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See also: "Withdrawal from the European Union

The general rule for losing EU citizenship is that European citizenship is lost if member state nationality is lost,[60] but the automatic loss of EU citizenship as a result of a member state withdrawing from the EU is the subject of debate.[61]

One school of legal thought indicates that the Maastricht treaty created the European Union as a legal entity, it then also created the status of EU citizen which gave an individual relationship between the EU and its citizens, and a status of EU citizen. Clemens Rieder suggests a case can be made that "[n]one of the Member States were forced to confer the status of EU citizenship on their citizens but once they have, according to this argument, they cannot simply withdraw this status.". In this situation, no EU citizen would involuntarily lose their citizenship due to their nation's withdrawal from the EU.[61]

Another school of legal thought indicates that the Maastricht treaty created the European Union as a legal entity, but it does not have a direct legal relationship with its citizens and EU citizenship is not comparable with any other citizenships and is not additional to the member state citizenship. EU citizenship is only a special feature that member states can offer their citizens. The relationship between an EU citizen and the EU as an organization, is therefore only legally through the member state. In this situation, when the member country leaves, the ex-member country can no longer offer that special feature to its citizens, thus (for example with respect to "Brexit) British citizens would no longer be EU citizens.[62]["not in citation given]["need quotation to verify]

It is likely that only a court case before the European Court of Justice would be able to properly determine the correct legal position in this regard, as there is no definitive legal certainty in this area.


All citizens of "Greenland are eligible for EU citizenship under its "OCT status, even following "Greenland's withdrawal from the EU in 1985, because they remain eligible for Danish passports (which confer EU citizenship) or Greenlandic (which do not).[63] Greenland however was not a member state of the EU and is not a sovereign nation state, unlike for example the United Kingdom.

Danish opt-out[edit]

Opt-outs in the European Union

Denmark obtained four opt-outs from the Maastricht Treaty following the treaty's initial rejection in a "1992 referendum. The opt-outs are outlined in the "Edinburgh Agreement and concern the EMU (as above), the "Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), "Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) and the citizenship of the European Union. The citizenship opt-out stated that European citizenship did not replace national citizenship; this opt-out was rendered meaningless when the "Amsterdam Treaty adopted the same wording for all members. The policy of recent Danish governments has been to hold referendums to abolish these opt-outs, including formally abolishing the citizenship opt-out which is still technically active even if redundant.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "EU citizenship - European Commission". 
  2. ^ Article 20(2)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  4. ^ Uprawnienia wynikające z obywatelstwa UE
  5. ^ The Four Freedoms
  6. ^ "The citizens of the Union and their rights - EU fact sheets - European Parliament". 
  7. ^ a b Impact of EU membership on equality and human rights
  8. ^ "Protection of personal data - European Commission". 
  9. ^ Co nam daje obywatelstwo Unii Europejskiej – czyli korzyści płynące z obywatelstwa UE
  10. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Denmark. "The Danish Opt-Outs". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 
  11. ^ Article 69.
  12. ^ Title 3.
  13. ^ a b Craig, P.; de Búrca, G. (2003). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (3rd ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 706–711. "ISBN "0-19-925608-X. 
  14. ^ a b c Case 53/81 D.M. Levin v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  15. ^ Case 139/85 R. H. Kempf v Staatssecretaris van Justitie.
  16. ^ Joined cases 286/82 and 26/83 Graziana Luisi and Giuseppe Carbone v Ministero del Tesoro.
  17. ^ Case 186/87 Ian William Cowan v Trésor public.
  18. ^ Advocate General Jacobs' Opinion in Case C-274/96 Criminal proceedings against Horst Otto Bickel and Ulrich Franz at paragraph [19].
  19. ^ Case C-85/96 María Martínez Sala v Freistaat Bayern.
  20. ^ "EEA Agreement". European Free Trade Association. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "Switzerland". European Commission. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  22. ^ a b c d Treaty on the Function of the European Union (consolidated version)
  23. ^ This right also extends to "any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State": Treaty of Rome (consolidated version), Article 194.
  24. ^ "Antigua and Barbuda (UK), "Barbados (UK), "Belize (UK), "Central African Republic (France), "Comoros (France), "Gambia (UK), "Guyana (UK), "Liberia (Germany), "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (UK), "San Marino (Italy), "São Tomé and Príncipe (Portugal), "Solomon Islands (UK), "Timor-Leste (Portugal), "Vanuatu (France)
  25. ^ a b Case C-184/99 Rudy Grzelczyk v Centre public d'aide sociale d'Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve .
  26. ^ a b Case C-413/99 Baumbast and R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, para. [85]-[91].
  27. ^ Now article 20
  28. ^ Durham European Law Institute, European Law Lecture 2005, p. 5.
  29. ^ a b Anthony Arnull; Alan Dashwood; Michael Dougan; Malcolm Ross; Eleanor Spaventa; Derrick Wyatt (2006). European Union Law (5th ed.). Sweet & Maxwell. "ISBN "978-0-421-92560-1. 
  30. ^ Dougan, M. (2006). "The constitutional dimension to the case law on Union citizenship". European Law Review. 31 (5): 613–641. . See also Case C-209/03 R (Dany Bidar) v. London Borough of Ealing and Secretary of State for Education and Skills, para. [56]-[59].
  31. ^ "European Commission. "Right of Union citizens and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States". Retrieved 26 December 2007. 
  32. ^ Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States.
  33. ^ a b "Free movement of labour in the EU 27". Euractiv. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  34. ^ "Work permits". Your Europe - Citizens. 
  35. ^ "UK bill proposing work restrictions on Croatian nationals". 18 October 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  36. ^ Case C-396/90 Micheletti v. Delegación del Gobierno en Cantabria, which established that dual-nationals of a Member State and a non-Member State were entitled to freedom of movement; case C-192/99 R v. Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex p. Manjit Kaur. It is not an abuse of process to acquire nationality in a Member State solely to take advantage of free movement rights in other Member States: case C-200/02 Kunqian Catherine Zhu and Man Lavette Chen v Secretary of State for the Home Department.
  37. ^ Dronkers, J. and M. Vink (2012). Explaining Access to Citizenship in Europe: How Policies Affect Naturalisation Rates. European Union Politics 13(3) 390-412; Vink, M. and G.R. de Groot (2010). Citizenship Attribution in Western Europe: International Framework and Domestic Trends. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5) 713-734.
  38. ^ Wikisource: Declaration by the UK on 31 December 1982 on the definition of the term "nationals"
  39. ^ British Overseas Territories Act 2002, s.3(2)
  40. ^ Protocol 3 to the 1972 Accession Treaty
  41. ^ Protocol 2 to the 1972 Accession Treaty
  42. ^ See the EUDO Citizenship Observatory for a comprehensive database with information on regulations on the acquisition and loss of citizenship across Europe.
  43. ^ " - Закони, правилници, конституция, кодекси, държавен вестник, правилници по прилагане". 
  44. ^
  45. ^ "Dobbelt statsborgerskab". 
  46. ^ "Citizenship Act". 
  47. ^
  48. ^ "Criteria underlying legislation concerning citizenship". Ministero Dell'Interno. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10. Retrieved June 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= ("help)
  49. ^ DELFI (26 May 2013). "Двойное гражданство: у посольств Латвии прибавится работы". DELFI. 
  50. ^ "PMLP - Error 404". 
  51. ^ Losing Dutch nationality
  52. ^ Renouncing your current nationality
  53. ^
  54. ^ "Slovak Citizenship Requirements & Application". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  55. ^ Futej & Partners, Memorandum: Extensive amendment to the act on Slovak state citizenship (PDF), Bratislava 
  56. ^
  57. ^ Law (2001:82) on Swedish citizenship
  58. ^ "Krav för medborgarskap för dig som är nordisk medborgare" (in Swedish). Migrationsverket. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  59. ^ a b "Become a British citizen". 
  60. ^
  61. ^ a b
  62. ^
  63. ^ "Passport - Greenlandic and Danish". Retrieved 31 January 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

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