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"Carlo Dolci, Madonna in Glory, c. 1670, oil on canvas, "Stanford Museum, California

A circle of stars often represents unity, solidarity and "harmony in "flags,[1] "seals[2] and "signs, and is also seen in "iconographic "motifs related to the "Woman of the Apocalypse as well as in "Baroque "allegoric "art that sometimes depicts the "Crown of Immortality.

Contents

Woman of the Apocalypse[edit]

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Diego Velázquez's Immaculate Conception 1618.

The "New Testament's "Book of Revelation (12:1, 2 & 5) describes the "Woman of the Apocalypse: And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. And she being with child cried, travailing in birth .... And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron:and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne[3] In "Catholic tradition she has been identified with the "Blessed Virgin Mary, especially in connection with the "Immaculate Conception. Mary is often pictured with a "crown[4] or Circle of Stars.

The doctrine of the "Immaculate Conception was somewhat controversial in the medieval church, and the liturgical Office for the feast was only established in 1615. In 1649, "Francisco Pacheco (father-in-law of "Velázquez) published his Art of Painting firmly establishing the detailed correct iconography for paintings of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, which included the circle of stars (he also advised the "inquisition in Seville on artistic matters). This was followed by "Murillo and his school in very many paintings, and influenced non-Spanish depictions.[5][6]

European Flag[edit]

The European flag consists of 12 golden stars in a circle on a blue background. The stars symbolise the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe.[7] The number of stars has nothing to do with the number of member countries, though the circle is a symbol of unity.[7] The European flag, first adopted by the "Council of Europe is the symbol of "Europe's unity and identity in a wider sense, as well as the "European Union.[7]

"Arsène Heitz, one of the flag designers, in 1987 revealed that his inspiration was the crown of twelve stars of the "Woman of the Apocalypse, often found in modern "Marian iconography.[8] However, he did not suggest that the finished design held a religious meaning. "Paul M. G. Lévy, the official responsible the design process, denied any religious inspiration for the flag design.[9][10]

In 1983, the European Parliament adopted the flag. In 1985, it was adopted by all EU leaders as the official emblem of the European Communities, and in 1993 inherited by the successor organisation, the European Union. All European institutions now use an emblem of their own.[7]

Zodiac[edit]

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6th century synagogue Zodiac, Beit Alpha, Israel

The "Zodiac is an ancient circle of stars[11] where some stars are "symbolically combined into 12 "Star signs also known as "constellations. The etymology of the term "Zodiac comes from the Latin zōdiacus, from the Greek ζῳδιακός [κύκλος], meaning "[circle] of animals", derived from ζῴδιον, the diminutive of ζῷον "animal".

Crown of Immortality[edit]

The "Crown of Immortality is a separate and earlier motif (and "metaphor) which also uses a circle of stars. It has been widely used since the Early Church as a metaphor for the reward awaiting martyrs, but they are not depicted in art wearing a circle of stars.["citation needed] In art the use is mainly in Baroque allegorical compositions, and those with "Ariadne.

Art Gallery[edit]

Religious[edit]

Non religious[edit]

Flags[edit]

Seals[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of the European Union flag". 
  2. ^ "FBI Heraldic Circle of Stars". 
  3. ^ "New Testament Revelation 12:1, & 5". 
  4. ^ "The Revelation of St John". 
  5. ^ "Circle of stars Detailed analysis" (PDF). www.coleccionbbva.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  6. ^ "What do the 12 stars". www.eduqna.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d "The European Flag". The European Union. 
  8. ^ "Real politics, at last". "The Economist. 2004-10-28. Retrieved 2011-08-14. 
  9. ^ Carlo Curti Gialdino, I Simboli dell'Unione europea, Bandiera - Inno - Motto - Moneta - Giornata. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato S.p.A., 2005. "ISBN "88-240-2503-X, pp. 80-85. Gialdino is here cited after a translation of the Italian text published by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe (cvce.eu)
  10. ^ European Union: Myths on the flag, "Flags Of The World, 2002 [1995], retrieved 4 August 2007  "While Count Coudenhove-Kalergi in a personal statement maintained that three leading Catholics within the Council had subconciously chosen the twelve stars on the model of Apocalypse 12:1, Paul M.G. Lévy, Press Officer of the Council from 1949 to 1966, explained in 1989 that there was no religious intention whatsoever associated with the choice of the circle of twelve stars." Peter Diem, 11 June 2002
  11. ^ Jeffrey Armstrong | A Western Master of Eastern Wisdom
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