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Christine de Pizan
""Christine de Pisan - cathedra.jpg
Christine de Pizan lecturing men
Born 11 September 1364
"Venice
Died "c. 1430 (aged 65–66)
Occupation Writer
Spouse(s) Etienne du Castel
Children Jean du Castel
Parent(s) Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano

Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan; French pronunciation: "[kʁistin də pizɑ̃] (""About this sound listen) ; 1364 – c. 1430) was an "Italian late medieval author. She is best remembered for defending women in "The Book of the City of Ladies and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies. Pizan was a prominent moralist and political thinker in "medieval France. Pizan’s patrons included "Louis of Orleans, "Philip the Bold and "John the Fearless. She served as a court writer during the reign of "Charles VI. Her books of advice to princesses, princes and knights remained in print until the 16th century.

In recent decades, Pizan's work has been returned to prominence by the efforts of scholars such as Charity Cannon Willard, Earl Jeffrey Richards and "Simone de Beauvoir.


Contents

Life[edit]

Christine de Pizan was born 1364 in "Venice, Italy. She was the daughter of Tommaso di Benvenuto da Pizzano. Her father became known as Thomas de Pizan, named for the family's origins in the town of Pizzano, south east of "Bologna. Her father worked as physician, court astrologer, and Councillor of the "Republic of Venice.[1] Thomas de Pizan accepted an appointment to the court of "Charles V of France as the king's "astrologer[2] and in 1368 Pizan moved to Paris. In 1379 Pizan married the notary and royal secretary Etienne du Castel.[3]

She had three children. Her daughter became a nun at the Dominican Abbey in Poissy in 1397 as a companion to the king's daughter "Marie of Valois.[4] Pizan’s husband died of the "plague in 1389, her father had died the year before.[5] Pizan was left to support her mother and her children.[6] When she tried to collect money from her husband's estate, she faced complicated lawsuits regarding the recovery of salary due her husband.[7] On 4 June 1389, in a judgment concerning a lawsuit filed against her by the archbishop of "Sens and François Chanteprime, councillors of the king, Christine was styled "damoiselle" and widow of "Estienne du Castel".[8]

In order to support herself and her family, Christine turned to writing. By 1393, she was writing love "ballads, which caught the attention of wealthy patrons within the court.[2] Pizan became a prolific writer. Her involvement in the production of her books and her skilful use of patronage in turbulent political times has earned her the title of the first professional women of letters in Europe.[9] Although Italian by birth, Pizan expressed fervent nationalism for France. Affective and financially she attached to the royal family of France. She gifted or dedicated her early ballades to members of the royal family, such as "Isabeau of Bavaria, "Louis I, Duke of Orléans and "Marie of Berry. Of Queen Isabeau she wrote in 1402 "High, excellent crowned Queen of France, very redoubtable princess, powerful lady, born at a lucky hour".[10]

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A miniature of Queen "Penthesilea with her army of "Amazons coming to the aid of the "Trojan army, illustrating L'Épître Othéa a Hector.[11]
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One page of Pizan's book Le livre des trois vertus. In the illumination Pizan is kept from rest by the Three Virtues.

France was ruled by "Charles VI who experienced a series of mental breakdowns, causing a crisis of leadership for the French monarchy.[12] He was often absent from court and could eventually only make decisions with the approval of a royal council.[13] Queen Isabeau was nominally in charge of governance when her husband was absent from court, but could not extinguish the quarrel between members of the royal family.[14] In the past, "Blanche of Castile had played a central role in the stability of the royal court and had acted as regent of France. Pizan published a series of works on the virtues of women, referencing Queen Blanche and dedicating them to Queen Isabeau.[15][16]

Pizan believed that France had been founded by the descendants of the "Trojans and that its governance by the royal family adhered to the "Aristotelian ideal.[17] In 1400 Pizan published L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector (Letter of Othea to Hector).[18] When first published, the book was dedicated to "Louis of Orléans, the brother of Charles VI, who was at court seen as potential regent of France.[19] In L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector "Hector of Troy is tutored in statecraft and the political virtues by the goddess of wisdom Othéa.[20] Pizan produced richly illustrated luxury editions of L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector in 1400.[21] Between 1408 and 1415 Pizan produced further editions of the book.[22] Throughout her career she produced rededicated editions of the book with customised prologues for patrons,[23] including an edition for "Philip the Bold in 1403, and editions for "Jean of Berry and "Henry IV of England in 1404.[24] "Patronage changed in the late "Middle Ages. Texts were still produced and circulated as continuous roll "manuscripts, but were increasingly replaced by the bound "codex. Members of royal family became patrons of writers by commissioning books. As materials became cheaper a book trade developed, so writers and bookmakers produced books for the French nobility, who could afford to establish their own "libraries. Pizan thus had no single patron who consistently supported her financially and became associated with the royal court and the different fractions of the royal family - the Burgundy, Orleans and Berry – each having their own respective courts.[25] Throughout her career Pizan undertook concurrent paid projects for individual patrons and subsequently published these works for dissemination among the nobility of France.[26]

In 1402 Pizan became involved in a renowned literary controversy, the "Querelle du Roman de la Rose".[27] Pizan instigated this debate by questioning the literary merits of "Jean de Meun's popular "Romance of the Rose. Romance of the Rose satirizes the conventions of courtly love while critically depicting women as nothing more than seducers.[28] In the midst of the "Hundred Years’ War between French and English kings,[29] Pizan published the "dream allegory "Le Chemin de long estude in 1403. In the first person narrative she and "Cumaean Sibyl travel together and witness a debate on the state of the world between the four "allegories - "Wealth, "Nobility, "Chivalry and "Wisdom.[30] Pizan suggests that "justice could be brought to earth by a single monarch who had the necessary qualities.[31]

In 1404 Pizan chronicled the life of Charles V, portraying him as the ideal king and political leader, in Le Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles V.[32] The chronical had been commissioned by "Philip the Bold[33] and in the chronicle Pizan passed judgement on the state of the royal court. When praising the efforts of Charles V in studying "Latin, Pizan lamented that her contemporaries had to resort to strangers to read the "law to them.[34] Before the book was completed, Philip the Bold died, and Pizan offered the book to Jean of Berry in 1405, finding a new royal patron.[35] She was paid 100 livre for the book by Philip's successor "John the Fearless in 1406 and would receive payments from his court for books until 1412.[36]

In 1405 Pizan published Le Livre de la cité des dames ("The Book of the City of Ladies) and Le Livre des trois vertus (Book of Three Virtues, known as "The Treasure of the City of Ladies).[37] In Le Livre de la cité des dames Pizan presented intellectual and royal female leaders, such as "Queen Zenobia.[38] Pizan dedicated Le Livre des trois vertus to the dauphine "Margaret of Nevers, advising the young princess on what she had to learn.[39] As Queen Isabeau’s oldest son "Louis of Guyenne came of age Pizan addressed three works to him with the intention of promoting wise and effective government. The earliest of the three works has been lost. In Livre du Corps de policie (The Book of the Body Politic), published in 1407 and dedicated to the dauphin,[40] Pizan set out a political treatises which analysed and described the customs and governments of "late medieval European societies. Pizan favoured hereditary monarchies, arguing in reference to Italian "city-states that were governed by princes or trades, that "such governance is not profitable at all for the common good".[41] Pizan also devoted several chapters to the duties of a king as military leader and she described in detail the role of the military class in society.[42]

France was at the verge of all out civil war since 1405.[43] In 1407 "John I of Burgundy, also known as John the Fearless, plunged France into a crisis when he had Louis of Orléans assassinated.[44] The Duke of Burgundy fled Paris when his complicity in the assignation got known,[45] but was appointed regent of France on behalf of Charles VI[46] in late 1408 after his military victory in the "Battle of Othee.[47] It is not certain who commissioned Pizan to write a treatise on military warfare,[48] but in 1410 Pizan published the manual on "chivalry, entitled Livre des fais d'armes et de chevalerie (The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry).[49] Pizan received 200 livre from the royal treasury in early 1411 for the book.[50] In the preface Pizan explained that she published the manual in French so that it could be read by practitioners of war not well versed in Latin. The book opened with a discussion of the "just war theory advanced by "Honoré Bonet. Pizan also referenced classical writers on military warfare, such as "Vegetius, "Frontinus and "Valerius Maximus.[51] Pizan discussed contemporary matters relating to what she termed the Laws of War, such as "capital punishment, the payment of troops, as well as the treatment of "noncombatants and "prisoners of war. Pizan opposed "trial by combat,[52] but articulated the medieval belief that God is the lord and governor of battle and that wars are the proper execution of justice. Nevertheless she acknowledged that in a war "many great wrongs, extortions, and grievous deeds are committed, as well as raping, killings, forced executions, and arsons".[53] Pizan limited the right to wage war to sovereign kings because as head of states they were responsible for the welfare of their subjects.[54] In 1411 the royal court published an edict prohibiting nobles from raising an army.[55]

After civil war had broken out in France, Pizan in 1413 offered guidance to the young dauphin on how to govern well, publishing Livre de la paix (The Book of Peace).[56] Livre de la paix would be Pizan’s last major work and contained detailed formulations of her thoughts on good governance.[57] The period was marked by pouts of civil war and failed attempts to bring John the Fearless to justice for assassinating his cousin. Pizan addressed Louis of Guyenne directly, encouraging him to continue the quest for peace in France.[58] She argued that “Every kingdom divided in itself will be made desolate, and every city and house divided against itself will not stand”.[59] Pizan was acquainted with William of Tignonville, an ambassador to the royal court, and referenced Tignonville’s speeches on the "Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War.[60] Pizan’s drew a utopian vision of a just ruler, who could take advice from those older or wiser. In arguing that peace and justice were possible on earth as well as in heaven, Pizan was influenced by "Dante,[61] who she had referenced in "Le Chemin de long estude.[62] Pizan encouraged the dauphin to deserve respect, by administering justice promptly and living by worthy example. Pizan urged young princes to make themselves available to their subjects, avoid anger and cruelty, to act liberally, clement and truthful. Pizan’s interpretation of the virtuous Christian prince built on the advice to rulers by "St Benedict, "Peter Abelard and "Cicero.[63]

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Christine de Pizan presents her book to "Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen of France.

In 1414 Pizan presented Queen Isabeau with a lavishly decorated collection of her works (now known as British Library Harley 4431).[64] The bound book contained 30 of Pizan's writings and 130 miniatures.[65] She had been asked by the queen to produce the book. Noted for its quality miniature illuminations, Pizan herself and her past royal patrons were depicted. As a mark of ownership and "authorship the opening frontispiece depicted Queen Isabeau being presented with the book by Pizan.[66]

In 1418 Pizan published a consolation for women who had lost family members in the "Battle of Agincourt under the title Epistre de la prison de vie Humaine (Letter Concerning the Prison of Human Life).[67] In it Pizan did not express any optimism or hope that peace could be found on earth. Instead she expressed the view that the "soul was trapped in the body and imprisoned in "hell. The previous year she had presented the Epistre de la prison de vie Humaine to "Marie of Berry,[68] the administrator of the "Duchy of Bourbon whose husband was held in English captivity.[69]

Historians assume that Pizan spent the last ten years of her life in the "Dominican Convent of Poissy because of the civil war and the occupation of Paris by the English.[70] Away from the royal court her literary activity dried up.[71] However, in 1429, after "Joan of Arc's military victory over the English, Pizan published the poem Ditié de Jehanne d'Arc (The Tale of Joan of Arc).[72] Published just a few days after the coronation of "Charles VII, Pizan expressed renewed optimism. She cast Arc as the fulfilment of prophecies by "Merlin, "Cumaean Sibyl and "Saint Bede, helping Charles VII to fulfil the predictions of "Charlemagne.[73]

Pizan is believed to have died in 1430, before Arc was trialled and executed by the English.[74] After her death the political crisis in France was resolved when Queen Isabeau’s only surviving son "Charles VII and John the Fearless’ successor as Duke of Burgundy, "Philip the Good, signed the "Peace of Arras in 1435.[75]

Works[edit]

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Detail of a miniature of ladies watching "knights "jousting, illustrating 'Le Duc des vrais amants', from a collection of works presented in 1414 by Pizan to "Isabeau of Bavaria.[76]
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"Illumination from "The Book of the City of Ladies. Pizan is shown before the personifications of Rectitude, Reason, and Justice in her study, and helping another lady to build the 'Cité des dames'.[77]

Pizan produced a large number of vernacular works, in both prose and verse. Her works include political treatises, "mirrors for princes, epistles, and poetry.

Pizan’s book Le Dit de la Rose (The Tale of the Rose) was published in 1402 as a direct attack on "Jean de Meun’s extremely popular book Romance of the Rose which characterised women as seducers. Pizan claimed that Meun’s views were misogynistic, vulgar, immoral, and slanderous to women. The exchange between the two authors involved them sending each other their treatises, defending their respective views. At the height of the exchange Pizan published Querelle du Roman de la Rose (Letters on the Debate of the Rose).[78] In this particular apologetic response, Pizan belittles her own writing style, employing a rhetorical strategy by writing against the grain of her meaning, also known as "antiphrasis.[79]

By 1405 Pizan had completed her most famous literary works, "The Book of the City of Ladies (Le Livre de la cité des dames) and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies (Le Livre des trois vertus). The first of these shows the importance of women's past contributions to society, and the second strives to teach women of all estates how to cultivate useful qualities.[80]

In The Book of the City of Ladies Pizan created a symbolic city in which women are appreciated and defended. She constructed three allegorical figures – Reason, Justice, and Rectitude – in the common pattern of literature in that era, when many books and poetry utilized stock allegorical figures to express ideas or emotions. She enters into a dialogue, a movement between question and answer, with these allegorical figures that is from a completely female perspective.[81] Together, they create a forum to speak on issues of consequence to all women. Only female voices, examples and opinions provide evidence within this text. Through Lady Reason in particular Pizan argues that stereotypes of women can be sustained only if women are prevented from entering into the conversation.[82]

In City of Ladies Pizan deliberated on the debate whether the virtues of men and women differ, a frequently debated topic in late "medieval Europe, particularly in the context of "Aristotelian virtue ethics and his "views on women.[83] Pizan repeatedly used the theological argument that men and women are created in God's image and both have souls capable of embracing God's goodness. Among the inhabitants of the City of Ladies are female saints, women from the "Old Testament and virtuous women from the pagan antiquity as portrait by "Giovanni Boccaccio.[84]

In The Treasure of the City of Ladies Pizan addressed the "community" of women with the stated objective of instructing them in the means of achieving "virtue. She took the position that all women were capable of humility, diligence and moral rectitude, and that duly educated all women could become worthy residents of the imaginary City of Ladies. Drawing on her own life, Pizan advised women on how to navigate the perils of early 15th century French society.[85] With reference to "Augustine of Hippo and other saints Pizan offered advice on how the noble lady could achieve the love of God. Pizan speaks through the allegorical figures of God's daughters - Reason, Rectitude and Justice - who represent the Three Virtues most important to women's success. Through secular examples of these three virtues, Pizan urged women to discover meaning and achieve worthy acts in their lives. Pizan argued that women's success depends on their ability to manage and mediate by speaking and writing effectively.[86]

Pizan specifically sought out other women to collaborate in the creation of her work. She makes special mention of a manuscript illustrator we know only as "Anastasia, whom she described as the most talented of her day.[87]

Influence[edit]

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Queen "Fredegund addressing her troops holding her baby. Miniature from a 1475 Dutch translation of The Book of the City of Ladies. Published under the title De Stede der Vrouwen (The Praise of Women).[88]
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Page 1 of The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry. Translated into English and printed in 1489 by "William Caxton.

Pizan published 41 known pieces of poetry and prose in her lifetime and she gained fame across Europe as the first professional woman writer. She achieved such credibility that royalty commissioned her prose and contemporary intellectuals kept copies of her works in their libraries.[89]

After her death in 1430 Pizan's influence was acknowledged by a variety of authors and her writings remained popular. Her book "Le Livre de la cité des dames remained in print. Portuguese and Dutch editions of it exist from the 15th century, and French editions were still being printed in 1536.[90] In 1521 The Book of the City of Ladies was published in English.[91] Pizan's Le Livre des trois vertus ("The Treasure of the City of Ladies) became an important reference point for royal women in the 15th and 16th century. "Anne of France, who acted as regent of France, used it as a basis for her 1504 book of Enseignemens, written for her daughter "Suzanne Duchess of Bourbon, who as agnatic heir to the Bourbon lands became co-regent. Pizan's advice to princesses was translated and circulated as manuscript or printed book among the royal families of France and Portugal.[92] The City of Ladies was acknowledged and referenced by 16th century French women writers, including "Anne de Beaujeu, Gabrielle de Bourbon, "Marguerite de Navarre and "Georgette de Montenay.[93]

Pizan's political writings received some attention too. Livre de la paix was referenced by the humanist "Gabriel Naudé and Pizan was given large entries in "encyclopedias by "Denis Diderot, "Louis Moréri and "Prosper Marchand.[94] In 1470 "Jean V de Bueil reproduced Pizan's detailed accounts of the armies and material needed to defend a castle or town against a "siege in Le Jouvence.[95] Livre des fais d'armes et de chevalerie was published in its entirety by the book printer "Antoine Vérard in 1488, but Vérard claimed that it was his translation of "Vegetius.[96] Philippe Le Noir authored an abridged version of Pizan's book in 1527 under the title L'Arbre des Batailles et fleur de chevalerie (The tree of battles and flower of chivalry).[97]

Livre des fais d'armes et de chevalerie was translated into English by "William Caxton for "Henry VII in 1489 and was published under the title The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry as print one year later,[98] attributing Pizan as author.[99] English editions of The Book of the City of Ladies and Livre du corps de policie (The Book of the Body Politic) were printed in 1521 without referencing Pizan as the author. "Elizabeth I had in her court library copies of The Book of the City of Ladies, L'Épistre de Othéa a Hector (Letter of Othea to Hector) and The Book of Feats of Arms and of Chivalry. Among the possessions of the English queen were tapestries with scenes from the City of Ladies. [100] However, when in the early 19th century Raimond Thomassy published an overview of Pizan’s political writings, he noted that modern editions of these writings were not published and that as a political theorist Pizan was descending into obscurity. [101]

While Pizan’s mixture of "classical philosophy and "humanistic ideals was in line with the style of other popular authors at the time, her outspoken defence of women was an anomaly. In her works she vindicated women against popular misogynist texts, such as "Ovid’s Art of Love, "Jean de Meun’s Romance of the Rose and "Matheolus’s Lamentations. Her activism has drawn the fascination of modern feminists.[102] "Simone de Beauvoir wrote in 1949 that Épître au Dieu d'Amour was "the first time we see a woman take up her pen in defence of her sex".[103]

The 1979 artwork "The Dinner Party features a place setting for Christine de Pizan.[104] In the 1980s Sandra Hindman published a study of the political events reverenced in the illuminations of Pizan’s published works. [105]

List of works[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. by Rosalind Brown-Grant (London: Penguin Books, 1999), introduction.
  2. ^ a b Redfern, Jenny, "Christine de Pisan and The Treasure of the City of Ladies: A Medieval Rhetorician and Her Rhetoric" in Lunsford, Andrea A, ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women and in the Rhetorical Tradition, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995, p. 77.
  3. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 133. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  4. ^ Charity C. Willard, Christine de Pizan: Her Life and Works (New York: Persea Books, 1984, p. 35.
  5. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 133. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  6. ^ Pizan, ed. by Brown-Grant, introduction.
  7. ^ Charity C. Willard, Christine de Pizan: Her Life and Works (New York: Persea Books, 1984, p. 39.
  8. ^ Famiglietti, R.C. (2015). Audouin Chauveron. 2. p. 261. 
  9. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 133. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  10. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 68. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  11. ^ "Christine de Pizan and the Book of the Queen". British Library. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2018. 
  12. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 133. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  13. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 5. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  14. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 14. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  15. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 6. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  16. ^ Tracy Adams (2014). Christine de Pizan and the Fight for France. Penn State Press. pp. 115–116. "ISBN "9780271066332. 
  17. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 71. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  18. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 34. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  19. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 20. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  20. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 34. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  21. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 134. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  22. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 20. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  23. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 198. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  24. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  25. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 197. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  26. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 198. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  27. ^ Charity C. Willard, Christine de Pizan: Her Life and Works (New York: Persea Books, 1984), p.73
  28. ^ Maureen Quilligan, The Allegory of Female Authority: Christine de Pizan's "Cité des Dames" (New York: Cornell University Press, 1991), p. 40.
  29. ^ Margaret C. Schaus (2006). Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 133. "ISBN "9781135459604. 
  30. ^ Barbara K. Altmann & Deborah L. McGrady (2003). Christine de Pizan: A Casebook. Routledge. p. 11. "ISBN "9780415939096. 
  31. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 26. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  32. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 34. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  33. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 11. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  34. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 26. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  35. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 27. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  36. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 198. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  37. ^ Tracy Adams (2014). Christine de Pizan and the Fight for France. Penn State Press. pp. 115–116. "ISBN "9780271066332. 
  38. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 29. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  39. ^ Tracy Adams (2014). Christine de Pizan and the Fight for France. Penn State Press. pp. 115–116. "ISBN "9780271066332. 
  40. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 6. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  41. ^ Langdon Forhan, Kate (2017). The Political Theory of Christine de Pizan. Taylor & Francis. p. 70. "ISBN "9781351883948. 
  42. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 5. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  43. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  44. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 6. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  45. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  46. ^ Whetham, David (2009). Just Wars and Moral Victories: Surprise, Deception and the Normative Framework of European War in the Later Middle Ages. BRILL. p. 61. "ISBN "9789004171534. 
  47. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  48. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 13. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  49. ^ Jennifer R. Goodman & Jennifer Robin Goodman (1998). Chivalry and Exploration, 1298-1630. Boydell & Brewer. p. 147. "ISBN "9780851157009. 
  50. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 5. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  51. ^ Whetham, David (2009). Just Wars and Moral Victories: Surprise, Deception and the Normative Framework of European War in the Later Middle Ages. BRILL. pp. 62–63. "ISBN "9789004171534. 
  52. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 7. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  53. ^ Whetham, David (2009). Just Wars and Moral Victories: Surprise, Deception and the Normative Framework of European War in the Later Middle Ages. BRILL. pp. 62–63. "ISBN "9789004171534. 
  54. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 6. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  55. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 13. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  56. ^ Allen, Prudence (2005). The Concept of Woman: The Early Humanist Reformation, 1250-1500, Part 2. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 654. "ISBN "9780802833471. 
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  84. ^ Bejczy, Istvan P. (2011). "Chapter 1: Does Virtue Recognise Gender? Christine de Pizan's City of Ladies in the Light of Scholastic Debate". In Green, Karen; Mews, Constant. Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. Springer. pp. 10–11. "ISBN "9789400705296. 
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  87. ^ Christine de Pizan: An illuminated Voice By Doré Ripley, 2004 Accessed October 2007
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  90. ^ Redfern, Jenny R. (1955). "Chapter 5: The Treasure of the City of Ladies: A Medieval Rhetorical and Her Rhetoric". In Lunsford, Andrea A. Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 75. "ISBN "9780822971658. 
  91. ^ Redfern, Jenny R. (1955). "Chapter 5: The Treasure of the City of Ladies: A Medieval Rhetorical and Her Rhetoric". In Lunsford, Andrea A. Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 75. "ISBN "9780822971658. 
  92. ^ Marilynn Desmond, ed. (1998). Christine de Pizan and the Categories of Difference. University of Minnesota Press. p. 34. "ISBN "9780816630813. 
  93. ^ Barbara K. Altmann & Deborah L. McGrady (2003). Christine de Pizan: A Casebook. Routledge. p. 57. "ISBN "9780415939096. 
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  95. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 7. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  96. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 1. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  97. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 2. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  98. ^ Whetham, David (2009). Just Wars and Moral Victories: Surprise, Deception and the Normative Framework of European War in the Later Middle Ages. BRILL. p. 62. "ISBN "9789004171534. 
  99. ^ Charity Cannon Willard & Sumner Willard (2010). Preface - Book of Deeds of Arms and of Chivalry. Penn State Press. p. 1. "ISBN "9780271043050. 
  100. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. pp. 30–31. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  101. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780271045573. 
  102. ^ Redfern, Jenny R. (1955). "Chapter 5: The Treasure of the City of Ladies: A Medieval Rhetorical and Her Rhetoric". In Lunsford, Andrea A. Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 75. "ISBN "9780822971658. 
  103. ^ Schneir, Miriam. "Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings". Vintage Books. 
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  105. ^ Karen Green (2010). Preface - The Book of Peace. Penn State Press. p. 3. "ISBN "9780271045573. 

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