In 1789, President "George Washington offered Pinckney his choice of the "State Department or the "War Department; Pinckney declined both. When Washington offered Pinckney the role of "Ambassador to France in 1796, Pinckney accepted. Relations with the "French First Republic was then at a low ebb: the "Jay Treaty between the US and Great Britain had angered members of the ruling "French Directory, and they had ordered the "French Navy to step up seizures of American merchant vessels found to be trading with Britain, with whom France "was at war. When Pinckney presented his credentials in November 1796, they were refused, with the Directory stating that no ambassador could be accepted until the outstanding crisis was resolved. Pinckney was outraged by the offense.
After Pinckney reported this to the recently inaugurated President "John Adams in 1797, a commission composed of Pinckney, "John Marshall, and "Elbridge Gerry was established to treat with the French. Gerry and Marshall joined Pinckney at "The Hague, and traveled to Paris in October 1797. After a cursory preliminary meeting with the new French Foreign Minister "Talleyrand, the commissioners were approached informally by a series of intermediaries who spelled out French demands. These included a large loan to France, which the commissioners had been instructed to refuse, and substantial bribes for Talleyrand and members of the Directory, which the commissioners found offensive. These exchanges became the basis for what became known as the ""XYZ Affair" when documents concerning them were published in 1798.
Talleyrand, who was aware of political differences in the commission (Pinckney and Marshall were "Federalists who favored Britain, and Gerry wavered politically between moderate Federalism ideas and the "Jeffersonian Republicans, who favored France and were strongly hostile to Britain), exploited this division in the informal discussions. Pinckney and Marshall left France in April 1798; Gerry remained behind in an unofficial capacity, seeking to moderate French demands. The breakdown of negotiations led to what became known as the undeclared "Quasi-War (1798–1800), pitting the two nation's navies against each other.
With a potential war looming, Congress authorized the expansion of the army, and President Adams asked Washington to take command as commander-in-chief of the army. As a condition for accepting the position, Washington insisted that Pinckney be offered a position as a general army. Washington believed that Pinckney's military experience and political support in the South made him indispensable in defending against a possible invasion by the French. Many Federalists feared that Pinckney would chafe at serving under Hamilton, who was appointed as Washington's second-in-command and who had been , but Pinckney pleasantly surprised the Federalists by accepting his appointment as a general without complaint.
According to the state library of South Carolina,
Pinckney owned slaves throughout his life and believed that slavery was necessary to the economy of South Carolina. At the Constitutional Convention, he agreed to abolish the slave trade in 1808, but opposed emancipation. In 1801, Pinckney owned about 250 slaves. When his daughter Eliza married, Pinckney gave her fifty slaves. On his death, he bequeathed his remaining slaves to his daughters and nephews.
In the South Carolina House of Representatives, on January 18, 1788, Pinckney offered several defenses for the lack of a bill of rights in the proposed U. S. Constitution. One was that bills of rights generally begin by declaring that all men are by nature born free. The reporter’s summary of his observation concluded, “Now, we should make that declaration with a very bad grace, when a large part of our property consists in men who are actually born slaves.” 
Later political career
Pinckney and his political allies had resisted becoming closely allied with the "Federalist or "Democratic-Republican parties during the 1790s, but Pinckney began to identify as a Federalist following his return from France. With the support of Hamilton, Pinckney became the Federalist vice presidential nominee in the "1800 presidential election. Pinckney's military and political service had won him national stature, and Federalists hoped that Pinckney could win some Southern votes against Democratic-Repulican nominee "Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton had even greater hopes, as he wished to displace Adams as president and viewed Pinckney as more amenable to his policies. In-fighting between supporters of Adams and Hamilton plagued the Federalists, and the Democratic-Republicans won the election. Pinckney himself refused to become involved in Hamilton's plans to make him president, and promised not to accept the votes of any elector who was not also pledged to Adams.
Federalists saw little hope of defeating the popular Jefferson in the "1804 election. Though the Federalists remained strong in New England, Jefferson was widely expected to win the Southern and mid-Atlantic states. With little hope of winning the presidency, the Federalists nominated Pinckney as their presidential candidate, but neither Pinckney nor the Federalists pursued an active presidential campaign against Jefferson. The Federalists hoped that Pinckney's military reputation and his status as a Southerner would show that the Federalist Party remained a national party, but they knew that Pinckney had little chance of winning the presidency or even his own home state. Jefferson won the election in a rout, taking 162 electoral votes compared to Pinckney's 14.
Jefferson's second term proved more difficult than his first, as the British and French attacked American shipping as part of the "Napoleonic Wars. With Jefferson's popularity waning, Federalists entertained stronger hopes of winning back the presidency in "1808 than they had in 1804. With the support of Jefferson, "James Madison was put forward as the Democratic-Republican nominee. Some Federalists favored supporting a renegade Democratic-Republican in "James Monroe or "George Clinton, but at the Federalist nominating convention, the party again turned to Pinckney. With a potential war against France or Britain looming, the Federalists hoped that Pinckney's military experience would appeal to the nation. The Federalists won Delaware and most of New England, but Madison won the remaining states and won a commanding majority of the electoral college.
From 1805 until his death in 1825, Pinckney was president-general of the "Society of the Cincinnati.
Pinckney was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1813.
Death and burial
Pinckney died on August 16, 1825 and was buried in "St. Michael's Churchyard in Charleston, South Carolina. His tombstone reads, "One of the founders of the American Republic. In war he was a companion in arms and friend of Washington. In peace he enjoyed his unchanging confidence."
- "Castle Pinckney in "Charleston Harbor, completed about 1810, and an earlier fort on the same site, were named for Charles C. Pinckney.
- "Pinckney Island National Wildlife Refuge, a "national wildlife refuge on the site of the Pinckney family's plantation, was named for Charles C. Pinckney.
- Pinckney Elementary School in "Lawrence, Kansas, is named for Charles C. Pinckney.
- A school in "Fort Jackson, South Carolina, is called C. C. Pinckney Elementary.
- In 1942, during "World War II, a 422-foot "liberty ship was built in "Wilmington, North Carolina, and named SS Charles C. Pinckney in his honor.
- Pinckney Street on Beacon Hill in "Boston, Massachusetts was named in his honor.
- Pinckney Street in "Madison, Wisconsin, was named in his honor.
- "Pinckneyville, Illinois, was named after him.
- Pinckney Highway (SC 9) in "Chester, South Carolina, was named in his honor.
|""||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Charles Cotesworth Pinckney|
- This article incorporates "public domain material from websites or documents of the "United States Army Center of Military History.
- DeConde, Alexander (1976). "Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth". In William D. Halsey. Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. New York: Macmillan Educational Corporation. pp. 51–52.
- "CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY". history.army.mil.
- Zahniser, Marvin (1967). Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 78–83, 101.
- Zahniser, pp. 86-87
- Quote taken from book review by Kevin Baker, January 28, 2015 of Gateway to Freedom by Eric Foner"
- Fields, William and Hardy, David. "The Third Amendment and the Issue of the Maintenance of Standing Armies: A Legal History," American Journal of Legal History (1991), volume 35, p. 393:
Elbridge Gerry...proposed that the Constitution contain express language limiting the size of the standing army to several thousand men. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, ostensibly at the instigation of Washington, responded that such a proposal was satisfactory so long as any invading force also agreed to limit its army to a similar size.
- Zahniser, pp. 191-197
- "Intellectual Founders - Slavery at South Carolina College, 1801-1865 - University of South Carolina Libraries".
- Jonathan Elliot, The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Vol. 4 of 5, Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott & Co., 1866, page 316; Pauline Maier, Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010, pages 247 and 249.
- Zahniser, pp. 208-214, 231-233
- Zahniser, pp. 243-246
- Zahniser, pp. 247-258
"" Media related to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney at Wikimedia Commons
|"U.S. Minister to France
"Robert R. Livingston
|Party political offices|
|"Federalist Party nominee for
"Vice President of the United States
|"Federalist Party nominee for
"President of the United States
|Notes and references|
|1. Technically, Thomas Pinckney in 1796 and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in 1800 were both presidential candidates. Prior to the passage of the "Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each presidential elector would cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become President and the runner-up would become Vice President. Thus, in 1796 and 1800, the Federalist party fielded two presidential candidates, Adams and Thomas Pinckney in 1796 and Adams and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in 1800, with the intention that Adams be elected President and either Pinckney be elected Vice President.|