Conkling and his fellow Stalwarts, including Arthur, wished to follow up their 1879 success at the "1880 Republican National Convention by securing the nomination for their ally, ex-President Grant. Their opponents in the Republican party, known as "Half-Breeds, concentrated their efforts on "James G. Blaine, a Senator from Maine who was more amenable to civil service reform. Neither candidate commanded a majority of delegates and, deadlocked after thirty-six ballots, the convention turned to a "dark horse, James A. Garfield, an Ohio Congressman and Civil War General who was neither Stalwart nor Half-Breed.
Garfield and his supporters knew they would face a difficult election without the support of the New York Stalwarts and decided to offer one of them the vice presidential nomination. "Levi P. Morton, the first choice of Garfield's supporters, consulted with Conkling, who advised him to decline, which he did. They next approached Arthur, and Conkling advised him to also reject the nomination, believing the Republicans would lose. Arthur thought otherwise and accepted. According to a purported eyewitness account by journalist William C. Hudson, Conkling and Arthur argued, with Arthur telling Conkling, "The office of the Vice-President is a greater honor than I ever dreamed of attaining."[i] Conkling eventually relented, and campaigned for the "ticket.
As expected, the election was close. The Democratic nominee, General "Winfield Scott Hancock, was popular and, having avoided taking definitive positions on most issues of the day, he had not offended any pivotal constituencies. As Republicans had done since the end of the Civil War, Garfield and Arthur initially focused their campaign on the ""bloody shirt"—the idea that returning Democrats to office would undo the victory of the Civil War and reward "secessionists.
 With the war fifteen years in the past and Union generals at the head of both tickets, the tactic was less effective than the Republicans hoped. Realizing this, they adjusted their approach to claim that Democrats would lower the country's "protective tariff, which would allow cheaper manufactured goods to be imported from Europe, and thereby put thousands out of work. This argument struck home in the swing states of New York and Indiana, where many were employed in manufacturing. Hancock did not help his own cause when, in an attempt to remain neutral on the tariff, he said that "[t]he tariff question is a local question," which only made him appear uninformed about an important issue. Candidates for high office did not personally campaign in those days, but as state Republican chairman, Arthur played a part in the campaign in his usual fashion: overseeing the effort in New York and raising money. The funds were crucial in the close election, and winning his home state of New York was critical. The Republicans carried New York by 20,000 votes and, in an election with the largest turnout of qualified voters ever recorded—78.4%—they won the nationwide popular vote by just 7,018 votes. The "electoral college result was more decisive—214 to 155—and Garfield and Arthur were elected.
After the election, Arthur worked in vain to persuade Garfield to fill certain positions with his fellow New York Stalwarts—especially that of the Secretary of the Treasury; the Stalwart machine received a further rebuke when Garfield appointed Blaine, Conkling's arch-enemy, as Secretary of State. The running mates, never close, detached as Garfield continued to freeze out the Stalwarts from his patronage. Arthur's status in the administration diminished when, a month before inauguration day, he gave a speech before reporters suggesting the election in Indiana, a "swing state, had been won by Republicans through illegal machinations. Garfield ultimately appointed a Stalwart, "Thomas Lemuel James, to be Postmaster General, but the cabinet fight and Arthur's ill-considered speech left the President and Vice President clearly estranged when they took office on March 4, 1881.
The Senate in the "47th United States Congress was divided among 37 Republicans, 37 Democrats, one independent ("David Davis) who "caucused with the Democrats, one "Readjuster ("William Mahone), and four vacancies. Immediately, the Democrats attempted to organize the Senate, knowing that the vacancies would soon be filled by Republicans. As vice president, Arthur cast "tie-breaking votes in favor of the Republicans when Mahone opted to join their caucus. Even so, the Senate remained deadlocked for two months over Garfield's nominations because of Conkling's opposition to some of them. Just before going into recess in May 1881, the situation became more complicated when Conkling and the other Senator from New York, "Thomas C. Platt, resigned in protest of Garfield's continuing opposition to their faction.
With the Senate in recess, Arthur had no duties in Washington and returned to New York City. Once there, he traveled with Conkling to "Albany, where the former Senator hoped for a quick re-election to the Senate, and with it, a defeat for the Garfield administration.[j] The Republican majority in the state legislature was divided on the question, to Conkling and Platt's surprise, and an intense campaign in the state house ensued.[k]
While in Albany on July 2, Arthur learned that Garfield had been shot. The assassin, "Charles J. Guiteau, was a deranged office-seeker who believed that Garfield's successor would appoint him to a patronage job. He proclaimed to onlookers: "I am a Stalwart, and Arthur will be President!" Guiteau was found to be mentally unstable, and despite his claims to be a Stalwart supporter of Arthur, they had only a tenuous connection that dated from the 1880 campaign.
More troubling was the lack of legal guidance on "presidential succession: as Garfield lingered near death, no one was sure who, if anyone, could exercise presidential authority. Also, after Conkling's resignation, the Senate had adjourned without electing a "president pro tempore, who would normally follow Arthur in the succession. Arthur was reluctant to be seen acting as president while Garfield lived, and for the next two months there was a void of authority in the executive office, with Garfield too weak to carry out his duties, and Arthur reluctant to assume them. Through the summer, Arthur refused to travel to Washington and was at his "Lexington Avenue home when, on the night of September 19, he learned that Garfield had died. Judge "John R. Brady of the "New York Supreme Court administered the "oath of office in Arthur's home at 2:15 a.m. on September 20. Later that day he took a train to Long Branch to pay his respects to Garfield and to leave a card of sympathy for his wife, afterwards returning to New York City. On the 21st, he returned to Long Branch to take part in Garfield's funeral, and then joined the funeral train to Washington. Before leaving New York, he ensured the presidential line of succession by preparing and mailing to the White House a proclamation calling for a Senate special session. This step ensured that the Senate had legal authority to convene immediately and choose a Senate president pro tempore, who would be able to assume the presidency if Arthur died. Once in Washington he destroyed the mailed proclamation and issued a formal call for a special session.
Arthur arrived in Washington, D.C. on September 21. On September 22 he re-took the oath of office, this time before Chief Justice "Morrison R. Waite. Arthur took this step to ensure procedural compliance; there had been a lingering question about whether a state court judge (Brady) could administer a federal oath of office.[l] He initially took up residence at the home of Senator "John P. Jones, while White House remodeling he ordered was carried out, including the addition of an elaborate fifty-foot glass screen made by "Louis Comfort Tiffany, which remained in a White House corridor until it was dismantled in 1902.
Arthur's sister, "Mary Arthur McElroy, served as White House hostess for her widowed brother; Arthur became Washington's most eligible bachelor and his social life became the subject of rumors, though romantically, he remained singularly devoted to the memory of his late wife. His son, Chester Jr., was then a freshman at "Princeton University and his daughter, Nell, stayed in New York with a "governess until 1882; when she arrived, Arthur shielded her from the intrusive press as much as he could.
Arthur quickly came into conflict with Garfield's cabinet, most of whom represented his opposition within the party. He asked the cabinet members to remain until December, when Congress would reconvene, but Treasury Secretary "William Windom submitted his resignation in October to enter a Senate race in his home state of Minnesota. Arthur then selected "Charles J. Folger, his friend and fellow New York Stalwart as Windom's replacement.[m] Attorney General "Wayne MacVeagh was next to resign, believing that, as a reformer, he had no place in an Arthur cabinet. Despite Arthur's personal appeal to remain, MacVeagh resigned in December 1881 and Arthur replaced him with "Benjamin H. Brewster, a Philadelphia lawyer and machine politician reputed to have reformist leanings. Blaine, nemesis of the Stalwart faction, remained Secretary of State until Congress reconvened, then departed immediately. Conkling expected Arthur to appoint him in Blaine's place, but the President chose "Frederick T. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, a Stalwart recommended by ex-President Grant. Frelinghuysen advised Arthur not to fill any future vacancies with Stalwarts, but when Postmaster General James resigned in January 1882, Arthur selected "Timothy O. Howe, a Wisconsin Stalwart. Navy Secretary "William H. Hunt was next to resign, in April 1882, and Arthur attempted a more balanced approach by appointing "William E. Chandler to the post, on Blaine's recommendation. Finally, when Interior Secretary "Samuel J. Kirkwood resigned that same month, Arthur appointed "Henry M. Teller, a Colorado Stalwart to the office. Of the Cabinet members Arthur had inherited from Garfield, only Secretary of War "Robert Todd Lincoln remained for the entirety of Arthur's term.
Civil service reform
In the 1870s, a "scandal was exposed, in which contractors for "star postal routes were greatly overpaid for their services with the connivance of government officials (including Second Assistant Postal Secretary "Thomas J. Brady and former Senator "Stephen Wallace Dorsey). Reformers feared Arthur, as a former supporter of the spoils system, would not commit to continuing the investigation into the scandal. But Arthur's Attorney General, Brewster, did in fact continue the investigations begun by MacVeigh, and hired notable Democratic lawyers William W. Ker and "Richard T. Merrick to strengthen the prosecution team and forestall the skeptics. Although Arthur had worked closely with Dorsey before his presidency, once in office he supported the investigation and forced the resignation of officials suspected in the scandal. An 1882 trial of the ringleaders resulted in convictions for two minor conspirators and a "hung jury for the rest. After a juror came forward with allegations that the defendants attempted to bribe him, the judge set aside the guilty verdicts and granted a new trial. Before the second trial began, Arthur removed five federal office holders who were sympathetic with the defense, including a former Senator. The second trial began in December 1882 and lasted until July 1883 and, again, did not result in a guilty verdict. Failure to obtain a conviction tarnished the administration's image, but Arthur did succeed in putting a stop to the fraud.
Garfield's assassination by a deranged office seeker amplified the public demand for civil service reform. Both Democratic and Republican leaders realized that they could attract the votes of reformers by turning against the spoils system and, by 1882, a bipartisan effort began in favor of reform. In 1880, Democratic Senator "George H. Pendleton of Ohio introduced legislation that required selection of civil servants based on merit as determined by an "examination. In his first "annual presidential address to Congress in 1881, Arthur requested civil service reform legislation and Pendleton again introduced his bill, but Congress did not pass it. Republicans lost seats in the 1882 congressional elections, in which Democrats campaigned on the reform issue. As a result, the "lame-duck session of Congress was more amenable to civil service reform; the Senate approved Pendleton's bill 38–5 and the House soon concurred by a vote of 155–47. Arthur signed the "Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act into law on January 16, 1883. In just two years' time, an unrepentant Stalwart had become the president who ushered in long-awaited civil service reform.
At first, the act applied only to 10% of federal jobs and, without proper implementation by the president, it could have gone no further. Even after he signed the act into law, its proponents doubted Arthur's commitment to reform. To their surprise, he acted quickly to appoint the members of the "Civil Service Commission that the law created, naming reformers "Dorman Bridgman Eaton, "John Milton Gregory, and "Leroy D. Thoman as commissioners. The chief examiner, "Silas W. Burt, was a long-time reformer who had been Arthur's opponent when the two men worked at the New York Customs House. The commission issued its first rules in May 1883; by 1884, half of all postal officials and three-quarters of the "Customs Service jobs were to be awarded by merit. That year, Arthur expressed satisfaction with the new system, praising its effectiveness "in securing competent and faithful public servants and in protecting the appointing officers of the Government from the pressure of personal importunity and from the labor of examining the claims and pretensions of rival candidates for public employment."
Surplus and the tariff
With high revenue held over from wartime taxes, the federal government had collected more than it spent since 1866; by 1882 the surplus reached $145 million. Opinions varied on how to "balance the budget; the Democrats wished to lower tariffs, in order to reduce revenues and the cost of imported goods, while Republicans believed that high tariffs ensured high wages in manufacturing and mining. They preferred the government spend more on "internal improvements and reduce "excise taxes. Arthur agreed with his party, and in 1882 called for the abolition of excise taxes on everything except liquor, as well as a simplification of the complex tariff structure. In May of that year, Representative "William D. Kelley of Pennsylvania introduced a bill to establish a tariff commission; the bill passed and Arthur signed it into law but appointed mostly "protectionists to the committee. Republicans were pleased with the committee's make-up but were surprised when, in December 1882, they submitted a report to Congress calling for tariff cuts averaging between 20 and 25%. The commission's recommendations were ignored, however, as the "House Ways and Means Committee, dominated by protectionists, provided a 10% reduction. After conference with the Senate, "the bill that emerged only reduced tariffs by an average of 1.47%. The bill passed both houses narrowly on March 3, 1883, the last full day of the 47th Congress; Arthur signed the measure into law, with no effect on the surplus.
Congress attempted to balance the budget from the other side of the ledger, with increased spending on the 1882 "Rivers and Harbors Act in the unprecedented amount of $19 million. While Arthur was not opposed to internal improvements, the scale of the bill disturbed him, as did its narrow focus on "particular localities," rather than projects that benefited a larger part of the nation. On August 1, 1882, Arthur vetoed the bill to widespread popular acclaim; in his veto message, his principal objection was that it appropriated funds for purposes "not for the common defense or general welfare, and which do not promote commerce among the States." Congress "overrode his veto the next day and the new law reduced the surplus by $19 million. Republicans considered the law a success at the time, but later concluded that it contributed to their loss of seats in the elections of 1882.
Foreign affairs and immigration
During the "Garfield administration, Secretary of State James G. Blaine attempted to invigorate United States diplomacy in Latin America, urging reciprocal trade agreements and offering to mediate disputes among the Latin American nations. Blaine, venturing a greater involvement in affairs south of the Rio Grande, proposed a Pan-American conference in 1882 to discuss trade and an end to the "War of the Pacific being fought by "Bolivia, Chile, and "Peru. Blaine did not remain in office long enough to see the effort through, and when "Frederick T. Frelinghuysen replaced him at the end of 1881, the conference efforts lapsed. Frelinghuysen also discontinued Blaine's peace efforts in the War of the Pacific, fearing that the United States might be drawn into the conflict. Arthur and Frelinghuysen continued Blaine's efforts to encourage trade among the nations of the Western Hemisphere; a treaty with Mexico providing for reciprocal tariff reductions was signed in 1882 and approved by the Senate in 1884. Legislation required to bring the treaty into force failed in the House, however, rendering it a dead letter. Similar efforts at reciprocal trade treaties with "Santo Domingo and "Spain's American colonies were defeated by February 1885, and an existing reciprocity treaty with the "Kingdom of Hawaii was allowed to lapse.
The 47th Congress spent a great deal of time on immigration, and at times was in accord with Arthur. In July 1882 Congress easily passed a bill regulating steamships that carried immigrants to the United States. To their surprise, Arthur vetoed it and requested revisions, which they made and Arthur then approved. He also signed in August of that year the "Immigration Act of 1882, which levied a 50-cent tax on immigrants to the United States, and excluded from entry the "mentally ill, the "intellectually disabled, criminals, or any other person potentially dependent upon public assistance.
A more contentious debate materialized over the status of Chinese immigrants; in January 1868, the Senate had ratified the "Burlingame Treaty with China, allowing an unrestricted flow of Chinese into the country. As the economy soured after the "Panic of 1873, Chinese immigrants were blamed for depressing workmen's wages; in reaction Congress in 1879 attempted to abrogate the 1868 treaty by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act, but President Hayes vetoed it. Three years later, after China had agreed to treaty revisions, Congress tried again to exclude Chinese immigrants; Senator "John F. Miller of California introduced another Chinese Exclusion Act that denied Chinese immigrants United States citizenship and banned their immigration for a twenty-year period. The bill passed the Senate and House by overwhelming margins, but this as well was vetoed by Arthur, who concluded the 20-year ban to be a breach of the renegotiated treaty of 1880. That treaty allowed only a "reasonable" suspension of immigration. Eastern newspapers praised the veto, while it was condemned in the Western states. Congress was unable to override the veto, but passed a new bill reducing the immigration ban to ten years. Although he still objected to this denial of citizenship to Chinese immigrants, Arthur acceded to the compromise measure, signing the "Chinese Exclusion Act into law on May 6, 1882.[n]
In the years following the Civil War, "American naval power declined precipitously, shrinking from nearly 700 vessels to just 52, most of which were obsolete. The nation's military focus over the fifteen years before Garfield and Arthur's election had been on the "Indian wars in the West, rather than the high seas, but as the region was increasingly pacified, many in Congress grew concerned at the poor state of the Navy. Garfield's Secretary of the Navy, "William H. Hunt, advocated reform of the Navy and his successor, "William E. Chandler, appointed an advisory board to prepare a report on modernization. Based on the suggestions in the report, Congress appropriated funds for the construction of three steel "protected cruisers ("Atlanta, "Boston, and "Chicago) and an armed dispatch-steamer ("Dolphin), collectively known as the ABCD Ships or the "Squadron of Evolution. Congress also approved funds to rebuild four "monitors ("Puritan, "Amphitrite, "Monadnock, and "Terror), which had lain uncompleted since 1877. The contracts to build the ABCD ships were all awarded to the low bidder, "John Roach & Sons of "Chester, Pennsylvania, even though Roach once employed Secretary Chandler as a lobbyist. Democrats turned against the "New Navy" projects and, when they won control of the "48th Congress, refused to appropriate funds for seven more steel warships. Even without the additional ships, the state of the Navy improved when, after several construction delays, the last of the new ships entered service in 1889.
Like his Republican predecessors, Arthur struggled with the question of how his party was to challenge the Democrats in "the South and how, if at all, to protect the civil rights of black southerners. Since the end of "Reconstruction, conservative white Democrats (or ""Bourbon Democrats") had regained power in the South, and the Republican party dwindled rapidly as their primary supporters in the region, blacks, "were disenfranchised. One crack in the "solidly Democratic South emerged with the growth of a new party, the "Readjusters, in Virginia. Having won an election in that state on a platform of more education funding (for black and white schools alike) and abolition of the "poll tax and the "whipping post, many northern Republicans saw the Readjusters as a more viable ally in the South than the moribund southern Republican party. Arthur agreed, and directed the federal patronage in Virginia through the Readjusters rather than the Republicans. He followed the same pattern in other Southern states, forging coalitions with independents and "Greenback Party members. Some black Republicans felt betrayed by the pragmatic gambit, but others (including "Frederick Douglass and ex-Senator "Blanche K. Bruce) endorsed the administration's actions, as the Southern independents had more liberal racial policies than the Democrats. Arthur's coalition policy was only successful in Virginia, however, and by 1885 the Readjuster movement began to collapse with the election of a Democratic president.
Other federal action on behalf of blacks was equally ineffective: when the Supreme Court struck down the "Civil Rights Act of 1875 in the "Civil Rights Cases (1883), Arthur expressed his disagreement with the decision in a message to Congress, but was unable to persuade Congress to pass any new legislation in its place. Arthur did, however, effectively intervene to overturn a "court-martial ruling against a black "West Point cadet, "Johnson Whittaker, after the "Judge Advocate General of the Army, "David G. Swaim, found the prosecution's case against Whittaker to be illegal and based on racial bias. The administration faced a different challenge in the West, where the "LDS Church was under government pressure to stop the practice of "polygamy in "Utah Territory. Garfield had believed polygamy was criminal behavior and was morally detrimental to family values, and Arthur's views were, for once, in line with his predecessor's. In 1882, he signed the "Edmunds Act into law; the legislation made polygamy a federal crime, barring polygamists both from public office and the right to vote.
Native American policy
The Arthur administration was challenged by changing relations with western "Native American tribes. The "American Indian Wars were winding down, and public sentiment was shifting toward more favorable treatment of Native Americans. Arthur urged Congress to increase funding for Native American education, which it did in 1884, although not to the extent he wished. He also favored a move to the "allotment system, under which individual Native Americans, rather than tribes, would own land. Arthur was unable to convince Congress to adopt the idea during his administration but, in 1887, the "Dawes Act changed the law to favor such a system. The allotment system was favored by liberal reformers at the time, but eventually proved detrimental to Native Americans as most of their land was resold at low prices to white "speculators. During Arthur's presidency, settlers and cattle ranchers continued to encroach on Native American territory. Arthur initially resisted their efforts, but after Secretary of the Interior "Henry M. Teller, an opponent of allotment, assured him that the lands were not protected, Arthur opened up the "Crow Creek Reservation in the "Dakota Territory to settlers by executive order in 1885. Arthur's successor, "Grover Cleveland, finding that title belonged to the Native Americans, revoked Arthur's order a few months later.
Health, travel, and 1884 election
Shortly after becoming president, Arthur was diagnosed with "Bright's disease, a "kidney ailment now referred to as "nephritis. He attempted to keep his condition private, but by 1883 rumors of his illness began to circulate; he had become thinner and more aged in appearance, and struggled to keep the pace of the presidency. To rejuvenate his health outside the confines of Washington, Arthur and some political friends traveled to Florida in April 1883. The vacation had the opposite effect, and Arthur suffered from intense pain before returning to Washington. Later that year, on the advice of Missouri Senator "George Graham Vest, he visited "Yellowstone National Park. Reporters accompanied the presidential party, helping to publicize the new "National Park system. The Yellowstone trip was more beneficial to Arthur's health than his Florida excursion, and he returned to Washington refreshed after two months of travel.
As the "1884 presidential election approached, James G. Blaine was considered the favorite for the Republican nomination, but Arthur, too, contemplated a run for a full term as president. In the months leading up to the "1884 Republican National Convention, however, Arthur began to realize that neither faction of the Republican party was prepared to give him their full support: the Half-Breeds were again solidly behind Blaine, while Stalwarts were undecided; some backed Arthur, with others considering Senator "John A. Logan of Illinois. Reform-minded Republicans, friendlier to Arthur after he endorsed civil service reform, were still not certain enough of his reform credentials to back him over Senator "George F. Edmunds of Vermont, who had long favored their cause. Business leaders supported him, as did Southern Republicans who owed their jobs to his control of the patronage, but by the time they began to rally around him, Arthur had decided against a serious campaign for the nomination. He kept up a token effort, believing that to drop out would cast doubt on his actions in office and raise questions about his health, but by the time the convention began in June, his defeat was assured. Blaine led on the first ballot, and by the fourth ballot he had a majority. Arthur telegraphed his congratulations to Blaine and accepted his defeat with equanimity. He played no role in the 1884 campaign, which Blaine would later blame for his loss that November to the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland.
Administration and cabinet
|The Arthur Cabinet|
|"President||Chester A. Arthur||1881–85|
|"Secretary of State||"James G. Blaine||1881|
|"Frederick T. Frelinghuysen||1881–85|
|"Secretary of Treasury||"William Windom||1881|
|"Charles J. Folger||1881–84|
|"Walter Q. Gresham||1884|
|"Secretary of War||"Robert T. Lincoln||1881–85|
|"Attorney General||"Wayne MacVeagh||1881|
|"Benjamin H. Brewster||1881–85|
|"Postmaster General||"Thomas L. James||1881|
|"Timothy O. Howe||1881–83|
|"Walter Q. Gresham||1883–84|
|"Secretary of the Navy||"William H. Hunt||1881–82|
|"William E. Chandler||1882–85|
|"Secretary of the Interior||"Samuel J. Kirkwood||1881–82|
|"Henry M. Teller||1882–85|
Arthur made appointments to fill two vacancies on the "United States Supreme Court. The first vacancy arose in July 1881 with the death of "Associate Justice "Nathan Clifford, a Democrat who had been a member of the Court since before the Civil War. Arthur nominated "Horace Gray, a distinguished jurist from the "Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court to replace him, and the nomination was easily confirmed. The second vacancy occurred when Associate Justice "Ward Hunt retired in January 1882. Arthur first nominated his old political boss, "Roscoe Conkling; he doubted that Conkling would accept, but felt obligated to offer a high office to his former patron. The Senate confirmed the nomination but, as expected, Conkling declined it, the last time a confirmed nominee declined an appointment. Senator George Edmunds was Arthur's next choice, but he declined to be considered. Instead, Arthur nominated "Samuel Blatchford, who had been a judge on the "Second Circuit Court of Appeals for the prior four years. Blatchford accepted, and his nomination was approved by the Senate within two weeks. Blatchford served on the Court until his death in 1893.
Retirement, death, and memorials
Arthur left office in 1885 and returned to his New York City home. Two months before the end of his term, several New York Stalwarts approached him to request that he run for United States Senate, but he declined, preferring to return to his old law practice at Arthur, Knevals & Ransom. His health limited his activity with the firm, and Arthur served only "of counsel. He took on few assignments with the firm and was often too ill to leave his house. He managed a few public appearances, until the end of 1885.
After spending the summer of 1886 in "New London, Connecticut, he returned home, and became seriously ill and, on November 16, ordered nearly all of his papers, both personal and official, burned.[o] The next morning, Arthur suffered a "cerebral hemorrhage and never regained consciousness; he died the following day, November 18, at the age of 57. On November 22, a private funeral was held at the "Church of the Heavenly Rest in New York City, attended by President Cleveland and ex-President Hayes, among other notables. Arthur was buried with his family members and ancestors in the "Albany Rural Cemetery in "Menands, New York. He was laid beside his wife in a "sarcophagus on a large corner of the plot. In 1889, a monument was placed on Arthur's burial plot by sculptor "Ephraim Keyser of New York, consisting of a giant bronze female angel figure placing a bronze palm leaf on a granite sarcophagus.
In 1898, the "Arthur memorial statue—a fifteen-foot, bronze figure of Arthur standing on a "Barre Granite pedestal—was created by sculptor "George Edwin Bissell and installed at "Madison Square, in New York City. The statue was dedicated in 1899 and unveiled by Arthur's sister, Mary Arthur McElroy. At the dedication, Secretary of War "Elihu Root described Arthur as, "...wise in statesmanship and firm and effective in administration," while acknowledging that Arthur was isolated in office and unloved by his own party.
Arthur's unpopularity in life carried over into his assessment by historians, and his reputation after leaving office disappeared. By 1935, historian George F. Howe said that Arthur had achieved "an obscurity in strange contrast to his significant part in American history." By 1975, however, "Thomas C. Reeves would write that Arthur's "appointments, if unspectacular, were unusually sound; the corruption and scandal that dominated business and politics of the period did not tarnish his administration." As 2004 biographer "Zachary Karabell wrote, although Arthur was "physically stretched and emotionally strained, he strove to do what was right for the country." Indeed, Howe had earlier surmised, "Arthur adopted [a code] for his own political behavior but subject to three restraints: he remained to everyone a man of his word; he kept scrupulously free from corrupt graft; he maintained a personal dignity, affable and genial though he might be. These restraints ... distinguished him sharply from the stereotype politician."
- "List of Presidents of the United States
- "List of Presidents of the United States by previous experience
- "Arthur Cottage, ancestral home, "Cullybackey, "County Antrim, Northern Ireland
- "Julia Sand
- Some older sources list the date as October 5, 1830, but biographer "Thomas C. Reeves confirms that this is incorrect: Arthur claimed to be a year younger "out of simple vanity."
- Arthur pronounced his middle name with the accent on the second syllable.
- Even if he had been born in Canada, Arthur might have still claimed to be a "natural born citizen" based on his mother having been born in and recently resided in the United States.
- The "Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution applies that clause, which specifically restricts presidential eligibility, to would-be vice presidents: "No person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President."
- Among the facts that argue against Hinman's theories are the entries for Chester A. Arthur in several U.S. Censuses from before he was politically prominent, which list his birthplace as Vermont, and the entry of his birth in the Arthur family Bible, which also indicates Vermont as his birthplace. In addition, contemporary newspaper articles, including the 1871 stories about his appointment as Collector of the Port of New York, all indicate that he was born in Vermont, though some incorrectly give his birthplace as "Burlington. Hinman failed to explain why Arthur would have fabricated these records and the biographical information he provided to newspapers to conceal a Canadian birth when the only thing being born in Canada might possibly affect was Arthur's eligibility for the presidency, which no one at the time of his birth or in the years between his birth and his nomination for vice president in 1880 had any reason to think he would aspire to.
- $10,000 in 1870 is equal to $189 thousand in present terms.
- $50,000 in 1871 is equal to $1000 thousand in present terms.
- "Charles K. Graham filled Merritt's former position.
- Biographer George Howe takes this exchange at face value, but later biographers suspect it may be apocryphal.
- Before the passage of the "Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Senators were elected by state legislatures.
- Conkling and Pratt were ultimately denied re-election, being succeeded by "Elbridge G. Lapham and "Warner Miller, respectively.
- One presidential oath was administered by a state court judge, also in New York City by a New York State judge: "Robert Livingston, "Chancellor of New York, "administered the first presidential oath to "George Washington at "Federal Hall in 1789 (there were yet no federal judges). The only other presidential oath administered by someone other than a Federal justice or judge, "the first swearing in of "Calvin Coolidge in 1923 (by his father "John Calvin Coolidge, Sr., a "notary public, in the family home), was also re-taken in Washington due to questions about the validity of the first oath.
- Arthur first offered the post to Edwin D. Morgan, who had been his patron in New York; Morgan was confirmed by the Senate, but declined on the grounds of age. He died in 1883.
- The portion of the law denying citizenship to Chinese-Americans was later found unconstitutional in "United States v. Wong Kim Ark in 1898.
- A small number of Arthur's papers survived and passed to his grandson, "Gavin Arthur (born Chester Alan Arthur III,) who allowed Arthur's biographer, Thomas C. Reeves, to examine them in the 1970s.
- Werner, Edgar A. (1889). The New-York Civil List. Albany, NY: Weed, Parsons & Co. pp. 170–171.
- The New-York Civil List, pp. 170–171.
- Reeves 1975, p. 420.
- Reeves 1975, p. 423.
- Feldman, p. 95.
- Howe, p. 5.
- Reeves 1975, p. 4; Howe, p. 4.
- Hambley, Del (2008). Presidential Footprints. Indianapolis, IN: Dog ear Publishing. p. 103. "ISBN "978-159858-800-2.
- Reeves, Thomas C. (July 1, 1970). "The Diaries of Malvina Arthur: Windows Into The Past of Our 21st President" (PDF). Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society. Montpelier, VT: Vermont Historical Society. p. 179.
- Reeves 1970, p. 294.
- Howe, p. 7; Reeves 1975, p. 6.
- Reeves 1975, p. 5.
- Howe, pp. 5, 25, 28, 29.
- Vermont Bureau of Publicity (1913). Vermont: The Land of Green Mountains. Montpelier, VT: Vermont Secretary of State. p. 84.
- Reeves 1975, p. 436.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 7–8.
- Karabell, pp. 53–54.
- Fisher, Dr. Louis (2014). The Law of the Executive Branch: Presidential Power. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 28. "ISBN "978-0-19-985621-3.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 202–203.
- Reeves 1970.
- Ferris, Gary W. (1999). Presidential Places: A Guide to the Historic Sites of U.S. Presidents. Chicago, IL: R. R. Donnelly and Sons. p. 127. "ISBN "978-0-89587-176-3.
- Howe, p. 7.
- Reeves 1975, p. 9.
- Reeves 1975, p. 10.
- Reeves 1975, p. 11.
- Karabell, p. 12.
- Reeves 1975, p. 14.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 14–15.
- Reeves 1975, p. 16.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 19–20.
- Karabell, p. 14.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 17–18.
- Reeves 1975, p. 21.
- Howe, pp. 18–19.
- Howe, pp. 20–21; Reeves 1975, pp. 22–23.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 24–25.
- Howe, p. 25.
- Howe, pp. 26–27; Reeves 1975, pp. 28–29.
- Reeves 1975, p. 30.
- Reeves 1975, p. 33.
- Aubin, J. Harris (1906). Register of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Boston, MA: Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, Commandery of Massachusetts. p. 20.
- Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Oregon (1919). Journal of the Annual Encampment. Salem, OR: State Publishing Department. p. 83.
- McCrory, Thomas J. (2005). Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Wisconsin. Black Earth, WI: Trails Books. p. 100. "ISBN "1-931599-28-9.
- Howe, pp. 30–31; Reeves 1975, pp. 33–34.
- Howe, pp. 29–30; Reeves 1975, pp. 34–35.
- Reeves 1975, p. 35.
- Reeves 1975, p. 84.
- Reeves 1975, p. 37.
- Reeves 1975, p. 38.
- Karabell, p. 17.
- Reeves 1975, p. 39; Howe, p. 37.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 40–41.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 42–45.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 71–73.
- Reeves 1975, p. 48.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 49–50; Howe, p. 42.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Howe, p. 42.
- "Afternoon Dispatches: Pleasanton". The Tribune. Lawrence, KS. July 9, 1871. p. 2. (subscription required (. ))
- Reeves 1975, pp. 51–53; Howe, pp. 44–45.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 61–67; Schwartz, p. 182.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 57–58.
- Doyle & Swaney, p. 188.
- Reeves 1975, p. 60; Howe, pp. 46–47.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 59, 63, 85–86.
- Reeves 1975, p. 68.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 69–70.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 76–77.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 78–79.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 79–84; Howe, p. 49.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 87–89.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 95–96; Karabell, pp. 26–27.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 100–105.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 106–107.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 318–319.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 322–325; Reeves 1975, pp. 118–119; Howe, pp. 68–69.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 119–120.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 121–122.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 322–325; Reeves 1975, p. 121.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 121–123.
- Reeves 1975, p. 123.
- Hoogenboom, p. 352; Reeves 1975, pp. 125–126.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 353–355; Reeves 1975, pp. 126–131.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 370–371; Reeves 1975, pp. 136–137.
- Hoogenboom, p. 370.
- Hoogenboom, p. 354.
- Hoogenboom, pp. 382–384; Reeves 1975, pp. 138–148.
- Howe, p. 85.
- "Republican State Committee: Gen. Chester A. Arthur Elected Chairman -- Campaign Plans". The Sun. New York, NY. September 12, 1879. p. 2. (subscription required (. ))
- "Organization of the Republican State Committee". The Post. Boston, MA. October 12, 1881. p. 1. (subscription required (. ))
- Reeves 1975, pp. 153–155; Peskin, p. 704.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 153–155; Howe, pp. 96–99.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 158–159; Karabell, pp. 38–39.
- Howe, pp. 98–99; Karabell, pp. 38–39.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 160–165.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 177–178; Howe, pp. 107–108; Karabell, pp. 39–40.
- Karabell, p. 41; Reeves 1975, p. 178.
- Howe, pp. 107–108.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 179–181.
- Howe, p. 109.
- Reeves 1975, p. 179; Karabell, pp. 40–41.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 190–194.
- Jordan, pp. 292–305.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 194–196; Jordan, pp. 294–295.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 196–197; Jordan, pp. 297–302.
- Reeves 1975, p. 196; Jordan, p. 301.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 198–202.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 203–204.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 205–207.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 213–216; Karabell, pp. 52–53.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 216–219; Karabell, pp. 54–56.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 220–223.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 223–230.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 230–233.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 233–237; Howe, pp. 147–149.
- Karabell, p. 59; Reeves 1975, p. 237.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 238–241; Doenecke, pp. 53–54.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 241–243; Howe, pp. 152–154.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 244–248; Karabell, pp. 61–63.
- McCabe, James D. (1881). Our Martyred President ... : The Life and Public Services of Gen. James A. Garfield. National Publishing Company. p. 764.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 247–248.
- "The New Administration; President Arthur Formally Inaugurated". The New York Times. September 22, 1881. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Doenecke, pp. 53–54; Reeves 1975, p. 248.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 252–253, 268–269.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 275–276.
- Howe, p. 160; Reeves 1975, p. 254.
- Reeves 1975, p. 254.
- Howe, p. 161; Reeves 1975, pp. 254–255.
- Howe, pp. 160–161; Reeves 1975, pp. 255–257.
- Howe, pp. 162–163; Reeves 1975, pp. 257–258.
- Doenecke, pp. 93–95; Reeves 1975, pp. 297–298.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 299–300; Howe, p. 182.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 301–302; Howe, pp. 185–189.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 303–305; Howe, pp. 189–193.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 320–324; Doenecke, pp. 96–97; Theriault, pp. 52–53, 56.
- Doenecke, pp. 99–100; Theriault, pp. 57–63.
- Reeves 1975, p. 324; Doenecke, pp. 101–102.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 325–327; Doenecke, pp. 102–104.
- Howe, pp. 209–210.
- Arthur, Chester A. (1884). "Fourth State of the Union Address". Wikisource, The Free Library. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 328–329; Doenecke, p. 168.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 330–333; Doenecke, pp. 169–171.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 334–335.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 280–282; Doenecke, p. 81.
- Reeves 1975, p. 281.
- Howe, pp. 196–197; Reeves 1975, pp. 281–282; Karabell, p. 90.
- Doenecke, pp. 55–57; Reeves 1975, pp. 284–289.
- Doenecke, pp. 129–132; Reeves 1975, pp. 289–293; Bastert, pp. 653–671.
- Doenecke, pp. 173–175; Reeves 1975, pp. 398–399, 409.
- Doenecke, pp. 175–178; Reeves 1975, pp. 398–399, 407–410.
- Howe, pp. 168–169; Doenecke, p. 81.
- Hutchinson, p. 162; Howe, p. 169.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 277–278; Hoogenboom, pp. 387–389.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 278–279; Doenecke, pp. 81–84.
- Reeves 1975, p. 337; Doenecke, p. 145.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 338–341; Doenecke, pp. 145–147.
- Doenecke, pp. 147–149.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 342–343; Abbot, pp. 346–347.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 343–345; Doenecke, pp. 149–151.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 349–350; Doenecke, pp. 152–153.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 306–308; Doenecke, pp. 105–108.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 307–309; Ayers, pp. 46–47.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 310–313.
- Ayers, pp. 47–48.
- Doenecke, pp. 112–114.
- Marszalek, "passim.
- Doenecke, pp. 84–85.
- Doenecke, pp. 85–89.
- Doenecke, pp. 89–92; Reeves 1975, pp. 362–363.
- Doenecke, p. 91; Stuart, pp. 452–454.
- Doenecke, pp. 89–90; Reeves 1975, pp. 362–363.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 317–318; Howe, pp. 243–244.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 355–359; Howe, pp. 244–246.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 364–367; Howe, pp. 247–248.
- Karabell, pp. 124–125; Reeves 1975, pp. 366–367.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 368–371; Howe, pp. 254–257.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 373–375; Doenecke, pp. 181–182.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 380–381; Howe, pp. 264–265.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 387–389; Howe, pp. 265–266.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 260–261; Howe, p. 195.
- "Supreme Court Nominations, present-1789". U.S. Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- Doenecke, p. 76.
- "Blatchford, Samuel M.". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 412–414.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 416–418.
- Reeves 1972, passim.
- Reeves 1975, pp. 418–419.
- "Monuments At Albany" (PDF). The New York Times. January 7, 1894.
- Reeves 1975, p. 419.
- Karabell, p. 139.
- Howe, p. 288.
- Howe, p. 290.
- "Abbot, Willis J. (1896). The Naval History of the United States. 2. Peter Fenelon Collier. "OCLC 3453791.
- "Ayers, Edward L. (2007) . The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. "ISBN "978-0-19-532688-8.
- Doyle, Burton T.; Swaney, Homer H. (1881). Lives of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur. Washington, D.C.: Rufus H. Darby.
- Doenecke, Justus D. (1981). The Presidencies of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "978-0-7006-0208-7.
- Feldman, Ruth Tenzer (2006). Chester A. Arthur. Twenty-First Century Books. "ISBN "978-0-8225-1512-8.
- "Hoogenboom, Ari (1995). Rutherford Hayes: Warrior and President. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. "ISBN "978-0-7006-0641-2.
- Howe, George F. (1966) . Chester A. Arthur, A Quarter-Century of Machine Politics. New York: F. Ungar Pub. Co. "ASIN B00089DVIG.
- Jordan, David M. (1988). Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life. Bloomfield, Indiana: Indiana University Press. "ISBN "978-0-253-36580-4.
- "Karabell, Zachary (2004). Chester Alan Arthur. New York: Henry Holt & Co. "ISBN "978-0-8050-6951-8.
- "Reeves, Thomas C. (1975). Gentleman Boss: The Life of Chester A. Arthur. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. "ISBN "978-0-394-46095-6.
- Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850: 1877–1896 (1919) online complete; old, factual and heavily political, by winner of Pulitzer Prize
- Bastert, Russell H. (March 1956). "Diplomatic Reversal: Frelinghuysen's Opposition to Blaine's Pan-American Policy in 1882". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 42 (4): 653–671. "doi:10.2307/1889232. "JSTOR 1889232.
- "Chester A. Arthur". New York City Statues. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- Hutchinson, C.P. (April 1947). "The Present Status of Our Immigration Laws and Policies". The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. 25 (2): 161–173. "doi:10.2307/3348178. "JSTOR 3348178.
- "Marszalek, John F., Jr. (August 1971). "A Black Cadet At West Point". American Heritage. 22 (5).
- Peskin, Allan (Winter 1984). "Who Were the Stalwarts? Who Were Their Rivals? Republican Factions in the Gilded Age". Political Science Quarterly. 99 (4): 703–716. "doi:10.2307/2150708. "JSTOR 2150708.
- Reeves, Thomas C. (Summer 1972). "The Search for the Chester Alan Arthur Papers". The Wisconsin Magazine of History. 55 (4): 310–319. "JSTOR 4634741.
- Reeves, Thomas C. (Autumn 1970). "The Mystery of Chester Alan Arthur's Birthplace". Vermont History. 38 (4): 300.
- Schwartz, Sybil (Autumn 1978). "In Defense of Chester Arthur". The Wilson Quarterly. 2 (4): 180–184. "JSTOR 40255548.
- Stuart, Paul (September 1977). "United States Indian Policy: From the Dawes Act to the American Indian Policy Review Commission". Social Service Review. 51 (3): 451–463. "doi:10.1086/643524. "JSTOR 30015511.
- Theriault, Sean M. (February 2003). "Patronage, the Pendleton Act, and the Power of the People". The Journal of Politics. 65 (1): 50–68. "doi:10.1111/1468-2508.t01-1-00003. "JSTOR 3449855.
- White House biography
- Essays on Chester Arthur and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady, from the "Miller Center of Public Affairs
- Chester Arthur: A Resource Guide from the "Library of Congress
- "Life Portrait of Chester A. Arthur", from "C-SPAN's "American Presidents: Life Portraits, August 6, 1999
- "Life and Career of Chester A. Arthur", presentation by "Zachary Karabell at the "Kansas City Public Library, May 23, 2012
- Chester A. Arthur's Presidency, a video by "History.com
- Chester A. Arthur's Personal Manuscripts from Shapell.org