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Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
"IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
"X-SAMPA e
"Kirshenbaum e
"Braille ""⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Listen
""source · "help

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of "vowel sound, used in some spoken "languages. The symbol in the "International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.

For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see "near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here.

Contents

Features[edit]

"IPA: "Vowels
"Front "Central "Back
"Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
•
"i
"y
•
•
"u
•
•
•
•
•
"o
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
"a
•
•
"Near-close
"Close-mid
"Mid
"Open-mid
"Near-open
"Open

Paired vowels are: "unrounded  rounded

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word "IPA Meaning Notes
"Afrikaans Standard[2] "bed [bet] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛ⟩. The height varies between close-mid [e] and mid ["ɛ̝].[2] See "Afrikaans phonology
"Azerbaijani ["example needed]
"Bavarian "Amstetten dialect[3] ["example needed]
"Catalan[4] "més [mes] 'more' See "Catalan phonology
"Chinese "Shanghainese[5] " [ke̠ʔ¹] 'should' Near-front; realization of /ɛ/, which appears only in open syllables. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ (["ɪ̞]), which appears only in closed syllables.[5]
"Czech Brno accent[6] "led [let] 'ice' Corresponds to ["ɛ ~ "ɛ̠ ~ "ɛ̝̈] in standard Czech.[7] See "Czech phonology
"Danish Standard[8][9] "hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Realized as mid ["ɛ̝ː] in the conservative variety;[10] most often, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. See "Danish phonology
"Dutch "Belgian[11] "vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often "diphthongized to [eɪ]. See "Dutch phonology
"English "Australian[12] "bed [bed] 'bed' See "Australian English phonology
"General American[13] "may [meː] 'may' Most often a closing diphthong [eɪ].[13]
"General Indian[14]
"General Pakistani[15] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
"Geordie[16]
"Scottish[17]
"Singaporean[18]
"Ulster[19] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Some "Cardiff speakers[20] "square [skweː] 'square' More often open-mid ["ɛː].[20]
"Estonian[21] "keha [ˈkeɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See "Estonian phonology
"Faroese[22] "frekur [ˈfɹeː(ʰ)kʊɹ] 'greedy' May be a diphthong [eɛː ~ eəː] instead.[23] See "Faroese phonology
"French[24][25] "beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See "French phonology
"Georgian[26] "მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
"German Standard[27][28] "Seele ""About this sound [ˈzeːlə] 'soul' See "Standard German phonology
Many speakers[29] "Jäger [ˈjeːɡɐ] 'hunter' Outcome of the /ɛː–eː/ merger found universally in Northern Germany, Eastern Germany and Eastern Austria (often even in formal speech) and in some other regions.[29] See "Standard German phonology
Southern accents[30] "Bett [bet] 'bed' Common realization of /ɛ/ in Southern Germany, Switzerland and Austria.[30] See "Standard German phonology
Swabian accent[30] Contrasts with the open-mid ["ɛ].[30] See "Standard German phonology
"Greek "Sfakian[31] ["example needed] Corresponds to mid ["] in Modern Standard Greek.[32] See "Modern Greek phonology
"Hungarian[33] "hét [heːt̪] 'seven' Also described as mid ["e̞ː].[34] See "Hungarian phonology
"Italian[35] "stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See "Italian phonology
"Kaingang[36] kre [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
"Korean "모레 / "more [moɾe] 'the day after tomorrow' See "Korean phonology
"Limburgish Most dialects[37][38][39] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the "Maastrichtian dialect.
"Lower Sorbian[40] měŕ [merʲ] 'measure!' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[40]
"Luxembourgish[41] drécken [ˈdʀekə̹n] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with ["ɛ].[41] See "Luxembourgish phonology
"Norwegian "Urban East[42] "le [leː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See "Norwegian phonology
"Persian سه [se] 'three'
"Polish[43] "dzień ""About this sound [d͡ʑeɲ̟] 'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See "Polish phonology
"Portuguese[44] "mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See "Portuguese phonology
"Romanian Muntenian dialects[45] "vezi [vezʲ] '(you) see' Corresponds to mid ["] in standard Romanian. See "Romanian phonology
"Russian[46] "шея ""About this sound [ˈʂejə] 'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See "Russian phonology
"Saterland Frisian[47] tään [te̠ːn] 'thin' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɛː⟩. Phonetically, it is nearly identical to /ɪ/ (["ɪ̞]). The vowel typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ is actually near-close ["e̝ː].[47]
"Shiwiar[48] ["example needed] Allophone of /a/.[48]
"Slovak Standard[49] "dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' In standard Slovak, the backness varies between front and near-front; most commonly, it is realized as mid ["e̞ː] instead.[50] See "Slovak phonology
Dialects spoken near the river "Ipeľ[33]
"Sotho[51] "ho jwetsa [hʊ̠ʒʷet͡sʼɑ̈] 'to tell' Contrasts close, near-close and close-mid front unrounded vowels.[51] See "Sotho phonology
"Swedish Central Standard[52][53] "se [s̪eː] 'see' Often diphthongized to [eə̯] (hear the word: ""About this sound [s̪eə̯]). See "Swedish phonology
"Tahitian vahine [vahine] 'woman'
"Upper Sorbian[40][54] wem [ɥem] 'I know' Diphthongized to [i̯ɛ] in slow speech.[40][55] See "Upper Sorbian phonology
"Yoruba[56] ["example needed]
"Zapotec "Tilquiapan[57] zied [zied̪] ["translation needed] Allophone of /e/ that occurs mostly after /i/. In other environments, the most common realization is central ["ɘ].[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the "International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for "vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded mid-front vowel /ɛ/".
  3. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  5. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  6. ^ Palková (1999), p. 187.
  7. ^ Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  8. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  9. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  10. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010), p. 227.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  12. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997).
  13. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 487.
  14. ^ Wells (1982), p. 626.
  15. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004), p. 1010.
  16. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), pp. 268–269.
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  18. ^ Deterding (2000), p. ?.
  19. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  20. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  21. ^ Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  22. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 74–75.
  23. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  24. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  25. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  26. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  27. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  28. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  29. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 64–65.
  30. ^ a b c d Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  31. ^ Trudgill (2009), pp. 83–84.
  32. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  33. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  34. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  35. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  36. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  37. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  38. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  39. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  40. ^ a b c d Stone (2002), p. 600.
  41. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  42. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  43. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 106.
  44. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  45. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  46. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 44.
  47. ^ a b Peters (2017), p. ?.
  48. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  49. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  50. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 93, 95.
  51. ^ a b Doke & Mofokeng (1974), p. ?.
  52. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  53. ^ Rosenqvist (2007), p. 9.
  54. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  55. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 32–33.
  56. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.
  57. ^ a b Merrill (2008), pp. 109–110.

Bibliography[edit]

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