All islands at some point were, and a few still are, "colonies of European nations; a few are "overseas or dependent territories:
- "British West Indies/"Anglophone Caribbean – "Anguilla, "Antigua and Barbuda, "Bahamas, "Barbados, "Bay Islands, "Guyana, "Belize, "British Virgin Islands, "Cayman Islands, "Dominica, "Grenada, "Jamaica, "Montserrat, "Saint Croix (briefly), "Saint Kitts and Nevis, "Saint Lucia, "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, "Trinidad and Tobago (from 1797) and the "Turks and Caicos Islands
- "Danish West Indies – Possession of "Denmark-Norway before "1814, then "Denmark, present-day "United States Virgin Islands
- "Dutch West Indies – "Aruba, "Bonaire, "Curaçao, "Saba, "Sint Eustatius, "Sint Maarten, "Bay Islands (briefly), "Saint Croix (briefly), "Tobago, "Surinam and "Virgin Islands
- "French West Indies – "Anguilla (briefly), "Antigua and Barbuda (briefly), "Dominica, "Dominican Republic (briefly), "Grenada, "Haiti (formerly "Saint-Domingue), "Montserrat (briefly), "Saint Lucia, "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, "Sint Eustatius (briefly), "Sint Maarten, "St. Kitts (briefly), "Tobago (briefly), "Saint Croix, the current French "overseas départements of "Martinique and "Guadeloupe (including "Marie-Galante, "La Désirade and "Les Saintes), the current French "overseas collectivities of "Saint Barthélemy and "Saint Martin
- "Portuguese West Indies – present-day "Barbados, known as Os Barbados in the 16th century when the Portuguese claimed the island en route to Brazil. The Portuguese left Barbados abandoned in 1533, nearly a century before the British arrived.
- "Spanish West Indies – "Cuba, "Hispaniola (present-day "Dominican Republic, "Haiti (until 1659 to France), "Puerto Rico, "Jamaica (until 1655 to Great Britain), the "Cayman Islands (until 1670 to Great Britain) "Trinidad (until 1797 to Great Britain) and "Bay Islands (until 1643 to Great Britain), coastal islands of "Central America (except Belize), and some Caribbean coastal islands of "Panama, "Colombia, "Mexico, and "Venezuela.
- "Swedish West Indies – present-day French "Saint-Barthélemy, "Guadeloupe (briefly) and "Tobago (briefly).
- "Courlander West Indies – "Tobago (until 1691)
The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a "West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint "cricket team that competes in "Test matches, "One Day Internationals and "Twenty20 Internationals. The "West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of "Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.
In addition, these countries share the "University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.
Modern-day island territories
- "Anguilla ("British overseas territory)
- "Antigua and Barbuda ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Aruba ("Kingdom of the Netherlands)
- "Bahamas ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Barbados ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Bonaire ("special municipality of the Netherlands)
- "British Virgin Islands (British overseas territory)
- "Cayman Islands (British overseas territory)
- "Cuba ("Republic)
- "Curaçao ("Kingdom of the Netherlands)
- "Dominica (Republic)
- "Dominican Republic
- "Grenada ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Guadeloupe ("overseas department of France) including
- "Haiti (Republic)
- "Jamaica ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Martinique (overseas department of France)
- "Montserrat (British overseas territory)
- "Puerto Rico ("commonwealth of the United States)
- "Saba ("special municipality of the Netherlands)
- "Saint Barthélemy ("overseas collectivity of France)
- "Saint Kitts and Nevis ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Saint Lucia ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Saint Martin (overseas collectivity of France)
- "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines ("Constitutional monarchy)
- "Sint Eustatius (special municipality of the Netherlands)
- "Sint Maarten ("Kingdom of the Netherlands)
- "Trinidad and Tobago (Republic)[b]
- "Turks and Caicos Islands (British overseas territory)
- "United States Virgin Islands ("territory of the United States)
Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands
The Caribbean islands are remarkable for the diversity of their animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of "Conservation International's "biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane "cloud forests to "cactus "scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefs along with extensive seagrass meadows, both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.
For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations. That checklist includes more than 11250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered. Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island; for "Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species; for the "Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species; for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.
Many of the "ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by "deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of "giant "owls and "dwarf ground sloths. The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the "Puerto Rican amazon, two species of "solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the "Cuban crocodile.
The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishes have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification. According to a "UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.
Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. "Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by "sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. "Cuba and "Barbados were historically the largest producers of "sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for "agriculture, for example "Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern "Lesser Antilles, "Aruba, "Bonaire and "Curaçao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have "salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.
The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in "eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.
Plants and animals
A green and black poison frog, "Dendrobates auratus
The "Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
"Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
At the time of "European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the "Taíno of the "Greater Antilles and northern "Lesser Antilles, the "Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the "Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the "Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity) led to a decline in the Amerindian population. From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa such as the "Kongo, "Igbo, "Akan, "Fon and "Yoruba as well as military prisoners from "Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in "England.["citation needed] Immigrants from "Britain, "Italy, "France, "Spain, the "Netherlands, "Portugal and "Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.
The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800. Immigrants from "India, "China, "Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants. After the ending of the "Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally. The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.
The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly "Africans in the "French Caribbean, "Anglophone Caribbean and "Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race (including "Mulatto-"Creole, "Dougla, "Mestizo, "Quadroon, "Cholo, "Castizo, "Criollo, "Zambo, "Pardo, "Asian Latin Americans, "Chindian, "Cocoa panyols, and "Eurasian); and European people of "Spanish, "Dutch, "English, "French, "Italian, and "Portuguese ancestry. "Asians, especially those of "Chinese, "Indian descent, and "Javenese "Indonesians, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. "Indians form a majority of the population in "Trinidad and Tobago, "Guyana, and "Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.
The "Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or "European majorities. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. One third of Cuba's (largest Caribbean island) population is of African descent, with a sizable "Mulatto (mixed African–European) population, and European majority. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed race population, primarily descended from Europeans, "West Africans, and Amerindians.
Larger islands such as "Jamaica, have a very large African majority, in addition to a significant mixed race, and has "Chinese, "Europeans, "Indians, "Latinos, "Jews, and "Arabs populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. The situation is similar for the "Caricom states of "Belize, "Guyana and "Trinidad and Tobago. "Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of "Africans, "Indians, "Chinese, "Arabs, "Jews, "Latinos ("Spanish and "Portuguese), and "Europeans along with the "Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include "Dougla, "Chindian, "Mulatto-"Creole, "Afro-Asians, "Eurasian, "Cocoa panyols, and "Asian Latin Americans
- "Arawak peoples
- "Caquetio people
"Spanish, "English, "Portuguese, "French, "Dutch, "Haitian Creole, "Antillean Creole French, and "Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique "creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another. Other languages such as "Caribbean Hindustani, "Tamil, "Telugu, "Danish, "Italian, "Irish, "Swedish, "Arabic, "Chinese, "Indonesian, "Javanese, "Yoruba, "Yiddish, "Hebrew, "Amerindian languages, other "African languages, other "European languages, other "Indian languages, and other "Indonesian languages can also be found.
"Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%). Other religious groups in the region are "Hinduism, "Islam, "Judaism, "Rastafarianism, "Buddhism, "Chinese folk religion ("Taoism and "Confucianism), "Bahá'í, "Jainism, "Sikhism, "Zorastrianism, "Kebatinan, "Traditional African religions, "Afro-American religions, "Yoruba ("Santería, "Trinidad Orisha, "Palo, "Umbanda, "Brujería, "Hoodoo, "Candomblé, "Quimbanda, "Orisha, Xangô de Recife, Xangô do Nordeste, Comfa, "Espiritismo, "Santo Daime, "Obeah, "Candomblé, "Abakuá, "Kumina, "Winti, Sanse, "Cuban Vodú, "Dominican Vudú, "Louisiana Voodoo, "Haitian Vodou, and "Vodun).
Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens. The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, "regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the "Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community ("CARICOM) which is located in Guyana.
Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways." The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.
The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action." These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.
Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean." The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.
Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and "European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. ["clarification needed]
United States effects on regionalism
The United States under President "Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the "World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the "Lomé Convention, which allowed "banana exports from the former colonies of the "Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply. The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the "Cotonou Agreement.
During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.
Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.
European Union effects on regionalism
Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the "Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the "Caribbean Basin has been the "Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.
Venezuela's effects on regionalism
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The President of "Venezuela, "Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the "Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.
Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:
- "Association of Caribbean States (ACS), Trinidad and Tobago
- Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Trinidad and Tobago
- Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organizations (CANTO), Trinidad and Tobago
- "Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Guyana
- "Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), Barbados
- "Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDERA), Barbados
- Caribbean Educators Network
- Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC), Saint Lucia
- "Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), Barbados and Jamaica
- "Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), Trinidad and Tobago
- "Caribbean Food Crops Society, Puerto Rico
- "Caribbean Football Union (CFU), Jamaica
- Caribbean Hotel & Tourism Association (CHTA), Florida and Puerto Rico
- "Caribbean Initiative (Initiative of the IUCN)
- "Caribbean Programme for Economic Competitiveness (CPEC), Saint Lucia
- Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme (CREP), Barbados
- Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Belize
- Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM), Barbados and Dominican Republic
- "Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU), Trinidad and Tobago
- "Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO), Barbados
- "Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC)
- "Foundation for the Development of Caribbean Children, Barbados
- "Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre (LACNIC), Brazil and "Uruguay
- "Latin American and the Caribbean Economic System, Venezuela
- "Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Saint Lucia
- "United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), "Chile and Trinidad and Tobago
- "University of the West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago. In addition, the fourth campus, the Open Campus was formed in June 2008 as a result of an amalgamation of the Board for Non-Campus Countries and Distance Education, Schools of Continuing Studies, the UWI Distance Education Centres and Tertiary Level Units. The Open Campus has 42 physical sites in 16 Anglophone caribbean countries.
- "West Indies Cricket Board, Antigua and Barbuda
Favorite or national dishes
- "Anguilla – rice, peas and fish
- "Antigua and Barbuda – "fungee and "pepperpot
- "Bahamas - "Guava duff, Conch Salad, and Conch Fritters
- "Barbados – "cou-cou and "flying fish
- "Belize- rice and beans, stew chicken with potato salad ; white rice, stew beans and fry fish with cole slaw
- "British Virgin Islands – fish and "fungee
- "Cayman Islands – turtle stew, turtle steak, "grouper
- "Colombian Caribbean – rice with coconut milk, "arroz con pollo, sancocho, "Arab cuisine (due to the large Arab population)
- "Cuba – "platillo Moros y Cristianos, "ropa vieja, "lechon, "maduros, "ajiaco
- "Dominica – "mountain chicken, rice and peas, dumplings, saltfish (dried cod), dashin, plantain, bakes (fried dumplings), coconut confiture, "breadfruit, curry goat, cassava "farine, oxtail and various beef broths
- "Dominican Republic – "arroz con pollo topped with stewed red "kidney beans, "pan fried or "braised beef, and side dish of green salad or ensalada de coditos, "shrimp, "empanadas and/or "tostones, or the ever-popular Dominican dish known as "mangú, which is mashed plantains. The ensemble is usually called bandera nacional, which means "national flag," a term equivalent to the Venezuelan "pabellón criollo.
- "Grenada – "oil down
- "Guyana – "pepperpot, cookup rice, "roti and "curry, methem
- "Haiti – griot (fried pork) served with du riz a pois or diri ak pwa ("rice and beans)
- "Jamaica – "ackee and saltfish, "callaloo, "jerk chicken, "curry chicken
- "Montserrat – "Goat water
- "Puerto Rico – yellow rice with green "pigeon peas, saltfish stew, roasted pork shoulder, chicken fricassée, mofongo, tripe soup, alcapurria, coconut custard, rice pudding, guava turnovers, Mallorca bread
- "Saint Kitts and Nevis – coconut dumplings, spicy "plantain, "saltfish, "breadfruit
- "Saint Lucia – "callaloo, "dal "roti, "dried and salted cod, green "bananas, "rice and beans
- "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – roasted "breadfruit and fried jackfish
- "Trinidad and Tobago – "callaloo, "doubles, "aloo pie, "phulourie, "bake and shark, "fried rice, "chow mein, "macroni pie, "curry, "roti ("paratha, "fried bake, sada, dosti, "dalpuri, "aloo paratha, "puri), "dal bhat, "khichdi, "kachori, baiganee, crab and dumpling, saheena, "pulao or pilao
- "United States Virgin Islands – stewed goat, oxtail or beef, seafood, "callaloo, "fungee
- "African diaspora
- "Anchor coinage
- "British African-Caribbean people
- "British Indo-Caribbean people
- "Council on Hemispheric Affairs
- "Culture of the Caribbean
- "Economy of the Caribbean
- "Indian diaspora
- "Indo-Caribbean American
- "List of Caribbean music genres
- "List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Caribbean
- "NECOBELAC Project
- "Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin
- "Piracy in the Caribbean
- "Politics of the Caribbean
- "Tourism in the Caribbean
- The "Lucayan Archipelago is excluded from some definitions of "Caribbean" and instead classified as "Atlantic; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or environmental distinction.
- "Trinidad and Tobago is sometimes excluded from the definition of "Caribbean" on account of being part of the South American "continental shelf. This is a geological distinction; cultural and environmental definitions generally include the country.
- The population throughout the country of "Panama considers itself and is considered Caribbean.["citation needed]
- Country Comparison :: Population. CIA. The World Factbook
- McWhorter, John H. (2005). Defining Creole. Oxford University Press US. p. 379. "ISBN "0-19-516670-1.
- Asann, Ridvan (2007). A Brief History of the Caribbean (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 3. "ISBN "0-8160-3811-2.
- Higman, B. W. (2011). A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. xi. "ISBN "0521043484.
- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
- North America Atlas National Geographic
- "North America" Archived March 3, 2008, at the "Wayback Machine. Atlas of Canada
- "North America". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia; "... associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Aleutian Islands."
- The World: Geographic Overview, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency; "North America is commonly understood to include the island of Greenland, the isles of the Caribbean, and to extend south all the way to the Isthmus of Panama."
- The Netherlands Antilles: The joy of six, The Economist Magazine, April 29, 2010
- "Carib". "Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighbouring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest.
- In the early 20th century, only the pronunciation with the primary stress on the first syllable was considered correct, according to "Frank Horace Vizetelly, A Desk-Book of Twenty-five Thousand Words Frequently Mispronounced (Funk and Wagnalls, 1917), p. 233.
- Ladefoged, Peter; Johnstone, Keith (2011). A Course in Phonetics. Cengage Learning. pp. 86–. "ISBN "978-1-4282-3126-9.
- See, e.g., Elster, supra.
- Allsopp, Richard; Allsopp, Jeannette (2003). Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. University of the West Indies Press. p. 136–. "ISBN "978-976-640-145-0.
- "Background of the business forum of the Greater Caribbean of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS)". Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2009-05-05. . acs-aec.org
- ten Brink, Uri. "Puerto Rico Trench 2003: Cruise Summary Results". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- "Summary Climatological Normals 1981–2010" (PDF). Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Climate Data Aruba". Departamento Meteorologico Aruba. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Average Weather for Mayaguez, PR - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- "World Weather Information Service – Havana". Cuban Institute of Meteorology. June 2011. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- "Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Retrieved 2010-06-26.
- Mark Spalding; Corinna Ravilious; Edmund Peter Green (10 September 2001). World Atlas of Coral Reefs. University of California Press. "ISBN "978-0-520-23255-6. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Littler, D. and Littler, M. (2000) Caribbean Reef Plants. OffShore Graphics, Inc., "ISBN 0967890101.
- Minter, D.W., Rodríguez Hernández, M. and Mena Portales, J. (2001) Fungi of the Caribbean. An annotated checklist. PDMS Publishing, "ISBN 0-9540169-0-4.
- Kirk, P. M.; Ainsworth, Geoffrey Clough (2008). Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. CABI. "ISBN "978-0-85199-826-8.
- "Fungi of Cuba – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Fungi of Puerto Rico – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Fungi of the Dominican Republic – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "Fungi of Trinidad & Tobago – potential endemics". cybertruffle.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-09.
- "North American Extinctions v. World". Thegreatstory.org. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Caribbean Coral Reefs". coral-reef-info.com.
- Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; et al. (2007). "Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification". Science. 318 (5857): 1737–42. "doi:10.1126/science.1152509. "PMID 18079392.
- "Caribbean coral reefs may disappear within 20 years: Report". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Rogoziński, Jan (2000). A Brief History of the Caribbean. Penguin. p. 65. "ISBN "978-0-452-28193-6.
- Rogoziński, Jan (2000). A Brief History of the Caribbean. Penguin. p. 356. "ISBN "978-0-452-28193-6.
- Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 413. "ISBN "0-313-34102-8.
- Engerman, p. 486
- The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress
- Engerman, pp. 488–492
- Engerman, Figure 11.1
- Engerman, pp. 501–502
- Engerman, pp. 504, 511
- Table A.2, Database documentation, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008.
- Christianity in its Global Context
- Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. p. 5 "ISBN 0-7391-1167-1
- Hillman, p. 150
- Hillman, p. 165
- Serbin, Andres (1994). "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 36 (4): 61–90. "JSTOR 166319.
- Hillman, p. 123
- "The U.S.-EU Banana Agreement". Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2008-11-23. See also: "Dominica: Poverty and Potential". BBC. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "WTO rules against EU banana import practices". Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-11-23. . eubusiness.com (2007-11-29)
- "No truce in banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-08. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "World: Americas St Vincent hit by banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-13. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Concern for Caribbean farmers". Bbc.co.uk. 2005-01-07. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Edmonds, Kevin (2012-03-06). "ALBA Expands its Allies in the Caribbean". Venezuela Analysis. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
- "CANTO Caribbean portal". Canto.org. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "Caribbean Educators Network". CEN. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
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