Although the "Royal Navy is widely regarded as vital to the rise of the "British Empire, the British Army played an important role in the formation of colonies, "protectorates and "dominions in the Americas, Africa, Asia, India and "Australasia. British soldiers captured strategically-important territories, and the army was involved in wars to secure the empire's borders and support friendly governments. Among these actions were the Seven Years' War, the "American Revolutionary War, the "Napoleonic Wars, the "First and "Second Opium Wars, the "Boxer Rebellion, the "New Zealand Wars, the "Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the "first and "second Boer Wars, the "Fenian raids, the "Irish War of Independence, interventions in "Afghanistan (intended to maintain a "buffer state between British India and the "Russian Empire) and the "Crimean War (to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by aiding Turkey). Like the "English Army, the British Army fought the kingdoms of Spain, France (including the Empire of France) and the "Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the "West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the army conquered "New France in the "North American theatre of the "Seven Years' War and suppressed a "Native American uprising in "Pontiac's War. The British Army was defeated in the American Revolutionary War, losing the "Thirteen Colonies but retaining Canada.
The British Army was heavily involved in the "Napoleonic Wars, participating in a number of campaigns in Europe (including continuous deployment in the "Peninsular War), the "Caribbean, North Africa and "North America. The war between the British and the "First French Empire of "Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world; at its peak in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian armies under the "Duke of Wellington and "Field Marshal von Blücher finally defeated Napoleon at "Waterloo in 1815.
The English were involved politically and militarily in Ireland since receiving the "Lordship of Ireland from the pope in 1171. The campaign of English republican Protector "Oliver Cromwell involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns (most notably "Drogheda and "Wexford) which supported the Royalists during the "English Civil War. The English Army (and the subsequent British Army) remained in Ireland primarily to suppress Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. In addition to its conflict with Irish nationalists, it was faced with the prospect of battling Anglo-Irish and "Ulster Scots in Ireland who were angered by unfavourable taxation of Irish produce imported into Britain. With other Irish groups, they raised a volunteer army and threatened to emulate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. Learning from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution. The British Army fought Irish rebels—Protestant and Catholic—primarily in "Ulster and "Leinster ("Wolfe Tone's "United Irishmen) in the "1798 rebellion.
In addition to battling the armies of other European empires (and its former colonies, the United States, in the War of 1812), the British Army fought the Chinese in the first and second Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion, "Māori tribes in the first of the New Zealand Wars, Nawab Shiraj-ud-Daula's forces and "British East India Company mutineers in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the Boers in the first and second Boer Wars, Irish "Fenians in Canada during the "Fenian raids and "Irish separatists in the "Anglo-Irish War. The increasing demands of imperial expansion and the inadequacy and inefficiency of the underfunded British Army, "Militia, "Yeomanry and "Volunteer Force after the Napoleonic Wars led to the late-19th-century "Cardwell and "Childers Reforms, which gave the army its modern shape and redefined its "regimental system. The 1907 "Haldane Reforms created the "Territorial Force as the army's volunteer reserve component, merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Militia and Yeomanry.
World Wars (1914–1945)
Great Britain has been challenged by other powers, primarily the "German Empire and the "Third Reich during the 20th century. A century earlier it vied with Napoleonic France for global pre-eminence, and "Hannoverian Britain's natural allies were the kingdoms and principalities of "northern Germany. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain and France were allies in preventing Russia's appropriation of the "Ottoman Empire (although the fear of French invasion led shortly afterwards to the creation of the Volunteer Force. By the first decade of the 20th century, the United Kingdom was allied with France (by the "Entente Cordiale) and Russia (which had a secret agreement with France for mutual support in a war against the "Prussian-led German Empire and the "Austro-Hungarian Empire).
When the First World War broke out in August 1914 the British Army sent the "British Expeditionary Force (BEF), consisting mainly of "regular army troops, to "France and Belgium. The fighting bogged down into static "trench warfare for the remainder of the war. In 1915 the army created the "Mediterranean Expeditionary Force to invade the "Ottoman Empire via "Gallipoli, an unsuccessful attempt to capture "Constantinople and secure a sea route to "Russia.
World War I was the most devastating in "British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over two million wounded. Early in the war, the BEF was virtually destroyed and was replaced first by "volunteers and then a "conscript force. Major battles included those at "the Somme and "Passchendaele. Advances in technology saw the advent of the "tank (and the creation of the "Royal Tank Regiment) and advances in aircraft design (including the creation of the "Royal Flying Corps) which would be decisive in future battles. Trench warfare dominated Western Front strategy for most of the war, and the use of "chemical weapons (disabling and poison gases) added to the devastation.
The "Second World War broke out in September 1939 with the "German Army's "invasion of Poland. British assurances to the Poles led the British Empire to declare war on "Germany. As in the First World War, a relatively-small "BEF was sent to France and hastily evacuated from "Dunkirk as the German forces "swept through the Low Countries and across France in May 1940.
After the US entered the war and the British Army recovered from its earlier defeats, it defeated the Germans and Italians at the "Second Battle of El Alamein in "North Africa in 1942–1943 and helped drive them from Africa. It then fought through "Italy and, with the help of American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Indian and Free French forces, took part in the "D-Day invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944; nearly half the Allied soldiers were British. In the "Far East, the British Army rallied against the Japanese in the "Burma Campaign and regained the British Far Eastern colonial possessions.
Postcolonial era (1945–1990)
After the Second World War the British Army was significantly reduced in size, although "National Service continued until 1960. This period saw "decolonisation begin with the "partition and "independence of India and Pakistan, followed by the independence of British colonies in Africa and Asia. Although the British Army was a major participant in "Korea in the early 1950s and "Suez in 1956, during this period Britain's role in world events was reduced and the army was downsized. The "British Army of the Rhine, consisting of "I (BR) Corps, remained in Germany as a bulwark against Soviet invasion. The "Cold War continued, with significant technological advances in warfare, and the army saw the introduction of new weapons systems. Despite the decline of the British Empire, the army was engaged in "Aden, "Indonesia, "Cyprus, "Kenya and "Malaya. In 1982, the British Army and the "Royal Marines helped liberate the "Falkland Islands during the "conflict with Argentina after that country's invasion of the British territory.
In the three decades following 1969, the army was heavily deployed in "Northern Ireland's "Operation Banner to support the "Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the "Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with republican paramilitary groups. The locally-recruited "Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, becoming home-service battalions of the "Royal Irish Regiment in 1992 before it was disbanded in 2006. Over 700 soldiers were killed during "the Troubles. Following the 1994–1996 "IRA ceasefires and since 1997, demilitarisation has been part of the peace process and the military presence has been reduced. On 25 June 2007 the 2nd Battalion of the "Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment left the army complex in "Bessbrook, "County Armagh, ending the longest operation in British Army history.
Persian Gulf War
The British Army contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition which fought "Iraq in the "Persian Gulf War, and British forces controlled "Kuwait after its liberation. Forty-seven British military personnel died during the war.
The army was deployed to "Yugoslavia in 1992. Initially part of the "United Nations Protection Force, in 1995 its command was transferred to the "Implementation Force (IFOR) and then to the "Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR); the commitment rose to over 10,000 troops. In 1999, British forces under SFOR command were sent to "Kosovo and the contingent increased to 19,000 troops. Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died during operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia.
War in Afghanistan
In November 2001, as part of "Operation Enduring Freedom with the United States, the United Kingdom invaded "Afghanistan to topple the "Taliban in "Operation Herrick. The "3rd Division were deployed in "Kabul to assist in the liberation of the capital and defeat Taliban forces in the mountains. In 2006 the British Army began concentrating on fighting Taliban forces and bringing security to "Helmand Province, with around 9,500 British troops (including marines, airmen and sailors) deployed at its peak—the second-largest force after that of the US. In December 2012 Prime Minister "David Cameron announced that the combat mission would end in 2014, and troop numbers gradually fell as the "Afghan National Army took over the brunt of the fighting. Between 2001 and 26 April 2014 a total of 453 British military personnel died in Afghan operations. Operation Herrick ended with the handover of "Camp Bastion on 26 October 2014, but the British Army maintains a deployment in Afghanistan as part of "Operation Toral.
In 2003 the United Kingdom was a major contributor to the "invasion of Iraq, sending a force of over 46,000 military personnel. The British Army controlled southern Iraq, maintained a peace-keeping presence in "Basra. All British troops were withdrawn from Iraq by 30 April 2009, after the Iraqi government refused to extend their mandate. One hundred seventy-nine British military personnel died in Iraqi operations. The "British Armed Forces returned to Iraq in 2014 as part of "Operation Shader to counter the "Islamic State (ISIL).
Although there have been permanent garrisons in Northern Ireland throughout its history, the British Army was deployed as a peacekeeping force from 1969 to 2007 in "Operation Banner. Initially, this was (in the wake of "unionist attacks on nationalist communities in "Derry and "Belfast) to prevent further loyalist attacks on Catholic communities; it developed into support of the "Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and its successor, the "Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) against the "Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). Under the 1998 "Good Friday Agreement, there was a gradual reduction in the number of soldiers deployed. In 2005, after the PIRA declared a ceasefire, the British Army dismantled posts, withdrew many troops and restored troop levels to those of a peace-time garrison.
Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007 after about 38 years of continuous deployment, the longest in British Army history. According to an internal document released in 2007, the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA but made it impossible for them to win by violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007, maintaining fewer service personnel in a more-benign environment. From 1971 to 1997, a total of 763 British military personnel were killed during the Troubles. About 300 deaths during the conflict were attributed to the British Army, including paramilitary troops and civilians.
The British Army has been a volunteer force since national service ended during the 1960s. Since the creation of the part-time, reserve "Territorial Force in 1908 (renamed the Army Reserve in 2014) the full-time British Army has been known as the Regular Army. The size and structure of the army are evolving, and the Ministry of Defence publishes monthly personnel reports. In December 2016 there were 83,360 trained Regulars, 2,850 "Gurkhas and 26,300 trained "Army Reservists.
"Army 2020 followed the "Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010 (SDSR). According to the Ministry of Defence, Army 2020 will "ensure that the British Army remains the most capable Army in its class" and enable "it to better meet the security challenges of the 2020s and beyond". The SDSR initially outlined a reduction of the regular British Army by 7,000, to a trained strength of 95,000, by 2015. After the publication of "Future Reserves 2020", another independent review of army structure, it was announced that the Regular Army would be reduced to a trained strength of 82,000 and the Army Reserve would be increased to a trained strength of about 30,000; this would bring the ratio of regular to part-time personnel in line with the US and Canada and integrate the Army Reserve into the Regular Army.
In addition to the regular and reserve armies, all former Regular Army personnel (known as the "Regular Reserve) may be recalled for duty as needed. The Regular Reserve has two categories: A and D. Category A is mandatory, with the length of time in the category dependent on time spent in Regular Army service. Category D is voluntary, and consists of personnel who are no longer required to serve in category A. Regular Reserves in both categories serve under a fixed-term reserve contract and may report for training or service overseas and at home, similar to the Army Reserve. In 2007, there were 121,800 Regular Reserves, of which 33,760 served in categories A and D. Beginning in April 2013, the full Regular Reserve strength was no longer reported—only those serving in categories A and D (30,000 in 2015).
The table below illustrates British Army personnel figures from 1710 to 2010. The Army Reserve (Territorial Army) was established in 1908.
|British Army strength|
|Year||Regular Army||Year||Regular Army||Year||Regular Army||"Army Reserve||Total|
|1730||20,000||1830||106,000||1945b||3,120,000||Included in Regular||3,120,000|
Notes: 1710–1900, 1918 & 1945, 1920, 1930, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980–2000, 2010, 2015
- a ^ End of the First World War
- b ^ End of the Second World War
- c ^ National Service ends.
- d ^ End of the Cold War. Figures rounded to the nearest thousand.
The British Army's basic infantry weapon is the "L85A2 assault rifle, sometimes equipped with an "L17A2 under-barrel grenade launcher or other attachments with the "Picatinny rail. The rifle has several variants, including the "L86A2, the Light Support Weapon (LSW) and the L22A2 carbine (issued to tank crews). These weapons are usually equipped with "iron sights or an optical "SUSAT, although optical sights have been purchased to supplement these.
Support fire is provided by the "FN Minimi light machine gun and the "L7 general-purpose machine gun (GPMG), and indirect fire is provided by "L16 81mm mortars. The "L129A1 sharpshooter rifle was brought into service during the war in Afghanistan to give the infantry a long-range weapon. Sniper rifles include the "L118A1 7.62 mm, "L115A3 and the "AW50F, all manufactured by "Accuracy International. Other weapons, such as the "L128A1 (Benelli M4) combat shotgun, may be temporarily used.
The army's "main battle tank is the "Challenger 2. It is supported by the "Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle as the primary "armoured personnel carrier and the many variants of the "Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) and "the FV430 series, which had its engines and armour upgraded as the "Bulldog. Light armoured units often utilise the "Supacat "Jackal" MWMIK and "Coyote for reconnaisance and fire support.
The army has three main artillery systems: the "Multi Launch Rocket System (MLRS), the "AS-90 and the "L118 light gun. The MLRS, first used in "Operation Granby, has a 85-kilometre (53 mi) range. The AS-90 is a 155 mm self-propelled armoured gun with a 24-kilometre (15 mi) range. The L118 light gun is a 105 mm towed gun used in support of the 16th Air Assault Brigade, the 3rd Commando Brigade of the "Royal Marines and the Adaptive Force. To identify artillery targets, the army operates weapon locators such as the "MAMBA Radar and utilises "artillery sound ranging. For air defence it uses the Short-Range Air Defence (SHORAD) "Rapier FSC missile system, widely deployed since the "Falklands War, and the Very Short-Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) "Starstreak HVM (high-velocity missile) launched by a single soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher.
Where armour is not required or mobility and speed are favoured the British Army utilises protected patrol vehicles, such as the Panther variant of the "Iveco LMV, and variants of the "Cougar family (such as the Foxhound, Ridgeback, Husky and Mastiff). For day-to-day utility work the army commonly uses the "Land Rover Wolf, which is based on the "Land Rover Defender.
Engineers, utility and signals
Specialist engineering vehicles include bomb-disposal robots and the modern variants of the "Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers, including the Titan bridge-layer, "Trojan combat-engineer vehicle, "Terrier Armoured Digger and "Python Minefield Breaching System. Day-to-day utility work uses a series of support vehicles, including six-, nine- and fifteen-tonne trucks (often called "Bedfords", after a historic utility vehicle), heavy-equipment transporters (HET), close-support tankers, quad bikes and ambulances. Tactical communication uses the "Bowman radio system, and operational or strategic communication is controlled by the "Royal Corps of Signals.
The "Army Air Corps (AAC) provides direct aviation support, with the "Royal Air Force providing support helicopters. The primary attack helicopter is the "Westland WAH-64 Apache, a "licence-built, modified version of the US "AH-64 Apache which replaced the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role. Other helicopters include the "Westland Gazelle (a light surveillance aircraft), the "Bell 212 (in jungle "hot and high" environments) and the "AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat, a dedicated "intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) helicopter. The "Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for "special operations aviation, and the "Britten-Norman Islander is a light, fixed-wing aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and "command and control. The army operates two "unmanned aerial vehicles in a surveillance role: the small "Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III and the larger "Thales Watchkeeper WK450.
"Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS)
|"Afghanistan||2015||"Operation Toral: The army maintains a deployment of 500 personnel in support of NATO's "Resolute Support Mission.|
|"Iraq||2014||"Operation Shader: The army has personnel stationed in Iraq as part of the ongoing "military intervention against ISIL, primarily to assist in the training of "Iraqi security forces. With other elements of the "British Armed Forces, there were 275 army personnel in 2016.|
|"Cyprus||1964||"Operation Tosca: There were 275 troops deployed as part of the UNFICYP in 2016.|
|"Sierra Leone||1999||International Military Assistance Training Team: The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone for "Operation Palliser in 1999, under United Nations resolutions, to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leone government. British troops also provided support during the 2014 "West African Ebola virus epidemic.|
|"Baltic states||2017||"NATO Response Force: The British Army will deploy up to 800 troops in 2017 as part of its commitment to NATO to counter perceived Russian aggression against the Baltic states.|
Permanent overseas postings
|"Belize||1949||"British Army Training and Support Unit Belize: British troops were based in "Belize from 1949 to 1994. Belize's neighbour, "Guatemala, claimed the territory and there were a number of border disputes. At the request of the Belize government, British troops remained in Belize after independence in 1981 as a defence force. Although the "main training unit was meant to be mothballed after the "Strategic Defence and Security Review, in 2015 it continued to be in use.|
|"Bermuda||1701||"Royal Bermuda Regiment: British troops have been based in Bermuda since 1701, and home defence is now provided by the "Royal Bermuda Regiment.|
|"Brunei||1962||"British Forces Brunei: One battalion of the "Royal Gurkha Rifles, "British Garrison, "Training Team Brunei (TTB) and "7 Flight AAC. A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei since the "Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the request of "Sultan "Omar Ali Saifuddin III. Training Team Brunei (TTB) is the Army's jungle-warfare school, and a small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight AAC provides helicopter support to the Gurkha battalion and TTB.|
|"Canada||1972||"British Army Training Unit Suffield: A training centre in "Alberta prairie for the use of British Army and "Canadian Forces under agreement with the "government of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises every year, with helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight "AAC.|
|"Cyprus||1960||Two resident infantry battalions, "Royal Engineers, "16 Flight AAC and Joint Service Signals Unit at "Ayios Nikolaos as part of "British Forces Cyprus. The UK retains two "Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus after the rest of the island's independence, which are forward bases for deployments to the Middle East. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi.|
|"Falkland Islands||1982||Part of "British Forces South Atlantic Islands: The British Army contribution consists of an infantry company group and an Engineer Squadron. Previously, a platoon-sized "Royal Marines Naval Party was the military presence. After the war in 1982 between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was enlarged and bolstered with a base at "RAF Mount Pleasant on "East Falkland.|
|"Germany||1945–2020||Part of "British Forces Germany: Home of the 1st (UK) Armoured Division. British forces remained in Germany after the end of the Second World War. The forces were reduced considerably after the end of the "Cold War and in October 2010, Prime Minister "David Cameron announced large cuts in defence; all UK troops currently in Germany will leave by 2020.|
|"Gibraltar||1704||Part of "British Forces Gibraltar: A British Army garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the "Royal Gibraltar Regiment.|
|"Kenya||2010||"British Army Training Unit Kenya: The army has a training centre in Kenya, under an agreement with the Kenyan government, which provides training facilities for three infantry battalions per year.|
|Arms of the British Army|
|Combat Support Arms|
British Army structure is broadly similar to that of the "Royal Navy and "Royal Air Force, with a single command (based in "Andover, Hampshire) known as ""Army Headquarters". Headquarters is responsible for providing forces at operational readiness for employment by the "Permanent Joint Headquarters.
The command structure is hierarchical, with "divisions and "brigades controlling groups of units. Major units are "regiment- or "battalion-sized, and minor units are "company-sized units (or "platoons). All units are Regular (full-time) or "Army Reserve (part-time).
Naming conventions of units differ for historical reasons, creating some confusion; the term "battalion" in the infantry is synonymous with a cavalry, artillery or engineer regiment, and the infantry "company" is synonymous with an engineer or cavalry squadron and an artillery battery. The table below illustrates the different names for equivalent units.
|Regiment (two or more battalions grouped for administration)||No equivalent||No equivalent||No equivalent|
Adding to the confusion is the tendency of units (again for historical reasons) to misuse titles for larger administrative structures. Although the "Royal Artillery consists of 13 Regular regiments (equivalent to infantry battalions), it calls itself the Royal Regiment of Artillery when referring to the units as a whole. The "Royal Logistic Corps and "Intelligence Corps are not "corps-sized, but consist of several battalions or regiments.
The field forces of the British Army after the "Army 2020 reforms are organised in garrison as:
- Reaction forces: A modified "16 Air Assault Brigade and an armoured division ("3rd Division (United Kingdom) of three armoured infantry brigades (1st, 12th and 20th Armoured Infantry Brigades). In 2020, this division will reorganise and consist of two armoured infantry brigades and two strike brigades.
- Adaptive forces: The "1st Division, consisting of seven infantry brigades. In 2020, the adaptive force will consist of specialised infantry battalions who will train, advise, assist, mentor and accompany operations by indigenous forces.
- Force Troops Command: Nine brigades of supporting units which supplement the reaction and adaptive forces.
For operational tasks the most common unit is the "battlegroup, formed around a combat unit and supported by units (or sub-units) from other areas. An example of a battlegroup in the Reactive Force (e.g. the 1st Brigade) would be two companies of armoured infantry (e.g. from the 1st Battalion of the Mercian Regiment), one squadron of heavy armour (e.g. A Squadron of the Royal Tank Regiment), a company of engineers (e.g. B Company of the 22nd Engineer Regiment), a battery of artillery (e.g. D Battery of the 1st Regiment of the Royal Horse Artillery) and smaller attachments from medical, logistic and intelligence units. Typically organised and commanded by a battlegroup headquarters and named after the unit which provided the most combat units, in this example it would be the 1 Mercian Battlegroup). This creates a self-sustaining mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically 600 to 1,000 soldiers commanded by a lieutenant colonel.
The table below demonstrates how three or four battlegroups make up a "brigade and three or four brigades make up a "division. A division is currently the largest unit the British Army is capable of deploying independently, although it could be grouped with three or four other divisions from a multi-national coalition to form a "corps.
|Type of unit||"Division||"Brigade||"Battlegroup||"Battalion, Regiment||"Company, "Squadron||"Platoon, "Troop||"Section||"Fire Team|
|Contains||3 brigades||3–4 battalions (battlegroups)||Combined arms unit||4–6 companies||3 platoons||3 sections||2 fire teams||4 individuals|
|Commanded by||"Maj-Gen||"Brig||"Lt Col||"Lt Col||"Maj||"Capt, "Lt or "2nd Lt||"Cpl||"LCpl|
The British Army contributes two of the three "special forces formations to the "United Kingdom Special Forces directorate: the "Special Air Service and "Special Reconnaissance Regiments. The "Special Air Service consists of one regular-army and two reserve regiments. The regular regiment, 22 SAS, has its headquarters and depot in "Hereford and consists of five squadrons (A, B, D, G and Reserve) and a training wing. 22 SAS is supported by two reserve regiments: "21 SAS and 23 SAS—collectively, the Special Air Service (Reserve) (SAS [R])—under the command of the "1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade.
The "Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR), formed in 2005, performs close reconnaissance and special surveillance tasks. The "Special Forces Support Group, under the operational control of the Director of Special Forces, provides operational manoeuvring support to the United Kingdom Special Forces.
The army has historically included many units from "Commonwealth Dominion countries; as these countries gained independence, control of their armies passed to the native government (e.g. the "Australian Army). Units raised in "self-governing and "Crown colonies and "protectorates remain under UK control. The UK retains responsibility for the defence of the fourteen remaining "British Overseas Territories, of which four have locally-raised regiments:
- "Royal Bermuda Regiment
- "Royal Gibraltar Regiment
- "Falkland Islands Defence Force
- "Royal Montserrat Defence Force
Although the army primarily recruits within the United Kingdom, it accepts applications from "Commonwealth citizens and (occasionally) those from friendly nations who meet certain criteria. In 2016, it was decided to open all roles to women in 2018; women had not been permitted to join the "Combat Arms. The British Army is an equal-opportunity employer (with some exceptions due to its medical standards), and does not discriminate based on race, religion or sexual orientation.
The minimum age is 16 (after the end of "GCSEs), although soldiers under 18 may not serve in operations. The maximum recruitment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33 years, and the maximum age for Army Reserve soldiers is higher. A soldier would traditionally enlist for a term of 22 years, although recently there has been a shift towards 12-year terms with a 22-year option. A soldier is not normally permitted to leave until they have served for at least four years, and must give 12 months' notice.
Oath of allegiance
All soldiers must take an oath of allegiance upon joining the Army, a process known as attestation. Those who wish to swear by "God use the following words:
I, [soldier's name], swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, "crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me.
Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".
"Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS) is the officer-training school, and "Royal School of Artillery (RSA) trains the "Royal Artillery. "Royal School of Military Engineering (RSME) trains the Corps of "Royal Engineers.
The Army Training Regiment, Grantham provides training for Army Reserve recruits, and the Army Training Regiment, Pirbright provides training for the "Army Air Corps, the "Royal Artillery, the "Royal Corps of Signals, the "Royal Logistic Corps, the "Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the "Adjutant General's Corps, the "Royal Army Medical Corps and the "Intelligence Corps. The Army Training Regiment, Winchester trains the "Royal Armoured Corps, the "Army Air Corps, the "Royal Artillery, the "Royal Engineers, the "Royal Corps of Signals, the "Royal Logistic Corps, the "Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the "Adjutant General's Corps, the "Royal Army Medical Corps and the "Intelligence Corps.
There is an "Infantry Training Centre at Catterick and an "Infantry Battle School in Brecon. Other training centres are the "Army Foundation College (Harrogate) and "Army Training Units.
Flags and ensigns
The army's official flag is the 3:5 "ratio "Union Jack, although a non-ceremonial flag flies at the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall and is often used at recruiting and military events and exhibitions. It represents the army on the "Cenotaph at "Whitehall in London, the UK memorial to its war dead. Each British Army unit has a set of flags, known as the "colours—normally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour (the Union Jack).
Ensign flown by the "Royal Logistic Corps from vessels commanded by commissioned officers
Ensign of the Corps of "Royal Engineers
Ranks, specialisms and insignia
|NATO code||OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||"OF(D)||Student officer|
|" United Kingdom
|"Field Marshal1||"General||"Lieutenant-General||"Major-General||"Brigadier||"Colonel||"Lieutenant-Colonel||"Major||"Captain||"Lieutenant||"Second Lieutenant||"Officer Cadet|
|Abbreviation:||FM||Gen||Lt Gen||Maj Gen||Brig||Col||Lt Col||Maj||Capt||Lt||2Lt||OCdt|
|" British Army
|""||""||""||""||""||""||""||No Equivalent||""||""||No Insignia|
|"Warrant Officer Class 1||"Warrant Officer Class 2||"Staff/"Colour Sergeant||"Sergeant||"Corporal||"Lance Corporal||"Private
Each regiment and corps has distinctive insignia, such as a "cap badge, "beret, "tactical recognition flash or "stable belt. Many units also call soldiers of different ranks by different names; a NATO OR-1 (private) is called a guardsman in Guards regiments, a gunner in artillery units and a sapper in engineer units. These names do not affect a soldier's pay or role.
The British Army uniform has sixteen categories, ranging from ceremonial uniforms to combat dress to evening wear. No. 8 Dress, the day-to-day uniform, is known as "Personal Clothing System – Combat Uniform" (PCS-CU) and consists of a "Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP) windproof smock, a lightweight jacket and trousers with ancillary items such as "thermals and "waterproofs. The army has introduced "tactical recognition flashes (TRFs); worn on the right arm of a combat uniform, the insignia denotes the wearer's regiment or corps.
Working "headdress is typically a "beret, whose colour indicates its wearer's type of regiment. Beret colours are:
- Khaki—"Foot Guards, "Household Cavalry, "Honourable Artillery Company, "Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, "Royal Anglian Regiment
- Light grey—"Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, "Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps
- Brown—"King's Royal Hussars
- Black—"Royal Tank Regiment
- Dark ("rifle) green—"The Rifles, "Royal Gurkha Rifles
- "Maroon—"Parachute Regiment
- Beige—"Special Air Service
- Sky blue—"Army Air Corps
- Cypress green—"Intelligence Corps
- Scarlet—"Royal Military Police
- Green—"Adjutant General's Corps
- Navy blue—All other units
In addition to working dress, the army has a number of parade uniforms for ceremonial and non-ceremonial occasions. The most-commonly-seen uniforms are No.1 Dress (full ceremonial, seen at formal occasions such as at the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace) and No.2 Dress (Service Dress), a brown uniform worn for non-ceremonial parades.
- "Army Cadet Force (ACF)
- "British Army order of precedence
- "British Army uniform
- "British campaign medals
- "British military history
- "Future of the British Army (Army 2020)
- "Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015
- "List of British Army installations
- "Ministry of Defence
- "Modern equipment of the British Army
- "Royal Air Force
- "Royal Navy
- "Sexual orientation and military service
- "Army Reserve (United Kingdom)
- "United Kingdom Special Forces
- "Tommy Atkins
- English/Scottish parliamentary control 1689, British parliamentary control 1707.
- Figure current as of 1 Dec 2016. Does not include the 2,850 strong "Brigade of Gurkhas.
- Figure is current as of 1 April 2015. Only Regular Reserves serving under a fixed-term reserve contract are counted.
- Figure current as of 1 Dec 2016.
- Clifford Walton (1894). History of the British Standing Army. A.D. 1660 to 1700. pp. 1–2.
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- Chandler, David (2003). The Oxford history of the British Army. Oxford University Press. p. xv. "ISBN "978-0-19-280311-5.
It is generally accepted that the regular standing army in Britain was officially created – in the sense of being fully accommodated within parliamentary control in 1689, although it is, strictly speaking, only correct to refer to the British army from the Act of Union with Scotland in 1707.
- gov.uk MoD – reserves and cadet strengths, table 1a-page 10. 1 April 2015.
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- David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army (2003) p. 47. 
- Mallinson, p.2
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The first standing Army for Britain, a force of some 5,000 men on the English establishment, was formed at the Restoration in 1660–61. Separate forces were maintained on the Scottish and Irish establishments.
- Glozier, Matthew; Onnekink, David (2007). War, religion and service: Huguenot soldiering, 1685–1713. Ashgate. p. 31. "ISBN "0-7546-5444-3.
After the Restoration there were separate English, Scottish (until 1707) and Irish (until 1800) military establishments, reflecting the national revenue from which a military unit was maintained. In operational and administrative matters all three combined into a single formation. To some extent after 1600, and most certainly from 1688, the description 'British' army is, therefore, both convenient and accurate.
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- email@example.com, The British Army,. "The British Army – SA80 individual weapon". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- firstname.lastname@example.org, The British Army,. "The British Army – General purpose machine gun". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "L129A1 sharpshooter Rifle".
- email@example.com, The British Army,. "The British Army – L115A3 Long range 'sniper' rifle". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
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- Starstreak II sighted Janes
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- email@example.com, The British Army,. "The British Army – Engineering and logistics". www.army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
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