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Bruce Babbitt
""Bruce Babbitt 2007.jpg
47th "United States Secretary of the Interior
In office
January 22, 1993 – January 2, 2001
President "Bill Clinton
Preceded by "Manuel Lujan
Succeeded by "Gale Norton
16th "Governor of Arizona
In office
March 4, 1978 – January 6, 1987
Preceded by "Wesley Bolin
Succeeded by "Evan Mecham
19th "Attorney General of Arizona
In office
January 6, 1975 – March 4, 1978
Governor "Raúl Castro
"Wesley Bolin
Preceded by Warner Lee
Succeeded by "Jack LaSota
Personal details
Born Bruce Edward Babbitt
(1938-06-27) June 27, 1938 (age 79)
"Flagstaff, "Arizona, "U.S.
Political party "Democratic
Spouse(s) "Hattie Coons
Children 2
Education "University of Notre Dame ("BS)
"Newcastle University ("MS)
"Harvard University ("LLB)

Bruce Edward Babbitt (born June 27, 1938) is an American attorney and politician from the state of "Arizona. A member of the "Democratic Party, Babbitt served as the "16th governor of Arizona from 1978 to 1987, and as the "United States Secretary of the Interior from 1993 through 2001.

Born in "Flagstaff, Arizona, Babbitt won election as "Arizona Attorney General after graduating from "Harvard Law School. He became Governor of Arizona after the death of his predecessor, "Wesley Bolin. Babbitt won election to a full term in 1978 and won re-election in 1982. He helped found the "Democratic Leadership Council and sought the "1988 Democratic presidential nomination, but dropped out of the race after the first set of primaries.

After his presidential campaign, Babbit served as head of the "League of Conservation Voters. He served as the Secretary of the Interior for the duration of "Bill Clinton's presidency. Clinton also "strongly considered nominating Babbitt to the "Supreme Court after vacancies arose in 1993 and 1994. After leaving public office in 2001, Babbitt became an attorney with "Latham & Watkins.

Contents

Personal life[edit]

Babbitt was born in "Flagstaff, Arizona, the son of Frances B. (Perry) and Paul James Babbitt, Sr.[1][2] He graduated from the "University of Notre Dame, attended "Newcastle University in the "United Kingdom on a "Marshall Scholarship, and then received his law degree at "Harvard Law School.[3]

He married "Harriet Coons (known as Hattie) in 1968. She has worked as an attorney in Arizona and Washington, D.C., and served as "United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States from 1993 to 1997, and as Deputy Administrator of the "United States Agency for International Development from 1997 to 2001 during the Clinton Administration.[4]

As attorney for the Scottsdale Daily Progress newspaper, Babbitt worked with publisher "Jonathan Marshall in crafting legislation that became Arizona's "open meeting law."

Political career[edit]

Arizona[edit]

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Babbitt signing legislation in the Governor's Office in Phoenix, Arizona.

In the state election of November 1974, Babbitt overcame Republican incumbent Warner Lee to become "Attorney General of Arizona.[5] He succeeded "Wesley Bolin as governor when Bolin died in office on March 4, 1978. Arizona does not have a lieutenant governor; the "Arizona Secretary of State, if holding office by election, stands first in line in case the governor vacates his or her post. However, "Rose Mofford, then secretary of state, had been appointed to her post and thus was not eligible to become governor according to the Arizona state constitution which states the secretary of state must be an elected official in order to replace the governor. Babbitt, as attorney general, was next in the line of succession, and thus served the balance of the term to which "Raúl Héctor Castro had originally been elected in 1974. Babbitt was elected for a full four-year term later in 1978, and again in "1982. He did not run for a third term in 1986.

In 1982, Babbitt intervened in negotiations between the Cochise County sheriff and leaders of the Christ Miracle Healing Church and Center over the release of church members whom the church was hiding from facing charges for assault. The church, which had been implicated in bomb-making, would play a central role in the "Miracle Valley shootout later that year. In 1983, Babbitt sent the Arizona National Guard to the strike against the "Phelps Dodge mining company in "Morenci, Arizona.

With the retirement of Republican "Barry Goldwater from the U.S. Senate in 1986, many in Arizona expected Babbitt to oppose Representative "John McCain for the seat. In a surprise press conference in 1985, Babbitt instead announced he would forgo the Senate race to concentrate on a White House bid in 1988.

Babbitt is the only Arizona governor to have completed two four-year terms with nine years of service. "George W.P. Hunt is Arizona's longest-serving governor, however, with 17 years of total service and seven terms.

National work[edit]

In 1979, Babbitt was appointed by President "Jimmy Carter to serve as a commissioner on the President's Commission on the Accident at "Three Mile Island, a six-month investigation of the March 1979 accident at a commercial nuclear power plant at Middletown, "Pennsylvania.[6] Babbitt spoke at the "1980 Democratic National Convention, which nominated incumbent "Jimmy Carter as the Democratic candidate for president.

A founding member of the "Democratic Leadership Council and the chairman of the "Democratic Governors Association in 1985, Babbitt sought the "Democratic Party's 1988 nomination for President of the United States. Among his proposals was a national sales tax to remedy the then-record budget deficits piled up during the several past administrations. He enjoyed positive press attention (called a "boomlet" in USA Today), but after finishing out of the top tier of candidates in the "Iowa caucuses and "New Hampshire primary, he dropped out of the race. In an intentional reference to "Richard Nixon (who said after losing the California governorship in the "1962 election that the press "won't have [me] to kick around anymore"), Babbitt joked in his last campaign press conference that the media "won't have Bruce Babbitt to puff up anymore." The Washington Post reported that Babbitt dropped this line from the prepared text of his withdrawal speech.[7]

Clinton administration[edit]

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Babbitt as Secretary of the Interior in Washington, D.C. circa 1993

After leading the "League of Conservation Voters, Babbitt served for eight years, 1993–2001, as the "United States Secretary of the Interior during "Bill Clinton's administration.

Babbitt worked to protect scenic and historic areas of America's federal public lands. In 2000 Babbitt created the "National Landscape Conservation System, a collection of 15 "U.S. National Monuments and 14 "National Conservation Areas to be managed by the "Bureau of Land Management in such a way as to keep them "healthy, open, and wild."

In 1993, Babbitt was seriously considered by President Clinton to replace retiring "United States Supreme Court Justice "Byron White. Due to his lead on environmental issues, however, Clinton nominated "Ruth Bader Ginsburg instead. Clinton again considered Babbitt for the high court in 1994 when "Harry Blackmun announced his retirement. Babbitt was passed over again, this time in favor of "Stephen Breyer, due to Breyer's immense support in the U.S. Senate, primarily because he was close to Sen. "Ted Kennedy.["citation needed]

In 1998 Babbitt was the subject of a federal grand jury investigation into whether he had lied to Congress about having denied an Indian casino license in Wisconsin in return for political donations. The controversy has been called "Wampumgate. Babbitt was cleared of wrongdoing in the special prosecutor's final report on the investigation the following year.[8]

Post-political life[edit]

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Babbitt with then-Secretary of the Interior "Ken Salazar at the Department's headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Babbitt took a job as chief counsel of the environmental litigation department of "Latham & Watkins, an international "law firm, after leaving the Department of the Interior.

Babbitt wrote a book in 2005 titled Cities in the Wilderness: A New Vision of Land Use in America, where he proposes to amend the "Endangered Species Act so that it is used to identify, conserve, and protect landscapes, watersheds, and ecosystems whether or not an endangered species exists there. Drawing a parallel with preventive medicine, he thinks it should promote the protection of open space and ecosystems before the downward spiral to extinction begins.

Babbitt has attracted the ire of some environmentalists and Native American groups for his representation of the "Arizona Snowbowl ski resort and its effort to expand the resort and use waste water to make "artificial snow.[9]

He serves as "trustee of the "World Wildlife Fund Secretariat Trustees in the U.S., and was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations until 2012.[10] He has also served on the Board of Directors since 2009 for the "Amazon Conservation Association, whose mission is to conserve the biological diversity of the Amazon.[11] Babbitt is also a member of the ReFormers Caucus of "Issue One.[12]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1988/Candidate-s-Father-Dies-in-Flagstaff/id-1e4d965e29a396a494060a114e70604b
  2. ^ http://cemeteryrecordsonline.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7086996
  3. ^ Arizona Governor Bruce Edward Babbitt, National Governors Association.
  4. ^ Harriet C. Babbitt-Jennings Strouss Attorneys at Law Archived January 13, 2013, at the "Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Arizona Voting". The Gallup Independent. Gallup, NM. AP. November 6, 1974. Retrieved October 16, 2016 – via "Newspapers.com.  "open access publication – free to read
  6. ^ Walker, J. Samuel (2006). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective. University of California Press. p. 281. "ISBN "9780520246836. 
  7. ^ Schwartz, Maralee; Ifill, Gwen (1998-02-21). "Babbitt's Opening Line--Almost". The Washington Post. pp. A12. 
  8. ^ Miller, Bill; Vise, David A. (1999-10-14). "Babbitt Cleared in Casino Probe". The Washington Post. pp. A1. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  9. ^ "Savethepeaks.org". Archived from the original on 2006-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-02. , "Can anyone really trust Bruce Babbitt?
  10. ^ "Membership Roster - Council on Foreign Relations". 6 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  11. ^ "Amazon Conservation Association". 
  12. ^ https://www.issueone.org/reformers/

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
Warner Lee
"Attorney General of Arizona
1975–1978
Succeeded by
"Jack LaSota
Political offices
Preceded by
"Wesley Bolin
"Governor of Arizona
1978–1987
Succeeded by
"Evan Mecham
Preceded by
"Manuel Lujan
"United States Secretary of the Interior
1993–2001
Succeeded by
"Gale Norton
Party political offices
Preceded by
"Raúl Castro
"Democratic nominee for "Governor of Arizona
"1978, "1982
Succeeded by
"Carolyn Warner
Preceded by
"Chuck Robb
Chair of the "Democratic Governors Association
1984–1985
Succeeded by
"Richard Riley
) )