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Catarrhines
Temporal range: Late Eocene–Holocene
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""Macaca arctoides.png
"Stump-tailed macaques
"Scientific classification "e
Kingdom: "Animalia
Phylum: "Chordata
Class: "Mammalia
Order: "Primates
Suborder: "Haplorhini
Infraorder: "Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
"É. Geoffroy, 1812[1]
"Superfamilies

"Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys)
"Hominoidea (apes)

Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the "simians, the other being the plathyrrhine ("New World monkeys). The Catarrhini contains the "Old World monkeys and the "apes; the latter of which are in turn further divided into the lesser apes or "gibbons and the "great apes, consisting of the "orangutans, "gorillas, "chimpanzees, and "humans. The Catarrhine are all native to "Africa and "Asia. Members of this "parvorder are called catarrhines.

Contents

Description[edit]

The technical distinction between the "New World platyrrhines and "Old World catarrhines is the shape of their noses. The platyrrhines (from "Ancient Greek platu-, "flat", and rhin-, "nose") have nostrils which face sideways. The catarrhines (from Ancient Greek kata-, "down", and rhin-, "nose") have nostrils that face downwards. Catarrhines also never have "prehensile tails, and have flat fingernails and toenails, a tubular "ectotympanic (ear bone), and eight, not 12, premolars, giving them a "dental formula of: 2.1.2.32.1.2.3.[2]

Most catarrhine species show considerable "sexual dimorphism and do not form a "pair bond. Most, but not all, species live in social groups.["citation needed] Like the platyrrhines, the catarrhines are generally "diurnal,[2] and have grasping hands and (with the exception of bipedal humans) grasping feet.

The apes – in both traditional and "phylogenic nomenclature – are exclusively catarrhine species. In traditional usage, ape describes any tailless, larger, and more typically ground-dwelling species of catarrhine. "Ape" may be found as part of the common name of such species, such as the "Barbary ape. In phylogenic usage, the term "ape applies only to the "superfamily "Hominoidea. This grouping comprises the two families "Hylobatidae, the lesser apes or gibbons, and "Hominidae, the great apes, including "orangutans, "gorillas, "chimpanzees, "Homo, and related extinct genera, such as the prehuman "australopithecines and the giant orangutan relative "Gigantopithecus.

Classification and evolution[edit]

According to Schrago & Russo, apes and Old World monkeys split from their New World monkey kin about 35 million years ago (Mya). They use the major catarrhine division between "Cercopithecoids and "Hominoids of about 25 Mya (which they argue is strongly supported by the fossil evidence), as a calibration point, and from this also calculate the "gibbons separating from the "great apes (including humans) about 15-19 Mya.[3]

According to Begun and Harrison, apes and Old World monkeys split from their New World monkey kin about 44 - 40 Mya, with the first catarrhines appearing in Africa and Arabia, and not appearing in Eurasia (outside Arabia) until 18-17 Mya.[4]

The distinction between apes and "monkeys is complicated by the traditional "paraphyly of "monkeys: Apes emerged as a sister group of Old World Monkeys in the catarrhines, which are a sister group of New World Monkeys. Therefore, "cladistically, apes, catarrhines and related contemporary extinct groups such as "Parapithecidaea are monkeys as well, for any consistent definition of "monkey". "Old World Monkey" may also legitimately be taken to be meant to include all the catarrhines, including apes and extinct species such as "Aegyptopithecus,[5] in which case the apes, Cercopithecoidea and Aegyptopithecus emerged within the Old World Monkeys.

Cladogram[edit]

Below is a cladogram with extinct species in which the crown Catharrhini emerged within the Dendropithecidae,[6] which emerged in the "Propliopithecoidea.[7][8] Also, Saadaniodiea is sister of the Cercopithecoidea rather than of the Crown Catharrhini here. It is indicated how many million years ago (Mya) the clades diverged into newer clades.

"Crown Simians (37)

"Platyrrhini


Catarrhini (35)

"Oligopithecidae (†34 Mya)


"Propliopithecoidea (35)

Taqah Propliopithecid (31)


(33)
(†31)

"Propliopithecus (†30)



"Aegyptopithecus (†30)



(33)

"Kamoyapithecus (†25)



"Pliopithecoidea (†6)


"Dendropithecidae (32)
(22)
(21)

"Dendropithecus (†20)



Limnopithecus legetet (†20)




Limnopithecus evansi (†20)



(32)
(18)

"Simiolus (†17)



Micropithecus (†17)



Crown Catharrhini (31)

"Hominoidea


(29)

"Saadanioidea (†28)


"Cercopithecoidea (24)

"Victoriapithecinae (†19)



"Crown Cercopithecoidea












References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Groves, C. P. (2005). "ORDER PRIMATES". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). "Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 111–184. "ISBN "978-0-8018-8221-0. "OCLC 62265494. 
  2. ^ a b "Catarrhini Infraorder". ChimpanZoo (The Jane Goodall Institute). Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  3. ^ Carlos G. Schrago; Claudia A. M. Russo (2003-06-27). "Timing the Origin of New World Monkeys". "Molecular Biology and Evolution. "Oxford Journals. Retrieved 2017-05-30. 
  4. ^ Harrison, Terry (2012). "Chapter 20 Catarrhine Origins". In Begun, David. A Companion To Paleoanthropology. Wiley Blackwell. "ISBN "978-1-118-33237-5. Archived from the original on 2013. 
  5. ^ "Monkeys and apes". 
  6. ^ Nengo, Isaiah; Tafforeau, Paul; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Fleagle, John G.; Miller, Ellen R.; Feibel, Craig; Fox, David L.; Feinberg, Josh; Pugh, Kelsey D. (2017). "New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution". Nature. 548 (7666): 169–174. "doi:10.1038/nature23456. "PMID 28796200. 
  7. ^ Seiffert, Erik R.; Boyer, Doug M.; Fleagle, John G.; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Heesy, Christopher P.; Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Sallam, Hesham M. (2017-04-10). "New adapiform primate fossils from the late Eocene of Egypt". Historical Biology. 0: 1–23. "doi:10.1080/08912963.2017.1306522. "ISSN 0891-2963. 
  8. ^ Stevens, Nancy J.; Seiffert, Erik R.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Roberts, Eric M.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Krause, Cornelia; Gorscak, Eric; Ngasala, Sifa; Hieronymus, Tobin L. "Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes". Nature. 497 (7451): 611–614. "doi:10.1038/nature12161. 
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