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Main article: "History of Central Asia

Although, during the golden age of Orientalism the place of Central Asia in the world history was marginalized, contemporary historiography has rediscovered the "centrality" of the Central Asia.[16] The history of Central Asia is defined by the area's climate and geography. The aridness of the region made "agriculture difficult, and its distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region; instead, the area was for millennia dominated by the nomadic horse peoples of the "steppe.

Relations between the "steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were long marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to "warfare, and the steppe "horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, limited only by their lack of internal unity. Any internal unity that was achieved was most probably due to the influence of the "Silk Road, which traveled along Central Asia. Periodically, great leaders or changing conditions would organize several tribes into one force and create an almost unstoppable power. These included the "Hun invasion of Europe, the "Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the "Mongol conquest of much of "Eurasia.[17]

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Uzbek men from "Khiva, ca. 1861–1880

During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, southern Central Asia was inhabited predominantly by speakers of "Iranian languages.[6][18] Among the ancient sedentary "Iranian peoples, the "Sogdians and "Chorasmians played an important role, while Iranian peoples such as "Scythians and the later on "Alans lived a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle. The well-preserved "Tarim mummies with "Caucasoid features have been found in the "Tarim Basin.[19]

The main migration of "Turkic peoples occurred between the 5th and 10th centuries, when they spread across most of Central Asia. The "Tang Chinese were defeated by the "Arabs at the "battle of Talas in 751, marking the end of the Tang Dynasty's western expansion. The "Tibetan Empire would take the chance to rule portion of Central Asia along with South Asia. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the "Mongols conquered and ruled the largest contiguous empire in recorded history. Most of Central Asia fell under the control of the "Chagatai Khanate.

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"Kazakh man on a horse with golden eagle

The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century, as "firearms allowed settled peoples to gain control of the region. "Russia, "China, and other powers expanded into the region and had captured the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the "Russian Revolution, the western Central Asian regions were incorporated into the "Soviet Union. The eastern part of Central Asia, known as East Turkistan or "Xinjiang, was "incorporated into the "People's Republic of China. Mongolia remained independent but became a Soviet "satellite state. Afghanistan remained relatively independent of major influence by the USSR until the "Saur Revolution of 1978.

The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much "industrialization and construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures, hundreds of thousands of deaths from failed collectivization programs, and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems. Soviet authorities "deported millions of people, including entire nationalities,[20] from western areas of the USSR to Central Asia and "Siberia.[21] According to Touraj Atabaki and Sanjyot Mehendale, "From 1959 to 1970, about two million people from various parts of the Soviet Union migrated to Central Asia, of which about one million moved to Kazakhstan."[22]

With the "collapse of the Soviet Union, five countries gained independence. In nearly all the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen. None of the new republics could be considered functional democracies in the early days of independence, although in recent years "Kyrgyzstan, "Kazakhstan and "Mongolia have made further progress towards more open societies, unlike "Uzbekistan, "Tajikistan, and "Turkmenistan, which have maintained many Soviet-style repressive tactics.[23]

Culture[edit]

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Mosque in "Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan

Arts[edit]

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"Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in Hazrat-e Turkestan, "Kazakhstan. Timurid architecture consisted of "Persian art.
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Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from "Kashgar during a forum in "Bukhara.

At the crossroads of Asia, shamanistic practices live alongside "Buddhism. Thus, "Yama, Lord of Death, was revered in Tibet as a spiritual guardian and judge. Mongolian Buddhism, in particular, was influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. The "Qianlong Emperor of Qing China in the 18th century was Tibetan Buddhist and would sometimes travel from "Beijing to other cities for personal religious worship.

Central Asia also has an indigenous form of improvisational "oral poetry that is over 1000 years old. It is principally practiced in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by akyns, lyrical improvisationists. They engage in "lyrical battles, the aitysh or the alym sabak. The tradition arose out of early bardic "oral historians. They are usually accompanied by a "stringed instrument—in Kyrgyzstan, a three-stringed "komuz, and in Kazakhstan, a similar two-stringed instrument, the dombra.

Photography in Central Asia began to develop after 1882, when a "Russian Mennonite photographer named Wilhelm Penner moved to the "Khanate of Khiva during the Mennonite migration to Central Asia led by "Claas Epp, Jr.. Upon his arrival to "Khanate of Khiva, Penner shared his photography skills with a local student Khudaybergen Divanov, who later became the founder of "Uzbek photography.[24]

Some also learn to sing the "Manas, Kyrgyzstan's epic poem (those who learn the Manas exclusively but do not improvise are called manaschis). During Soviet rule, akyn performance was co-opted by the authorities and subsequently declined in popularity. With the fall of the Soviet Union, it has enjoyed a resurgence, although akyns still do use their art to campaign for political candidates. A 2005 "The Washington Post article proposed a similarity between the improvisational art of akyns and modern "freestyle rap performed in the West.[25]

As a consequence of Russian colonization, European fine arts – painting, sculpture and graphics – have developed in Central Asia. The first years of the Soviet regime saw the appearance of modernism, which took inspiration from the Russian avant-garde movement. Until the 1980s, Central Asian arts had developed along with general tendencies of Soviet arts. In the 90's, arts of the region underwent some significant changes. Institutionally speaking, some fields of arts were regulated by the birth of the art market, some stayed as representatives of official views, while many were sponsored by international organizations. The years of 1990 – 2000 were times for the establishment of contemporary arts. In the region, many important international exhibitions are taking place, Central Asian art is represented in European and American museums, and the Central Asian Pavilion at the Venice Biennale has been organized since 2005.

Sports[edit]

"Equestrian sports are traditional in Central Asia, with disciplines like "endurance riding, "buzkashi, "dzhigit and "kyz kuu.

"Association football is popular across Central Asia. Most countries are members of the "Central Asian Football Association, a region of the "Asian Football Confederation. However, "Kazakhstan is a member of the "UEFA.

"Wrestling is popular across Central Asia, with Kazakhstan having claimed 14 Olympic medals and Uzbekistan seven. As former Soviet states, Central Asian countries have been successful in "gymnastics.

"Cricket is the most popular sport in "Afghanistan. The "Afghanistan national cricket team, first formed in 2001, has claimed wins over Bangladesh, West Indies and Zimbabwe.

Notable Kazakh competitors include cyclists "Alexander Vinokourov and "Andrey Kashechkin, boxer "Vassiliy Jirov, runner "Olga Shishigina, decathlete "Dmitriy Karpov, gymnast "Aliya Yussupova, judoka "Askhat Zhitkeyev and "Maxim Rakov, skier "Vladimir Smirnov, weightlifter "Ilya Ilyin, and figure skater "Denis Ten.

Notable Uzbekistani competitors include cyclist "Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, boxer "Ruslan Chagaev, canoer "Michael Kolganov, gymnast "Oksana Chusovitina, tennis player "Denis Istomin and chess player "Rustam Kasimdzhanov.

Territory and region data[edit]

"Country "Area
km²
"Population
(2016)[26][27][28][29][30]
"Population density
per km2
"Nominal GDP
millions of USD (2015)
"GDP per capita
in USD (IMF 2015)[31]
"HDI (2015) "Capital "Official languages
 "Kazakhstan 2,724,900 17,067,216 6.3 216,036 9,796 0.788 "Astana "Kazakh, "Russian
 "Kyrgyzstan 199,950 5,940,743 29.7 7,402 1,113 0.655 "Bishkek "Kyrgyz, "Russian
 "Tajikistan 142,550 8,628,742 60.4 9,242 922 0.624 "Dushanbe "Tajik, "Russian
 "Turkmenistan 488,100 5,417,285 11.1 47,932 6,622 0.688 "Ashgabat "Turkmen
 "Uzbekistan 447,400 30,932,878 69.1 62,613 2,121 0.675 "Tashkent "Uzbek

Demographics[edit]

Demographics of Central Asia
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The ethnolinguistic patchwork of Central Asia
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Uzbek children in "Samarkand

By a broad definition including Mongolia and Afghanistan, more than 90 million people live in Central Asia, about 2% of Asia's total population. Of the regions of Asia, only "North Asia has fewer people. It has a population density of 9 people per km2, vastly less than the 80.5 people per km2 of the continent as a whole.

Languages[edit]

"Russian, as well as being spoken by around six million ethnic "Russians and "Ukrainians of Central Asia,[32] is the de facto "lingua franca throughout the former Soviet Central Asian Republics. "Mandarin Chinese has an equally dominant presence in "Inner Mongolia, "Qinghai and "Xinjiang.

The languages of the majority of the inhabitants of the former Soviet Central Asian Republics come from the "Turkic language group.[33] "Turkmen, is mainly spoken in "Turkmenistan, and as a minority language in "Afghanistan, "Russia, "Iran and "Turkey. "Kazakh and "Kyrgyz are related languages of the "Kypchak group of Turkic languages and are spoken throughout "Kazakhstan, "Kyrgyzstan, and as a minority language in "Tajikistan, "Afghanistan and "Xinjiang. "Uzbek and "Uyghur are spoken in "Uzbekistan, "Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, "Afghanistan and "Xinjiang.

The "Turkic languages may belong to a larger, but controversial, "Altaic language family, which includes "Mongolian. Mongolian is spoken throughout Mongolia and into "Buryatia, Kalmyk, "Tuva, "Inner Mongolia, and "Xinjiang.

"Middle Iranian languages were once spoken throughout Central Asia, such as the once prominent "Sogdian, "Khwarezmian, "Bactrian and "Scythian, which are now extinct and belonged to the "Eastern Iranian family. The Eastern Iranian "Pashto language is still spoken in "Afghanistan and northwestern "Pakistan. Other minor Eastern Iranian languages such as "Shughni, "Munji, "Ishkashimi, "Sarikoli, "Wakhi, "Yaghnobi and "Ossetic are also spoken at various places in Central Asia. Varieties of "Persian are also spoken as a major language in the region, locally known as "Dari (in Afghanistan), "Tajik (in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), and "Bukhori (by the "Bukharan Jews of Central Asia).

"Tocharian, another Indo-European language group, which was once predominant in oases on the northern edge of the "Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, is now extinct.

Other language groups include the "Tibetic languages, spoken by around six million people across the "Tibetan Plateau and into "Qinghai, "Sichuan, "Ladakh and "Baltistan, and the "Nuristani languages of northeastern Afghanistan. "Dardic languages, such as "Shina, "Kashmiri, "Pashayi and "Khowar, are also spoken in eastern Afghanistan, the "Gilgit-Baltistan and "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan and the disputed territory of "Kashmir.

Religions[edit]

"Islam is the religion most common in the Central Asian Republics, "Afghanistan, Xinjiang and the peripheral western regions, such as "Bashkortostan. Most Central Asian Muslims are "Sunni, although there are sizable "Shia minorities in Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

"Buddhism and "Zoroastrianism were the major faiths in Central Asia prior to the arrival of Islam. Zoroastrian influence is still felt today in such celebrations as "Nowruz, held in all five of the Central Asian states.["citation needed]

"Buddhism was a prominent religion in Central Asia prior to the arrival of Islam, and the "transmission of Buddhism along the Silk Road eventually brought the religion to China.[34] Amongst the "Turkic peoples, "Tengrianism was the popular religion before arrival of Islam.["citation needed] "Tibetan Buddhism is most common in Tibet, Mongolia, "Ladakh and the southern Russian regions of Siberia.

The form of "Christianity most practiced in the region in previous centuries was "Nestorianism, but now the largest denomination is the "Russian Orthodox Church, with many members in Kazakhstan.

The "Bukharan Jews were once a sizable community in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, but nearly all have emigrated since the "dissolution of the Soviet Union.

In Siberia, "Shamanism is practiced, including forms of "divination, such as "Kumalak.

Contact and migration with "Han people from China has brought "Confucianism, "Daoism, "Mahayana Buddhism, and other "Chinese folk beliefs into the region.

Geostrategy[edit]

Geostrategy in Central Asia
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Kazakh prostrating before "Qianlong Emperor of China (1757).[35]

Central Asia has long been a strategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. The region itself never held a dominant stationary population nor was able to make use of natural resources. Thus, it has rarely throughout history become the seat of power for an empire or influential state. Central Asia has been divided, redivided, conquered out of existence, and fragmented time and time again. Central Asia has served more as the battleground for outside powers than as a power in its own right.

Central Asia had both the advantage and disadvantage of a central location between four historical seats of power. From its central location, it has access to trade routes to and from all the regional powers. On the other hand, it has been continuously vulnerable to attack from all sides throughout its history, resulting in political fragmentation or outright power vacuum, as it is successively dominated.

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Political cartoon from the period of the "Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)

In the post–Cold War era, Central Asia is an ethnic cauldron, prone to instability and conflicts, without a sense of national identity, but rather a mess of historical cultural influences, tribal and clan loyalties, and religious fervor. Projecting influence into the area is no longer just Russia, but also Turkey, Iran, China, Pakistan, India and the United States:

Russian historian "Lev Gumilev wrote that "Xiongnu, "Mongols ("Mongol Empire, "Zunghar Khanate) and "Turkic peoples ("Turkic Khaganate, "Uyghur Khaganate) played a role to stop Chinese "aggression "to the north. The Turkic Khaganate had special policy against Chinese assimilation policy.[42] Another interesting theoretical analysis on the historical-geopolitics of the Central Asia was made through the reinterpretation of Orkhun Inscripts.[43]

The region, along with Russia, is also part of "the great pivot" as per the "Heartland Theory of "Halford Mackinder, which says that the power which controls Central Asia—richly endowed with natural resources—shall ultimately be the "empire of the world".[44]

War on Terror[edit]

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Uzbekistan's authoritarian leader "Islam Karimov in "the Pentagon, March 2002

In the context of the United States' "War on Terror, Central Asia has once again become the center of geostrategic calculations. Pakistan's status has been upgraded by the U.S. government to "Major non-NATO ally because of its central role in serving as a staging point for the invasion of Afghanistan, providing intelligence on Al-Qaeda operations in the region, and leading the hunt on Osama bin Laden.

Afghanistan, which had served as a haven and source of support for Al-Qaeda under the protection of Mullah Omar and the "Taliban, was the target of a "U.S. invasion in 2001 and ongoing reconstruction and drug-eradication efforts. U.S. military bases have also been established in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, causing both Russia and the People's Republic of China to voice their concern over a permanent U.S. military presence in the region.

Western governments have accused Russia, China and the former Soviet republics of justifying the suppression of separatist movements, and the associated ethnics and religion with the War on Terror.

Major cultural and economic centers[edit]

  Cities within the regular definition of Central Asia and Afghanistan

City Country Population Image Information
"Astana  "Kazakhstan 835,153
(2014)
""Central Astana on a Sunny, Snowy Day in February 2013.jpg The capital and second largest city in Kazakhstan. After Kazakhstan gained its independence in 1991, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola. The name was often translated as "White Tombstone", but actually means "Holy Place" or "Holy Shrine". The "White Tombstone" literal translation was too appropriate for many visitors to escape notice in almost all guide books and travel accounts. In 1994, the city was designated as the future capital of the newly independent country and again renamed to the present Astana after the capital was officially moved from "Almaty in 1997.
"Almaty  "Kazakhstan 1,552,349
(2015)
""Almaty, Kok-tobe exposition 3.jpg It was the capital of Kazakhstan (and its predecessor, the "Kazakh SSR) from 1929 to 1998. Despite losing its status as the capital, Almaty remains the major commercial center of Kazakhstan. It is a recognized financial center of Kazakhstan and the Central Asian region.
"Bishkek  "Kyrgyzstan 865,527
(2009)
""E7904-Bishkek-Ala-Too-Square.jpg The capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is also the administrative center of "Chuy Region, which surrounds the city, even though the city itself is not part of the region, but rather a region-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.
"Osh  "Kyrgyzstan 243,216
(2009)
""Osh 03-2016 img28 view from Sulayman Mountain.jpg The second largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Osh is also the administrative center of "Osh Region, which surrounds the city, even though the city itself is not part of the region, but rather a region-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.
"Dushanbe  "Tajikistan 780,000
(2014)
""Dushanbe panorama 07.jpg The capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe means "Monday" in "Tajik and "Persian,[45] and the name reflects the fact that the city grew on the site of a village that originally was a popular Monday "marketplace.
"Ashgabat  "Turkmenistan 1,032,000
(2014)
""Panorama of Ashgabat.jpg The capital and largest city of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat is a relatively young city, growing out of a village of the same name established by "Russians in 1818. It is not far from the site of "Nisa, the ancient capital of the "Parthians, and it grew on the ruins of the "Silk Road city of Konjikala, which was first mentioned as a wine-producing village in the 2nd century BCE and was leveled by an earthquake in the 1st century BCE (a precursor of the "1948 Ashgabat earthquake). Konjikala was rebuilt because of its advantageous location on the Silk Road, and it flourished until its destruction by Mongols in the 13th century CE. After that, it survived as a small village until the Russians took over in the 19th century.[46][47]
"Bukhara  "Uzbekistan 237,900
(1999)
""Uzbekistan 2007 092 Bukhara.jpg The nation's fifth-largest city and the capital of the "Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan. Bukhara has been one of the main centers of Persian civilization from its early days in the 6th century BCE, and, since the 12th century CE, Turkic speakers gradually moved in. Its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian history and art.
"Kokand  "Uzbekistan 209,389
(2011)
""KokandPalace.jpg Kokand ("Uzbek: Qo‘qon / Қўқон; "Tajik: Хӯқанд; "Persian: خوقند‎‎; "Chagatai: خوقند; "Russian: Коканд) is a city in "Fergana Region in eastern "Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the "Fergana Valley. It has a population of 192,500 (1999 census estimate). Kokand is 228 km southeast of "Tashkent, 115 km west of "Andijan, and 88 km west of "Fergana. It is nicknamed "City of Winds", or sometimes "Town of the Boar".
"Samarkand  "Uzbekistan 596,300
(2008)
""Samarkand view from the top.jpg The second largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of "Samarqand Region. The city is most noted for its central position on the "Silk Road between "China and the West, and for being an Islamic center for scholarly study.
"Tashkent  "Uzbekistan 2,180,000
(2008)
""International Business Center. Tashkent city.jpg The capital and largest city of Uzbekistan. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the region were known as Chach. Tashkent started as an "oasis on the "Chirchik River, near the foothills of the "Golestan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the "Kangju confederacy.[48]
"Kabul  "Afghanistan 3,895,000
(2011)
""Kabul Skyline.jpg The capital and largest city of Afghanistan. The city of Kabul is thought to have been established between 2000 BCE and 1500 BCE.[49] In the "Rig Veda (composed between 1700–1100 BCE), the word Kubhā is mentioned, which appears to refer to the "Kabul River.[50]
"Mazar-e Sharif  "Afghanistan 375,181
(2008)
""Mi-17 helicopter flies over the northern Afghan city-101113-N-5006D-582.jpg The fourth largest city in Afghanistan and the capital of "Balkh province, is linked by roads to "Kabul in the southeast, "Herat to the west and "Uzbekistan to the north.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of five countries in Central Asia.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Steppe Nomads and Central Asia Archived 29 May 2008 at the "Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Silkroad Foundation, Adela C.Y. Lee. "Travelers on the Silk Road". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  4. ^ Ta'lim Primary 6 Parent and Teacher Guide (p.72) – Islamic Publications Limited for the Institute of Ismaili Studies London
  5. ^ Phillips, Andrew; "James, Paul (2013). "National Identity between Tradition and Reflexive Modernisation: The Contradictions of Central Asia". National Identities. 3 (1): 23–35. In Central Asia the collision of modernity and tradition led all but the most deracinated of the "intellectuals-"clerics to seek salvation in reconstituted variants of traditional identities rather than succumb to the modern European idea of nationalism. The inability of the elites to form a united front, as demonstrated in the numerous declarations of autonomy by different authorities during the Russian civil war, paved the way for the Soviet re-conquest of Central Asia in the early 1920s. 
  6. ^ a b Encyclopædia Iranica, "CENTRAL ASIA: The Islamic period up to the Mongols", C. Edmund Bosworth: "In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama of Ferdowsi is regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan"). Turan thus became both an ethnic and a diareeah term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians."
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  15. ^ 43°40'52"N 87°19'52"E Degree Confluence Project.
  16. ^ Mehmet Akif Okur, "Classical Texts Of the Geopolitics and the "Heart Of Eurasia", Journal of Turkish World Studies, XIV/2, pp.86–90 https://www.academia.edu/10035574/CLASSICAL_TEXTS_OF_THE_GEOPOLITICS_AND_THE_HEART_OF_EURASIA_Jeopoliti%C4%9Fin_Klasik_Metinleri_ve_Avrasya_n%C4%B1n_Kalbi_ http://tdid.ege.edu.tr/files/dergi_14_2/mehmet_akif_okur.pdf
  17. ^ A Land Conquered by the Mongols
  18. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under the Umayyads and the establishment of Islam", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1998. excerpt from page 23: "Central Asia in the early seventh century, was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various Middle Iranian languages.
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  21. ^ Anne Applebaum – Gulag: A History Intro
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  39. ^ "India, Pakistan and the Battle for Afghanistan". TIME.com. 5 December 2009. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  40. ^ Reiter, Erich; Hazdra, Peter (2004). The Impact of Asian Powers on Global Developments. Springer, 2004. "ISBN "978-3-7908-0092-0. 
  41. ^ Chazan, Guy. "Turkmenistan Gas Field Is One of World's Largest". Wall Street Journal. "ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2015-09-26. 
  42. ^ ЛЮДИ И ПРИРОДА ВЕЛИКОЙ СТЕПИ (Russian)
  43. ^ Mehmet Akif Okur, "Classical Texts Of the Geopolitics and the "Heart Of Eurasia", Journal of Turkish World Studies, XIV/2, pp.91–100 https://www.academia.edu/10035574/CLASSICAL_TEXTS_OF_THE_GEOPOLITICS_AND_THE_HEART_OF_EURASIA_Jeopoliti%C4%9Fin_Klasik_Metinleri_ve_Avrasya_n%C4%B1n_Kalbi_ http://tdid.ege.edu.tr/files/dergi_14_2/mehmet_akif_okur.pdf
  44. ^ For an analysis of Mackinder's approach from the perspective of "Critical Geopolitics" look: Mehmet Akif Okur, "Classical Texts Of the Geopolitics and the "Heart Of Eurasia", Journal of Turkish World Studies, XIV/2, pp.76–80 https://www.academia.edu/10035574/CLASSICAL_TEXTS_OF_THE_GEOPOLITICS_AND_THE_HEART_OF_EURASIA_Jeopoliti%C4%9Fin_Klasik_Metinleri_ve_Avrasya_n%C4%B1n_Kalbi_ http://tdid.ege.edu.tr/files/dergi_14_2/mehmet_akif_okur.pdf
  45. ^ D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
  46. ^ Konjikala Archived 29 October 2014 at the "Wayback Machine.: the Silk Road precursor of Ashgabat
  47. ^ Konjikala, in: MaryLee Knowlton, Turkmenistan, Marshall Cavendish, 2006, pp. 40–41, "ISBN 0-7614-2014-2, "ISBN 978-0-7614-2014-9 (viewable on "Google Books).
  48. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G (1963). "The consonantal system of Old Chinese". Asia Major. 9: 94. 
  49. ^ The history of Afghanistan, Ghandara.com website
  50. ^ "Kabul" Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge (1901 edition) J.B. Lippincott Company, NY, page 385. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


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