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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
ɤ̈
"IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
"X-SAMPA @\
"Kirshenbaum @<umd>
"Braille ""⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ""⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Listen
""source · "help

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of "vowel sound, used in some spoken "languages. The symbol in the "International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɘ⟩. This is a mirrored letter e, and should not be confused with the "schwa"ə⟩, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ë⟩ (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). Certain older sources[2] transcribe this vowel ⟨ɤ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɘ⟩ letter may be used with a "lowering diacriticɘ̞⟩, to denote the "mid central unrounded vowel.

To type this symbol on "Windows, press and hold the ALT key while typing "600" using the number pad keys.

Contents

Features[edit]

"IPA: "Vowels
"Front "Central "Back
"Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
•
"i
"y
•
•
"u
•
•
•
"e
•
•
"o
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
"a
•
•
"Near-close
"Close-mid
"Mid
"Open-mid
"Near-open
"Open

Paired vowels are: "unrounded  rounded

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word "IPA Meaning Notes
"Cotabato Manobo[3] ["example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
"Azerbaijani Standard ["example needed] Typically transcribed as /ɯ/.
"Dinka Luanyjang[4] ŋeŋ [ŋɘ́ŋ] 'jawbone' Short allophone of /e/.[4]
"English "Australian[5][6] "bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. See "Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[7] [bɘ˞ːd] Rhotacized.
"Cardiff[8] "foot [fɘt] 'foot' Less often rounded ["ɵ];[9] corresponds to ["ʊ] in other dialects. See "English phonology
"New Zealand[10] "bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See "New Zealand English phonology
"Southern American[11] "nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[11] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See "English phonology
"Estonian[12] "kõrv [kɘrv] 'ear' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩; can be close-mid back ["ɤ] or close back ["ɯ] instead, depending on the speaker.[12] See "Estonian phonology
"German Standard[13] "bitte ""About this sound [ˈbɪtɘ]  'please' Also described as mid ["ə].[14][15] See "Standard German phonology
Many speakers[16] "Irrtum [ˈɘːtuːm] 'error' Common alternative to the centering diphthong [ɪɐ̯].[16] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨː⟩. See "Standard German phonology
"Irish "Munster[17] "sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed in IPA with [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-"palatal slender consonants.[17] See "Irish phonology
"Jebero[18] [ˈiʃɘk] 'bat'
"Kaingang[19] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back ["ɤ].[20]
Kalagan Kaagan[21] [miˈwɘːʔ] 'lost' Allophone of /ɨ/ in word-final stressed syllables before /ʔ/; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[21]
"Kensiu[22] [ɟɘ˞h] 'to trim' Rhotacized; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɚ⟩.[22]
"Kera[23] [t͡ʃɘ̄wā̠a̠] 'fire' Allophone of /a/; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[23]
"Korean[24] " [ɘːɾɯ̽n] 'senior' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨əː⟩. See "Korean phonology
"Lizu[25] [Fkɘ] 'eagle' Allophone of /ə/ after velar stops.[25]
"Mapudungun[26] "elün [ë̝ˈlɘn] 'to leave (something)'
"Mongolian[27] "үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
"Mono[28] dœ [dɘ] 'be (equative)' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[28]
"Norwegian "Urban East[29] "sterkeste [²stæɾkɘstɘ] 'the strongest' Also described as mid ["ə];[30] occurs only in unstressed syllables. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. Some dialects (e.g. "Trondheimsk) lack this sound.[31] See "Norwegian phonology
"Polish[32] "tymczasowy ""About this sound [t̪ɘ̟mt͡ʂäˈs̪ɔvɘ̟]  'temporary' Somewhat fronted;[32] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩. See "Polish phonology
"Romanian Moldavian dialects[33] "casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to ["ə] in standard Romanian. See "Romanian phonology
"Russian Some speakers[34] "солнце ""About this sound [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ]  'sun' Unstressed allophone of /ɨ/ after /t͡s/; other speakers realize it as near-close ["ɨ̞].[34] See "Russian phonology
"Shiwiar[35] ["example needed]
"Temne[36] pər [pɘ́r] 'incite' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[36]
"Vietnamese[37] "v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See "Vietnamese phonology
"Xumi Upper[38] [LPmɘ̃dɐ] 'upstairs' Nasalized; occurs only in this word.[38] It is realized as mid ["ə̃] in Lower Xumi.[39]
"Zapotec "Tilquiapan[40] ne [nɘ] 'and' Most common realization of /e/.[40]

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the "International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for "vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ For example Collins & Mees (1990).
  3. ^ Kerr (1988:110)
  4. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009:117, 119)
  5. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  6. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  7. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:93)
  9. ^ Collins & Mees (1990:92)
  10. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  11. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  12. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), pp. 368–369.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  14. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  15. ^ Lodge (2009:87)
  16. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34, 52). The source transcribes this sound with the symbol ⟨ɨː⟩, but describes it as a strongly centralized (not "raised and centralized") [ɪ], which it describes as close-mid.
  17. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  18. ^ Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  19. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  20. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  21. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978:198)
  22. ^ a b Bishop (1996:230)
  23. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  24. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  25. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013a:79)
  26. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  27. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  28. ^ a b Olson (2004:235)
  29. ^ Popperwell (2010), p. 16, 31–32.
  30. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  31. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 21.
  32. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105) The source transcribes this sound with the symbol /ɨ/ but one can see from the vowel chart at pag. 105 that the Polish sound is closer to [ɘ] than to [ɨ]
  33. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  34. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  35. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  36. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  37. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  38. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:389)
  39. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013b:370)
  40. ^ a b Merrill (2008:109–110)

Bibliography[edit]

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