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Burgundy
Bourgogne
"Region of France
""Flag of Burgundy
Flag
""Bourgogne in France.svg
Country  "France
"Prefecture "Dijon
"Departments
Government
 • "President "François Patriat ("PS)
Area
 • Total 31,582 km2 (12,194 sq mi)
Population (2008-01-01)
 • Total 1,631,000
 • Density 52/km2 (130/sq mi)
"Time zone "CET ("UTC+1)
 • Summer ("DST) "CEST ("UTC+2)
"ISO 3166 code FR-D
"GDP (2012)["citation needed] "Ranked 16th
Total €42.7 billion (US$55.0 bn)
Per capita €25,996 (US$33,436)
"NUTS Region FR2
Website cr-bourgogne.fr

Burgundy (French: Bourgogne, IPA: "[buʁɡɔɲ] (""About this sound listen)) is a historical territory and a former "administrative region of France. It takes its name from the "Burgundians, an "East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.[1] Historically, "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the "Mediterranean to the "Low Countries.["not verified in body] Beginning 1 January 2016, the name Burgundy refers to a specific French political entity that is part of the new administrative region of "Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments, "Côte-d'Or, "Saône-et-Loire, "Yonne, and "Nièvre.["not verified in body]

Contents

History[edit]

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The Vix "Krater, a Greek wine-mixing vessel found in the "Vix Grave
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"Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the province

The first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were "Celts, who were eventually incorporated in the "Roman Empire as "Gallo-Romans.

During the 4th century, the "Burgundians, a "Germanic people, who may have originated in "Bornholm (on the Baltic Sea), settled in the western Alps. They founded the "Kingdom of the Burgundians, which was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the "Franks.

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Map of France showing Burgundy and provincial boundaries in 1789

Under Frankish dominion, the "Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.

Later, the region was divided between the "Duchy of Burgundy (to the west) and the "Free County of Burgundy (to the east). The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two, later becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of "Franche-Comté, literally meaning free county.

Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the "Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county.

During the "Middle Ages, Burgundy was the seat of some of the most important Western churches and "monasteries, among them "Cluny, "Cîteaux, and "Vézelay.

During the "Hundred Years' War, King "John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, "Philip the Bold. The duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in "Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the "battle of Nancy during the "Burgundian Wars, the last duke "Charles the Bold was killed in battle, and the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province. However the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs.

With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s. The modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy.

Geography[edit]

""Map of Burgundy
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Map of Burgundy

The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old "Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the "Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern "Netherlands to the border of "Auvergne. Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces:

Major communities[edit]

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Dijon, Place du Bareuzai
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Le Creusot

Climate[edit]

The climate of this region is essentially oceanic (Cfb in "Köppen classification), with a continental influence (sometimes called a "half-continental climate").["citation needed]

Politics[edit]

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Seat of the regional council of Burgundy in Dijon

The regional council of Burgundy is the legislative assembly.["citation needed] The council has been chaired by the Socialist "François Patriat since 2004.["citation needed] The council's seat is in the capital city "Dijon, at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille.["citation needed]


Culture and livelihoods[edit]

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"Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the "Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of "Meursault.

Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas. It is well known for both its red and white wines, mostly made from "Pinot noir and "Chardonnay grapes, respectively, although other grape varieties can be found, including "Gamay, "Aligote, "Pinot blanc, and "Sauvignon blanc. The region is divided into the "Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, and "Beaujolais, "Chablis, the "Côte Chalonnaise and "Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are often produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world.

With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes "coq au vin, "beef bourguignon, and "époisses de Bourgogne cheese.

Tourist sites of Burgundy include the "Rock of Solutré, the "Tournus cathedral, "Cluny, Brancion, the castles of "Cormatin and "Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in "Dijon, the "Pézanin Arboretum (in "Dompierre-les-Ormes), and "Vézelay Abbey.

Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was heavily industrial, with coal mines near "Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in "Le Creusot. These industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, and Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Poupardin, René, Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Burgundy". "Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

"Coordinates: 47°00′N 4°30′E / 47.000°N 4.500°E / 47.000; 4.500

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