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Main article: "List of things named after Booker T. Washington
For his contributions to American society, Washington was granted an honorary "master's degree from "Harvard University in 1896 and an honorary "doctorate from "Dartmouth College in 1901.
At the end of the 2008 presidential election, the defeated Republican candidate, Senator "John McCain, recalled the outrage that Booker Washington's visit to Theodore Roosevelt's White House a century before, caused. McCain pointed out the evident progress the country had made since that event: "Barack Obama was elected as the first African-American President of the United States.
In 1934 "Robert Russa Moton, Washington's successor as president of Tuskegee University, arranged an air tour for two African-American aviators. Afterward he had the plane named the Booker T. Washington.
On April 7, 1940, Washington became the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp. Several years later, he was honored on the first coin to feature an African American, the Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar, which was minted by the United States from 1946 to 1951. He was also depicted on a U.S. Half Dollar from 1951–1954.
In 1942, the "liberty ship Booker T. Washington was named in his honor, the first major oceangoing vessel to be named after an African American. The ship was christened by "Marian Anderson.
On April 5, 1956, the hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth, the house where he was born in "Franklin County, Virginia, was designated as the "Booker T. Washington National Monument.
A "state park in Chattanooga, Tennessee, was named in his honor, as was a bridge spanning the "Hampton River adjacent to his "alma mater, "Hampton University.
In 1984 Hampton University dedicated a Booker T. Washington Memorial on campus near the historic "Emancipation Oak, establishing, in the words of the University, "a relationship between one of America's great educators and social activists, and the symbol of Black achievement in education."
"Numerous high schools, "middle schools and elementary schools across the United States have been named after Booker T. Washington.
At the center of the campus at "Tuskegee University, the Booker T. Washington Monument, called Lifting the Veil, was dedicated in 1922. The inscription at its base reads:
He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way to progress through education and industry.
In 2000, "West Virginia State University (WVSU; then West Va. State College), in cooperation with other organizations including the Booker T. Washington Association, established the Booker T. Washington Institute, to honor Washington's boyhood home, the old town of Malden, and the ideals Booker Washington stood for.
On October 19, 2009, WVSU dedicated a monument to the memory of noted African American educator and statesman Booker T. Washington. The event took place at West Virginia State University's Booker T. Washington Park in "Malden, West Virginia. The monument also honors the families of African ancestry who lived in Old Malden in the early 20th century and who knew and encouraged Booker T. Washington. Special guest speakers at the event included West Virginia "Governor "Joe Manchin III, Malden attorney Larry L. Rowe, and the president of WVSU. Musical selections were provided by the WVSU "Marching Swarm."
Washington was held in high regard by business-oriented conservatives, both white and black. Historian "Eric Foner argues that the freedom movement of the late nineteenth century changed directions so as to align with America's new economic and intellectual framework. Black leaders emphasized economic self-help and individual advancement into the middle class as a more fruitful strategy than political agitation. There was emphasis on education and literacy throughout the period after the Civil War. Washington's famous Atlanta speech of 1895 marked this transition, as it called on blacks to develop their farms, their industrial skills and their entrepreneurship as the next stage in emerging from slavery.
By this time, Mississippi had passed a new constitution, and other southern states were following suit, or using electoral laws to raise barriers to voter registration; they "completed disenfranchisement of blacks to maintain "white supremacy. At the same time, Washington secretly arranged to fund numerous legal challenges to voting restrictions and segregation.
Washington repudiated the abolitionist emphasis on unceasing agitation for full equality, advising blacks that it was counterproductive to fight segregation at that point. Foner concludes that Washington's strong support in the black community was rooted in its widespread realization that frontal assaults on white supremacy were impossible, and the best way forward was to concentrate on building up the economic and social structures inside segregated communities. Historian "C. Vann Woodward said of Washington, "The businessman's gospel of free enterprise, competition, and laissez faire never had a more loyal exponent."
Historians since the late 20th century have been divided in their characterization of Washington: some describe him as a visionary capable of "read[ing] minds with the skill of a master psychologist," who expertly played the political game in 19th-century Washington by its own rules. Others say he was a self-serving, crafty "narcissist who threatened and punished those in the way of his personal interests, traveled with an entourage, and spent much time fundraising, signing autographs, and giving flowery patriotic speeches with lots of flag waving — acts more indicative of an artful political boss than an altruistic civil rights leader.
People called Washington the "Wizard of Tuskegee" because of his highly developed political skills, and his creation of a nationwide political machine based on the black middle class, white philanthropy, and Republican Party support. Opponents called this network the "Tuskegee Machine." Washington maintained control because of his ability to gain support of numerous groups, including influential whites and the black business, educational and religious communities nationwide. He advised on the use of financial donations from philanthropists, and avoided antagonizing white Southerners with his accommodation to the political realities of the age of "Jim Crow segregation.
Representation in other media
- The guest of President "Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, Washington was the first African American invited to the White House.
- This visit was dramatized as the subject of an opera, "A Guest of Honor, by "Scott Joplin, noted African-American composer. It was first produced in 1903. It was also recalled in the 1927 song by Banjo Blues Musician "Gus Cannon, titled "Can You Blame The Colored Man."
- "E.L. Doctorow's 1975 novel "Ragtime and its 1981 "film adaptation feature a fictional version of Washington. He is portrayed as trying to negotiate the surrender of an African-American musician who is threatening to blow up the "Pierpont Morgan Library.
- ^ a b c Richard H. Pildes, Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon, Constitutional Commentary, vol. 17, 2000, pp. 13–14. Accessed March 10, 2008
- ^ Nathan Irvin Huggins (2007). Harlem Renaissance. Oxford University Press. pp. 19–20.
- ^ a b c Bieze, Michael Scott; Gasman, Marybeth, eds. (March 26, 2012). Booker T. Washington Rediscovered. Johns Hopkins UP. p. 209.
- ^ West, Michael Rudolph (2006). The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 84.
- ^ Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery: An Autobiography.  New York: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1906; p. 1.
- ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 2.
- ^ a b Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 34.
- ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 9.
- ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, pp. 19-21.
- ^ Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 27.
- ^ a b Washington, Up From Slavery, p. 35.
- ^ "Booker T. Washington Monument to Be Dedicated in Malden". WVSU.
- ^ "Choate and Twain Plead for Tuskegee | Brilliant Audience Cheers Them and Booker Washington", The New York Times, January 23, 1906.
- ^ a b Anderson 1998.
- ^ "The Booker T. Washington Era (Part 1)", African American Odyssey, Library of Congress, March 21, 2008, retrieved 3 Sep 2008.
- ^ Thornbrough, Emma (1969), Booker T. Washington.
- ^ Walker, Clarence E. (1991), Deromanticising Black History, University of Tennessee Press, p. 32.
- ^ a b Maxell, Anne (2002), "Montrer l'Autre: Franz Boas et les sœurs Gerhard", in Bancel, Nicolas; Blanchard, Pascal; Boëtsch, Gilles; Deroo, Eric; Lemaire, Sandrine, Zoos humains. De la Vénus hottentote aux reality shows, La Découverte, pp. 331–39, in part. p. 338
- ^ Norrell, Up from History (2009) pp. 273–75, 368–70.
- ^ Williams, Juan (Spring 2012). "Educating a Nation". Philanthropy. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- ^ a b NEW RELEASE Book Now: Available for Film Festival & Event Screenings
- ^ Rosenwald: A Remarkable Story of a Jewish Partnership with African American Communities (Film Screening)
- ^ Rosenwald: The Remarkable Story of a Jewish Partnership with African American Communities
- ^ Rosenwald, National Trust, 2002-06-06.
- ^ Ford, Claiborneone.
- ^ Charlotte D. Fitzgerald, "The Story of My Life and Work: Booker T. Washington's Other Autobiography," The Black Scholar (2001), 21#4 pp. 35–40.
- ^ Jim Crow, PBS.
- ^ Wickham, DeWayne (February 14, 2002). "Book fails to strip meaning of 'N' word". "USA Today.
- ^ Miller, Nathan (1993-11-11). Theodore Roosevelt: A Life. "HarperCollins. "ISBN "978-0-688-13220-0.
- ^ Books, Google.
- ^ Kennedy, Randall (2002). "The Protean N-Word". Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word. Pantheon. "ISBN "0-375-42172-6.
- ^ a b Booker T. Washington Papers, 8 (437), retrieved September 21, 2009.
- ^ Detroit Journal, November 14, 1905 .
- ^ "Transcript Of John McCain's Concession Speech". NPR.org. November 5, 2008.
- ^ "Commemorative Coin Programs", Mint programs, The United States Mint.
- ^ Marian Anderson christens the liberty ship Booker T. Washington, UCLA.
- ^ Hamilton, Ed, "Booker T Washington", Works.
- ^ Washington Elementary in Mesa Arizona, MPSAZ.
- ^ About BTWI Archived November 18, 2015, at the "Wayback Machine., accessed November 5, 2015.
- ^ White, Davin (2009-10-19). "Booker T. Washington monument unveiled". "Charleston Gazette. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- ^ Eric Foner, Give The Liberty! An American History (2008), p. 659.
- ^ C. Vann Woodward (1951). Origins of the New South, 1877-1913,. LSU Press. p. 366.
- ^ Ray Argyle (2009). Scott Joplin and the Age of Ragtime. McFarland, pp. 56ff.
- ^ 'Can You Blame The Colored Man' GUS CANNON (1927) Banjo Blues Legend (video), YouTube.
- Anderson, James D (1988), The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935.
- Bauerlein, Mark (Winter 2004), "Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois: The origins of a bitter intellectual battle", Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 46, "JSTOR 4133693
- Boston, Michael B (2010), The Business Strategy of Booker T. Washington: Its Development and Implementation, University Press of Florida; 243 pp. Studies the content and influence of his philosophy of entrepreneurship
- Harlan, Louis R (1972), Booker T. Washington: volume 1: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901, the major scholarly biography
- Harlan, Louis R (1983), Booker T. Washington; volume 2: The Wizard of Tuskegee 1901–1915.
- Harlan, Louis R (1988), Booker T. Washington in Perspective (essays), University Press of Mississippi.
- Harlan, Louis R (1971), "The Secret Life of Booker T. Washington", "Journal of Southern History, 37 (2). Documents Booker T. Washington's secret financing and directing of litigation against segregation and disfranchisement.
- McMurry, Linda O (1982), George Washington Carver, Scientist and Symbol.
- Meier, August (May 1957), "Toward a Reinterpretation of Booker T. Washington", The Journal of Southern History, 23 (2): 220–27, "doi:10.2307/2955315, "JSTOR 2955315. Documents Booker T. Washington's secret financing and directing of litigation against segregation and disfranchisement.
- Norrell, Robert J (2009), Up from History: The Life of Booker T. Washington, Belknap Press/Harvard University Press, "ISBN "978-0-674-03211-8, favorable scholarly biography.
- Smith, David L (1997), "Commanding Performance: Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise Address", in Gerster, Patrick; Cords, Nicholas, Myth America: A Historical Anthology, II, St. James, NY: Brandywine Press, "ISBN "1-881089-97-5.
- Smock, Raymond (2009), Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow, Chicago: Ivan R Dee.
- Wintz, Cary D (1996), African American Political Thought, 1890–1930: Washington, Du Bois, Garvey, and Randolph.
- Pole, JR (1974), "Review: Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others; The Children of Pride", The Historical Journal, 17 (4), "JSTOR 2638562.
- Zimmerman, Andrew (2012), Alabama in Africa: Booker T. Washington, the German Empire, and the Globalization of the New South, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Bieze, Michael Scott, and Marybeth Gasman, eds. Booker T. Washington Rediscovered (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012), 265 pp. scholarly essays
- Brundage, W Fitzhugh, ed. (2003), Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: Up from Slavery 100 Years Later.
- Dagbovie, Pero Gaglo. "Exploring a Century of Historical Scholarship on Booker T. Washington," Journal of African American History 92#2 (2007), pp. 239–264 in JSTOR; also pp 127-57 partly online
- Friedman, Lawrence J (October 1974), "Life 'In the Lion's Mouth': Another Look at Booker T. Washington", Journal of Negro History, 59 (4): 337–351, "doi:10.2307/2717315, "JSTOR 2717315.
- Harlan, Louis R (Oct 1970), "Booker T. Washington in Biographical Perspective", American Historical Review, 75 (6): 1581–99, "doi:10.2307/1850756, "JSTOR 1850756
- Norrell, Robert J. "Booker T. Washington: Understanding the Wizard of Tuskegee," Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 42 (2003–4), pp. 96–109 in JSTOR
- Strickland, Arvarh E (December 1973), "Booker T. Washington: The Myth and the Man", Reviews in American History (Review), 1 (4): 559–564, "doi:10.2307/2701723, "JSTOR 2701723.
- Zeringue, Joshua Thomas. "Booker T. Washington and the Historians: How Changing Views on Race Relations, Economics, and Education Shaped Washington Historiography, 1915-2010" (MA Thesis, LSU, 2015) online.
- Du Bois, WEB (1903), "3", The Souls of Black Folk, Bartleby.
- Washington, Booker T (September 1895), The Atlanta Cotton States Exposition Address, History Matters, GMU.
- ——— (September 1896), "The Awakening of the Negro", The Atlantic Monthly, 78
- ——— (1901). Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Documenting the American South. Other online full-text versions available via Project Gutenberg, UNC Library
- ——— (December 1906). "A Farmers' College on Wheels". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XIII: 8352–54. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (October 1910). "Chapters From My Experience I". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XX: 13505–22. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (November 1910). "Chapters From My Experience II". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 13627–40. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (December 1910). "Chapters From My Experience III". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 13784–94. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (January 1911). "Chapters From My Experience IV". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 13847–54. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (February 1911). "Chapters From My Experience V". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 14032–39. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- ——— (April 1911). "Chapters From My Experience VI". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 14230–38. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- Washington, Booker T; Harlan, Louis R; Blassingame, John W (1972), "(search link)", The Booker T Washington Papers, University of Illinois Press, "ISBN "0-252-00242-3, retrieved February 4, 2009; fourteen-volume set of all letters to and from Booker T. Washington.
- "cumulative index", BTW, 14, History cooperative.
- Works by Booker T. Washington at "Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Booker T. Washington at "Internet Archive
- Works by Booker T. Washington at "LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- "Booker T. Washington: The Man and the Myth Revisited." (2007) PowerPoint presentation By Dana Chandler
- Booker T. Washington (online resources), Library of Congress
- The Booker T. Washington Society Library (online resources), The Booker T. Washington Society
- Booker T. Washington papers, 1853-1946 (finding aid), Library of Congress, index to over 300,000 items related to Washington available at the Library of Congress and on microfilm.
- "Booker T. Washington". Educator and social reformer. "Find a Grave. Jan 1, 2001. Retrieved Aug 18, 2011.
- "Writings of Writings of B. Washington and Du Bois" from "C-SPAN's "American Writers: A Journey Through History
- Booker T. Washington historical marker in Piedmont Park, Atlanta, Georgia