degree. Master's degrees attained after five or six years of study correspond to the old undergraduate degrees known as licenciatura. The new licenciatura, obtained after three years of study, corresponds to the discontinued bacharelato awarded by polytechnics from the 1970s to the early 2000s (roughly equivalent to an extended "associate degree). Old and new master's degrees are the first graduate degree before a doctorate, and the old and new licenciatura are undergraduate degrees.
The licenciatura degree (a four- to six-year course) was required for applicants who wished to undertake the old master's and doctoral programmes, but admission was reserved for those with a licenciatura degree with a grade above 14 (out of 20). After the changes introduced by the Bologna Process, the master's degree is conferred at the end of a programme roughly equivalent in time to many old licenciatura programmes. The process was developed to improve the education system to one based on the development of competency rather than the transmission of knowledge. Its goal was the development of a system of easily comparable degrees to simplify the comparison of qualifications across Europe. Its flexibility and transparency is intended to enable wider recognition of student qualifications, facilitating movement around a European Higher Education Area based on two main cycles (undergraduate and graduate) and providing third-cycle degrees for doctoral candidates.
The "Russian higher education framework was basically incompatible with the process. The generic, lowest degree in all universities since the Soviet era is the Specialist, which can be obtained after five to six years of study. Since the mid-1990s, many universities have introduced limited programmes allowing students to graduate with a bachelor's degree in four years and a master's degree in an additional one to two years while preserving the old system. In October 2007, Russia moved to two-tier education in line with the Bologna Process. Universities inserted a BSc diploma in the middle of their standard specialist programmes, but the transition to MS qualification has not been completed.
Although Specialists and masters are eligible for postgraduate courses (Aspirantura), bachelors are not; the Specialist degree is being discontinued. In most universities bachelor's- and master's-degree education is free of charge, although some state and private universities charge for one or both. The labour market does not yet understand BSc diplomas, but some universities made the program similar to classical education and the MS stage remains mandatory for most graduates.
A bill proposing new regulations in the field of Higher Education was presented to Parliament in 2005, and the new system came into force in July 2007. The new system of degrees will have two degrees, of different lengths, in each cycle.
|Cycle||"Swedish||"English||Length (undergraduate)||Length (postgraduate)|
|1||Högskoleexamen||University diploma||2 years||n/a|
|1||Kandidatexamen||Bachelor's degree||3 years||Högskoleexamen + 1 year|
|2||Magisterexamen||Master's degree, 1 year (a.k.a. "Swedish master's degree")||4 years||Kandidatexamen + 1 year|
|2||Masterexamen||Master's degree, 2 years||5 years||Kandidatexamen + 2 years or Magisterexamen + 1 year|
|3||Licentiatexamen||Licentiate||n/a||Kandidatexamen or higher + 2 years|
|3||Doktorsexamen||Doctorate||n/a||Kandidatexamen or higher + 4 years|
Students may not always be offered all the combinations above to obtain a degree. The högskoleexamen is usually not offered, and many schools require students to obtain the kandidatexamen before obtaining a magisterexamen or masterexamen. Most third-cycle programmes require at least a magisterexamen, although the legal requirement is only the kandidatexamen.
In July 2007 a new system of credits, compatible with the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, was introduced in which one credit (högskolepoäng) in the new system corresponds to one ECTS credit and two-thirds of a credit in the old system (poäng).
Some Swedish universities have introduced the ECTS standard grading scale for all students, and others will use it only for international students. Since "criterion-referenced grading is used instead of "relative grading in the Swedish educational system, the 10-, 25-, 30-, 25- and 10-percent distribution of students among A, B, C, D and E will not be done. Some universities only give Fail or Pass grades (F or P) for certain courses (such as internship and thesis projects) or assignments, such as laboratory exercises.
Several Bologna Process seminars have been held. The first devoted to a single "academic discipline, Chemistry Studies in the European Higher Education Area (which approved "Eurobachelor), was held in June 2004 in "Dresden.
- "Chemistry Quality Eurolabels
- "Education by country
- "Education in the Czech Republic
- "Education in England
- "Education in Germany
- "Education in Kazakhstan
- "Education in Lithuania
- "Education in the Republic of Macedonia
- "Education in Malta
- "Education in Moldova
- "Education in Montenegro
- "Education in Northern Ireland
- "Education in Norway
- "Education in Poland
- "Education in Romania
- "Education in Scotland
- "Education in Serbia
- "Education in Slovakia
- "Education in Slovenia
- "Education in Spain
- "Education in Switzerland
- "Education in Turkey
- "Education in Ukraine
- "Education in the United Kingdom
- "Education in Wales
- "European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
- "European Higher Education Area
- "Higher education in Norway
- "Melbourne Model
Notes and references
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- "Members". European Higher Education Area. 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Bologna for Pedestrians, The Council of Europe Internet Portal.". Coe.int. 19 June 1999. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Bologna Follow-Up Group (2007). "Applications for Accession to the Bologna Process". Retrieved 8 December 2012.["dead link]
- "Applications to join the Bologna Process". Dcsf.gov.uk. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original (DOC) on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- European Parliament Parliamentary questions and answers
- Council Regulation (EC) No 389/2006 of 27 February 2006 establishing an instrument of financial support for encouraging the economic development of the Turkish Cypriot community and amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2667/2000 on the European Agency for Reconstructionm, OJ L 65, 7.3.2006.
- European Parliament Parliamentary questions and answers
- "The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area" (PDF). EHEA. May 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- Lorenz, Chris (2006). "Will the universities survive the European Integration? Higher Education Policies in the EU and in the Netherlands before and after the Bologna Declaration" (PDF). University of Amsterdam. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- Julian Assange in conversation with Slavoj Zizek moderated by Democracy Now's Amy Goodman (Video). Frontline Club. 2 July 2011. j1Xm08uTSDQ. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- "Outstanding features". University of Andorra. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Belarus' accession to Bologna Process approved by European education ministers". Belarus By. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Šimičević, Hrvoje (7 May 2008). "Više od 3 tisuće studenata prosvjeduje u Zagrebu – Studenti: Mi smo prva bolonjska degeneracija" [More than 3,000 students protested in Zagreb – Students: We are the first Bologna degeneration] (in Croatian). "Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
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- "Tutkintojen ja tutkinto-ohjelmien vieraskieliset nimet" [Diplomas and degree programmes in foreign languages]. Helsinki University of Technology (in Finnish). 5 September 2008. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Finnish governmental decree 423/2005 on degrees at Universities of Applied Sciences Accessed: 21 June 2009
- Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences – Master's Degrees Accessed: 21 June 2009
- "WENR, March/April 2004: France". Wes.org. 29 August 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Les étudiants ont exigé l'abrogation de la réforme LMD et le retrait définitif du projet de loi sur l'autonomie des universités" [Students have demanded the repeal of the LMD reform and definitive withdrawal of the bill on the autonomy of universities] (PDF). Révoltes (in French). December 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- Strikes against private fundings of Universities in France["dead link]
- "Higher Education system of Georgia". Mes.gov.ge. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Országos Felsőoktatási Információs Központ". felvi.hu. 24 February 2006.["dead link]
- "Index – Belföld – Szabad bölcsész leszel vagy romanisztika szakos?". Index.hu. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Grunnnám | Háskóli Íslands". www.hi.is. Retrieved 2016-01-15.
- "Framhaldsnám | Háskóli Íslands". www.hi.is. Retrieved 2016-01-15.
- National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (2006). Verification of Compatibility of Irish National Framework of Qualifications with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (PDF). Dublin: NQAI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2011.
- "Italian Qualifications Framework (QTI): other qualifications". quadrodeititoli.it. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "De MPhil graad wordt niet meer verleend" [The MPhil degree is no longer granted] (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Although it is not recognised by the Dutch state, Dutch universities may still grant the degree MPhil, next to granting a degree as MA or MSc next to the MPhil degree, so that the graduate may still get a recognised degree.
- "Putin signs law on two-tier higher education system-1". RIA Novosti. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
- Платная магистратура [Payment for Masters]. uchsib.ru (in Russian). 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012.
(translated) Many tertiary institutions such as the Moscow State University, State University of Management, and RANEPA (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration) provide an opportunity to take a Masters Degree only on a fee-for basis.
- Yana Miliukova (21 July 2011). Магистратуру сделали платной в 50 вузах [Masters has been made a fee course by 50 tertiary institutions] (in Russian). sostav.ru. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Guriev, Sergey (8 October 2007). Болонский процесс: Катастрофа или панацея [The Bologna Process: Catastrophe or panacea] (in Russian). Vedomosti. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- "Tuning Chemistry Subject Area Group and European Chemistry Thematic Network: Recommendations for the Third Cycle" (PDF). ECTN Association. November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2008.
- Alexandra Kertz-Welzel, "Motivation zur Weiterbildung: Master- und Bachelor-Abschlüsse in den USA", Diskussion Musikpädagogik, vol. 29, pp. 33–35, 2006.