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Main article: "List of things named after Booker T. Washington

For his contributions to American society, Washington was granted an honorary "master's degree from "Harvard University in 1896 and an honorary "doctorate from "Dartmouth College in 1901.

At the end of the 2008 presidential election, the defeated Republican candidate, Senator "John McCain, recalled the outrage that Booker Washington's visit to Theodore Roosevelt's White House a century before, caused. McCain pointed out the evident progress the country had made since that event: "Barack Obama was elected as the first African-American President of the United States.[50]

In 1934 "Robert Russa Moton, Washington's successor as president of Tuskegee University, arranged an air tour for two African-American aviators. Afterward he had the plane named the Booker T. Washington.["citation needed]

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Booker T. Washington was honored on a "'Famous Americans Series' Commemorative U.S. Postage stamp, issue of 1940.

On April 7, 1940, Washington became the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. Several years later, he was honored on the first coin to feature an African American, the Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar, which was minted by the United States from 1946 to 1951. He was also depicted on a U.S. Half Dollar from 1951–1954.[51]

In 1942, the "liberty ship Booker T. Washington was named in his honor, the first major oceangoing vessel to be named after an African American. The ship was christened by "Marian Anderson.[52]

On April 5, 1956, the hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth, the house where he was born in "Franklin County, Virginia, was designated as the "Booker T. Washington National Monument.

A "state park in Chattanooga, Tennessee, was named in his honor, as was a bridge spanning the "Hampton River adjacent to his "alma mater, "Hampton University.

In 1984 Hampton University dedicated a Booker T. Washington Memorial on campus near the historic "Emancipation Oak, establishing, in the words of the University, "a relationship between one of America's great educators and social activists, and the symbol of Black achievement in education."[53]

"Numerous high schools, "middle schools and elementary schools[54] across the United States have been named after Booker T. Washington.

At the center of the campus at "Tuskegee University, the Booker T. Washington Monument, called Lifting the Veil, was dedicated in 1922. The inscription at its base reads:

He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way to progress through education and industry.

In 2000, "West Virginia State University (WVSU; then West Va. State College), in cooperation with other organizations including the Booker T. Washington Association, established the Booker T. Washington Institute, to honor Washington's boyhood home, the old town of Malden, and the ideals Booker Washington stood for.[55]

On October 19, 2009, WVSU dedicated a monument to the memory of noted African American educator and statesman Booker T. Washington. The event took place at West Virginia State University's Booker T. Washington Park in "Malden, West Virginia. The monument also honors the families of African ancestry who lived in Old Malden in the early 20th century and who knew and encouraged Booker T. Washington. Special guest speakers at the event included West Virginia "Governor "Joe Manchin III, Malden attorney Larry L. Rowe, and the president of WVSU. Musical selections were provided by the WVSU "Marching Swarm."[56]

Legacy[edit]

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Sculpture of Booker T. Washington at the "National Portrait Gallery in "Washington, D.C.

Washington was held in high regard by business-oriented conservatives, both white and black. Historian "Eric Foner argues that the freedom movement of the late nineteenth century changed directions so as to align with America's new economic and intellectual framework. Black leaders emphasized economic self-help and individual advancement into the middle class as a more fruitful strategy than political agitation. There was emphasis on education and literacy throughout the period after the Civil War. Washington's famous Atlanta speech of 1895 marked this transition, as it called on blacks to develop their farms, their industrial skills and their entrepreneurship as the next stage in emerging from slavery.

By this time, Mississippi had passed a new constitution, and other southern states were following suit, or using electoral laws to raise barriers to voter registration; they "completed disenfranchisement of blacks to maintain "white supremacy. At the same time, Washington secretly arranged to fund numerous legal challenges to voting restrictions and segregation.[1]

Washington repudiated the abolitionist emphasis on unceasing agitation for full equality, advising blacks that it was counterproductive to fight segregation at that point. Foner concludes that Washington's strong support in the black community was rooted in its widespread realization that frontal assaults on white supremacy were impossible, and the best way forward was to concentrate on building up the economic and social structures inside segregated communities.[57] Historian "C. Vann Woodward said of Washington, "The businessman's gospel of free enterprise, competition, and laissez faire never had a more loyal exponent."[58]

Historians since the late 20th century have been divided in their characterization of Washington: some describe him as a visionary capable of "read[ing] minds with the skill of a master psychologist," who expertly played the political game in 19th-century Washington by its own rules.[3] Others say he was a self-serving, crafty "narcissist who threatened and punished those in the way of his personal interests, traveled with an entourage, and spent much time fundraising, signing autographs, and giving flowery patriotic speeches with lots of flag waving — acts more indicative of an artful political boss than an altruistic civil rights leader.[3]

People called Washington the "Wizard of Tuskegee" because of his highly developed political skills, and his creation of a nationwide political machine based on the black middle class, white philanthropy, and Republican Party support. Opponents called this network the "Tuskegee Machine." Washington maintained control because of his ability to gain support of numerous groups, including influential whites and the black business, educational and religious communities nationwide. He advised on the use of financial donations from philanthropists, and avoided antagonizing white Southerners with his accommodation to the political realities of the age of "Jim Crow segregation.[15]

Representation in other media[edit]

See also[edit]

Works[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Richard H. Pildes, Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon, Constitutional Commentary, vol. 17, 2000, pp. 13–14. Accessed March 10, 2008
  2. ^ Nathan Irvin Huggins (2007). Harlem Renaissance. Oxford University Press. pp. 19–20. 
  3. ^ a b c Bieze, Michael Scott; Gasman, Marybeth, eds. (March 26, 2012). Booker T. Washington Rediscovered. Johns Hopkins UP. p. 209. 
  4. ^ West, Michael Rudolph (2006). The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 84. 
  5. ^ a b Meier 1957.
  6. ^ Norrell 2009, pp. 4, 130.
  7. ^ Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery: An Autobiography. [1901] New York: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1906; p. 1.
  8. ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 2.
  9. ^ a b Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 34.
  10. ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 9.
  11. ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, pp. 19-21.
  12. ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 27.
  13. ^ a b Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 35.
  14. ^ "Booker T. Washington Monument to Be Dedicated in Malden". WVSU. 
  15. ^ a b Harlan 1983, p. 359.
  16. ^ "Choate and Twain Plead for Tuskegee | Brilliant Audience Cheers Them and Booker Washington", The New York Times, January 23, 1906.
  17. ^ a b Anderson 1998.
  18. ^ Washington 1901.
  19. ^ "The Booker T. Washington Era (Part 1)", African American Odyssey, Library of Congress, March 21, 2008, retrieved 3 Sep 2008 .
  20. ^ Thornbrough, Emma (1969), Booker T. Washington .
  21. ^ a b c d Harlan 1972.
  22. ^ Harlan 1983.
  23. ^ a b Bauerlien 2004, p. 106.
  24. ^ Pole 1974, p. 888.
  25. ^ Du Bois 1903, pp. 41–59.
  26. ^ Pole 1974, p. 107.
  27. ^ Crouch 2005, p. 96.
  28. ^ Du Bois 1903, p. 189.
  29. ^ Pole 1974, p. 980.
  30. ^ Walker, Clarence E. (1991), Deromanticising Black History, University of Tennessee Press, p. 32 .
  31. ^ Washington 1972, p. 68.
  32. ^ a b Maxell, Anne (2002), "Montrer l'Autre: Franz Boas et les sœurs Gerhard", in Bancel, Nicolas; Blanchard, Pascal; Boëtsch, Gilles; Deroo, Eric; Lemaire, Sandrine, Zoos humains. De la Vénus hottentote aux reality shows, La Découverte, pp. 331–39, in part. p. 338 
  33. ^ Harlan 1971.
  34. ^ Norrell, Up from History (2009) pp. 273–75, 368–70.
  35. ^ Williams, Juan (Spring 2012). "Educating a Nation". Philanthropy. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  36. ^ a b NEW RELEASE Book Now: Available for Film Festival & Event Screenings
  37. ^ Rosenwald: A Remarkable Story of a Jewish Partnership with African American Communities (Film Screening)
  38. ^ Rosenwald: The Remarkable Story of a Jewish Partnership with African American Communities
  39. ^ Rosenwald, National Trust, 2002-06-06 .
  40. ^ Ford, Claiborneone .
  41. ^ Charlotte D. Fitzgerald, "The Story of My Life and Work: Booker T. Washington's Other Autobiography," The Black Scholar (2001), 21#4 pp. 35–40.
  42. ^ Harlan 1983, p. 290.
  43. ^ Jim Crow, PBS .
  44. ^ Wickham, DeWayne (February 14, 2002). "Book fails to strip meaning of 'N' word". "USA Today. 
  45. ^ Miller, Nathan (1993-11-11). Theodore Roosevelt: A Life. "HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-688-13220-0. 
  46. ^ Books, Google .
  47. ^ Kennedy, Randall (2002). "The Protean N-Word". Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word. Pantheon. "ISBN "0-375-42172-6. 
  48. ^ a b Booker T. Washington Papers, 8 (437), retrieved September 21, 2009 .
  49. ^ Detroit Journal, November 14, 1905  Missing or empty |title= ("help).
  50. ^ "Transcript Of John McCain's Concession Speech". NPR.org. November 5, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Commemorative Coin Programs", Mint programs, The United States Mint .
  52. ^ Marian Anderson christens the liberty ship Booker T. Washington, UCLA .
  53. ^ Hamilton, Ed, "Booker T Washington", Works .
  54. ^ Washington Elementary in Mesa Arizona, MPSAZ .
  55. ^ About BTWI Archived November 18, 2015, at the "Wayback Machine., accessed November 5, 2015.
  56. ^ White, Davin (2009-10-19). "Booker T. Washington monument unveiled". "Charleston Gazette. Retrieved 2009-10-19. 
  57. ^ Eric Foner, Give The Liberty! An American History (2008), p. 659.
  58. ^ C. Vann Woodward (1951). Origins of the New South, 1877-1913,. LSU Press. p. 366. 
  59. ^ Ray Argyle (2009). Scott Joplin and the Age of Ragtime. McFarland, pp. 56ff.
  60. ^ 'Can You Blame The Colored Man' GUS CANNON (1927) Banjo Blues Legend (video), YouTube .

References[edit]

Historiography[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

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