Civil rights guarantee equal protection under the law. When civil and political rights are not guaranteed to all as part of "equal protection of "laws, or when such guarantees exist on paper but are not respected in practice, opposition, legal action and even "social unrest may ensue.
Some historians suggest that "New Orleans was the cradle of the civil rights movement in the United States, due to the earliest efforts of Creoles to integrate the military en masse. W.C.C. Claiborne, appointed by Thomas Jefferson to be governor of the Territory of Orleans, formally accepted delivery of the French colony on December 20, 1803. Free men of color had been members of the militia for decades under both Spanish and French control of the colony of Louisiana. They volunteered their services and pledged their loyalty to Claiborne and to their newly adopted country.
But in early 1804, the new U.S. administration in New Orleans, under Governor Claiborne, was faced with a dilemma previously unknown in the United States, i.e., the integration of the military by incorporating entire units of previously established "colored" militia. See, e.g., the February 20, 1804 letter to Claiborne from Secretary of War Henry Dearborn that "it would be prudent not to increase the Corps, but to diminish, if it could be done without giving offense".
Civil Rights movements in the United States gathered steam by 1848 with such documents as the Declaration of Sentiment.["full citation needed] Consciously modeled after the "Declaration of Independence, the "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments became the founding document of the American women's movement, and it was adopted at the Seneca Falls Convention, July 19 and 20, 1848.["full citation needed]
Worldwide, several "political movements for "equality before the law occurred between approximately 1950 and 1980. These movements had a legal and constitutional aspect, and resulted in much law-making at both national and international levels. They also had an activist side, particularly in situations where violations of rights were widespread. Movements with the proclaimed aim of securing observance of civil and political rights included:
- the "1950s and 1960s Civil Rights Movement in the United States, where rights of black citizens had been violated;
- the "Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association, formed in 1967 following failures in this province of the "United Kingdom to respect the Roman Catholic minority's rights; and
- movements in many Communist countries, such as the "Prague Spring and "Charter 77 in "Czechoslovakia and the uprisings in Hungary.
Most civil rights movements relied on the technique of "civil resistance, using "nonviolent methods to achieve their aims. In some countries, struggles for civil rights were accompanied, or followed, by "civil unrest and even armed rebellion. While civil rights movements over the last sixty years have resulted in an extension of civil and political rights, the process was long and tenuous in many countries, and many of these movements did not achieve or fully achieve their objectives.
Problems and analysis
Questions about civil and political rights have frequently emerged. For example, to what extent should the government intervene to protect individuals from infringement on their rights by other "individuals, or from "corporations — e.g., in what way should "employment discrimination in the "private sector be dealt with?
"Political theory deals with civil and political rights. "Robert Nozick and "John Rawls expressed competing visions in Nozick's "Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Rawls' "A Theory of Justice. Other influential authors in the area include "Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld, and "Jean Edward Smith.
First-generation rights, often called "blue" rights, deal essentially with liberty and participation in political life. They are fundamentally civil and political in nature, as well as strongly "individualistic: They serve "negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state. First-generation rights include, among other things, "freedom of speech, the "right to a fair trial, (in some countries) the "right to keep and bear arms, "freedom of religion and "voting rights. They were pioneered in the "United States by the "Bill of Rights and in "France by the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in the 18th century, although some of these rights and the right to due process date back to the "Magna Carta of 1215 and the "Rights of Englishmen, which were expressed in the "English Bill of Rights in 1689.
They were enshrined at the global level and given status in "international law first by Articles 3 to 21 of the 1948 "Universal Declaration of Human Rights and later in the 1966 "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In Europe, they were enshrined in the "European Convention on Human Rights in 1953.
- "African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968)
- "Bill of rights
- "Calculating Visions: Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights (book)
- "Civil death
- "Civil libertarianism
- "Civil liberties
- "Civil liberties in the United Kingdom
- "Civil resistance
- "Civil society
- "Constitutional economics
- "Division of powers
- "Flex Your Rights
- "Liberal democracy
- "List of civil rights leaders
- "Marion C. Bascom
- "Natural and legal rights
- "Negative and positive rights
- "Non-aggression principle
- "Police power
- "Proactive policing
- "Public interest
- "Rule According to Higher Law
- "Rule of law
- "Three generations of human rights
- "Universal suffrage
Texas Lawyer Referral Service 
- The Civil Rights act of 1964, ourdocuments.gov
- Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, accessboard.gov
- Summary of LGBT civil rights protections, by state, at Lambda Legal, lambdalegal.org
- A useful survey is Paul Sieghart, The Lawful Rights of Mankind: An Introduction to the International Legal Code of Human Rights, Oxford University Press, 1985.
- Mears, T. Lambert, Analysis of M. Ortolan's Institutes of Justinian, Including the History and, p. 75.
- Fahlbusch, Erwin and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4, p. 703.
- "Human Rights: 1500-1760 - Background". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
- House Bill 4
- Mark Nugent (July 23, 2013). "The Fight for Food Rights (Review of Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Food Rights: The Escalating Battle Over Who Decides What We Eat by David Gumpert)". The American Conservative. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Robert Book (March 23, 2012). "The Real Broccoli Mandate". Forbes. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Meredith Bragg & Nick Gillspie (June 21, 2013). "Cheese Lovers Fight Idiotic FDA Ban on Mimolette Cheese!". Reason. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Jessica Flanigan (July 26, 2012). "Three arguments against prescription requirements" (PDF). Journal of Medical Ethics. 38: 579–586. "doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100240. "PMID 22844026. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Kerry Howley (August 1, 2005). "Self-Medicating in Burma: Pharmaceutical freedom in an outpost of tyranny". Reason. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- Daniel Schorn (February 11, 2009). "Prisoner Of Pain". 60 Minutes. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- Emily Dufton (Mar 28, 2012). "The War on Drugs: Should It Be Your Right to Use Narcotics?". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Doug Bandow (2012). "From Fighting the Drug War to Protecting the Right to Use Drugs - Recognizing a Forgotten Liberty". Towards a Worldwide Index of Human Freedom (PDF). Chapter 10. Fraser Institute. pp. 253–280.
- Thomas Szasz (1992). Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market. Praeger.
- Eaton, Fernin. "Louisiana's Free People of Color-Digitization Grant-letter in support". Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Carter, Clarence (1940). The Territorial Papers of the United States, Vol. IX, The Territory of Orleans. p. 174.
- Eaton, Fernin. "1811 Slave Uprising, etc". Salon Publique, Pitot House, November 7, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Rowland, Dunbar (1917). Official Letter Books of W.C.C. Claiborne, 1801-1816. 2. Mississippi Dept. of Archives & History. pp. 54–55.
- "Signatures to the Seneca Falls Convention 'Declaration of Sentiments'". American History Online, Facts On File, Inc.
- Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn. "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments". Encyclopedia of Women's History in America, Second Edition. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2000. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc.
- "Adam Roberts and "Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009. Includes chapters by specialists on the various movements.
|"Library resources about
Civil and political rights
- Altman, Andrew. "Civil Rights". "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle ~ an online multimedia encyclopedia presented by the King Institute at Stanford University, includes information on over 1000 civil rights movement figures, events and organizations
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Article on Civil Rights Movement
- The History Channel: Civil Rights Movement
- Civil Rights: Beyond Black & White - slideshow by "Life magazine
- Civil Rights in America: Connections to a Movement
- Civil rights during the Eisenhower Administration, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- The Categories of Human Rights in the Philippines, from Gancayco Balasbas & Associates Law Offices