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See also: "Category:Cloud infrastructure

According to the "Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the most basic cloud-service model is that of providers offering computing infrastructure – "virtual machines and other resources – as a service to subscribers. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) refers to online services that abstract the user from the details of infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc. A "hypervisor, such as "Xen, "Oracle VirtualBox, "Oracle VM, "KVM, "VMware ESX/ESXi, or "Hyper-V, runs the virtual machines as guests. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operational system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements. Linux containers run in isolated partitions of a single Linux kernel running directly on the physical hardware. Linux "cgroups and namespaces are the underlying Linux kernel technologies used to isolate, secure and manage the containers. Containerisation offers higher performance than virtualization, because there is no hypervisor overhead. Also, container capacity auto-scales dynamically with computing load, which eliminates the problem of over-provisioning and enables usage-based billing.[63] IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine "disk-image library, raw "block storage, file or "object storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, "virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.[64]

IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools of equipment installed in "data centers. For "wide-area connectivity, customers can use either the Internet or "carrier clouds (dedicated "virtual private networks). To deploy their applications, cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure.[65]["unreliable source?] In this model, the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed.[66][67][68][69]

Platform as a service (PaaS)[edit]

Platform as a service Category:Cloud platforms

PaaS vendors offer a development environment to application developers. The provider typically develops toolkit and standards for development and channels for distribution and payment. In the PaaS models, cloud providers deliver a "computing platform, typically including operating system, programming-language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers like "Microsoft Azure and "Google App Engine, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand so that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. The latter has also been proposed by an architecture aiming to facilitate real-time in cloud environments.[70]["need quotation to verify] Even more specific application types can be provided via PaaS, such as media encoding as provided by services like bitcodin.com[71] or media.io.[72]

Some integration and data management providers have also embraced specialized applications of PaaS as delivery models for data solutions. Examples include iPaaS (Integration Platform as a Service) and dPaaS (Data Platform as a Service). iPaaS enables customers to develop, execute and govern integration flows.[73] Under the iPaaS integration model, customers drive the development and deployment of integrations without installing or managing any hardware or middleware.[74] dPaaS delivers integration—and data-management—products as a fully managed service.[75] Under the dPaaS model, the PaaS provider, not the customer, manages the development and execution of data solutions by building tailored data applications for the customer. dPaaS users retain transparency and control over data through "data-visualization tools.[76] Platform as a Service (PaaS) consumers do not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but have control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.

A recent specialized PaaS is the "Blockchain as a Service (BaaS), that some vendors such as "Microsoft Azure have already included in their PaaS offering.[77]

Software as a service (SaaS)[edit]

Software as a service

In the software as a service (SaaS) model, users gain access to application software and databases. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis or using a subscription fee.[78] In the SaaS model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers, which simplifies maintenance and support. Cloud applications differ from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple "virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand.[79] "Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to the cloud user, who sees only a single access-point. To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be "multitenant, meaning that any machine may serve more than one cloud-user organization.

The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user,[80] so prices become scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point.[81] Proponents claim that SaaS gives a "business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and from personnel expenses, towards meeting other goals. In addition, with applications hosted centrally, updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. One drawback of SaaS comes with storing the users' data on the cloud provider's server. As a result,["citation needed] there could be unauthorized access to the data. For this reason, users are increasingly["quantify] adopting intelligent third-party "key-management systems to help secure their data.["citation needed]

Mobile "backend" as a service (MBaaS)[edit]

Mobile backend as a service

In the mobile "backend" as a service (m) model, also known as backend as a service (BaaS), "web app and "mobile app developers are provided with a way to link their applications to "cloud storage and cloud computing services with "application programming interfaces (APIs) exposed to their applications and custom "software development kits (SDKs). Services include user management, "push notifications, integration with "social networking services[82] and more. This is a relatively recent model in cloud computing,[83] with most BaaS "startups dating from 2011 or later[84][85][86] but trends indicate that these services are gaining significant mainstream traction with enterprise consumers.[87]

Serverless computing[edit]

Serverless computing

Serverless computing is a cloud computing code "execution model in which the cloud provider fully manages starting and stopping "virtual machines as necessary to serve requests, and requests are billed by an abstract measure of the resources required to satisfy the request, rather than per virtual machine, per hour.[88] Despite the name, it does not actually involve running code without servers.[88] Serverless computing is so named because the business or person that owns the system does not have to purchase, rent or provision servers or virtual machines for the "back-end code to run on.

Cloud clients[edit]

Category:Cloud clients and Cloud API

Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as "desktop computers, "laptops, "tablets and "smartphones and any Ethernet enabled device such as Home Automation Gadgets. Some of these devices—cloud clients—rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it. Examples are "thin clients and the browser-based "Chromebook. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. With "Ajax and "HTML5 these "Web user interfaces can achieve a similar, or even better, "look and feel to native applications. Some cloud applications, however, support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., "virtual desktop clients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.

Deployment models[edit]

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Cloud computing types

Private cloud[edit]

Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party, and hosted either internally or externally.[2] Undertaking a private cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize the business environment, and requires the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. When done right, it can improve business, but every step in the project raises security issues that must be addressed to prevent serious vulnerabilities. Self-run data centers[89] are generally capital intensive. They have a significant physical footprint, requiring allocations of space, hardware, and environmental controls. These assets have to be refreshed periodically, resulting in additional capital expenditures. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management,[90] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[91][92]

Public cloud[edit]

A cloud is called a "public cloud" when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use. Public cloud services may be free.[93] Technically there may be little or no difference between public and private cloud architecture, however, security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications, storage, and other resources) that are made available by a service provider for a public audience and when communication is effected over a non-trusted network. Generally, public cloud service providers like "Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure at their "data center and access is generally via the Internet. AWS and Microsoft also offer direct connect services called "AWS Direct Connect" and "Azure ExpressRoute" respectively, such connections require customers to purchase or lease a private connection to a peering point offered by the cloud provider.[45]

Hybrid cloud[edit]

Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain distinct entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Hybrid cloud can also mean the ability to connect collocation, managed and/or dedicated services with cloud resources.[2] "Gartner, Inc. defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers.[94] A hybrid cloud service crosses isolation and provider boundaries so that it can't be simply put in one category of private, public, or community cloud service. It allows one to extend either the capacity or the capability of a cloud service, by aggregation, integration or customization with another cloud service.

Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. For example, an organization may store sensitive client data in house on a private cloud application, but interconnect that application to a business intelligence application provided on a public cloud as a software service.[95] This example of hybrid cloud extends the capabilities of the enterprise to deliver a specific business service through the addition of externally available public cloud services. Hybrid cloud adoption depends on a number of factors such as data security and compliance requirements, level of control needed over data, and the applications an organization uses.[96]

Another example of hybrid cloud is one where "IT organizations use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary capacity needs that can not be met by the private cloud.[97] This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds.[2] Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data center and "bursts" to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases. A primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization pays for extra compute resources only when they are needed.[98] Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads, and use cloud resources from public or private clouds, during spikes in processing demands.[99] The specialized model of hybrid cloud, which is built atop heterogeneous hardware, is called "Cross-platform Hybrid Cloud". A cross-platform hybrid cloud is usually powered by different CPU architectures, for example, x86-64 and ARM, underneath. Users can transparently deploy and scale applications without knowledge of the cloud's hardware diversity.[100] This kind of cloud emerges from the raise of ARM-based system-on-chip for server-class computing.

Others[edit]

Community cloud[edit]

"Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party, and either hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.[2]

Distributed cloud[edit]

A cloud computing platform can be assembled from a distributed set of machines in different locations, connected to a single network or hub service. It is possible to distinguish between two types of distributed clouds: public-resource computing and volunteer cloud.

  • Public-resource computing—This type of distributed cloud results from an expansive definition of cloud computing, because they are more akin to distributed computing than cloud computing. Nonetheless, it is considered a sub-class of cloud computing, and some examples include distributed computing platforms such as "BOINC and "Folding@Home.
  • Volunteer cloud—Volunteer cloud computing is characterized as the intersection of public-resource computing and cloud computing, where a cloud computing infrastructure is built using volunteered resources. Many challenges arise from this type of infrastructure, because of the volatility of the resources used to built it and the dynamic environment it operates in. It can also be called peer-to-peer clouds, or ad-hoc clouds. An interesting effort in such direction is Cloud@Home, it aims to implement a cloud computing infrastructure using volunteered resources providing a business-model to incentivize contributions through financial restitution.[101]

Intercloud[edit]

Intercloud

The "Intercloud[102] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[103][104] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. The focus is on direct "interoperability between public cloud service providers, more so than between providers and consumers (as is the case for hybrid- and multi-cloud).[105][106][107]

Multicloud[edit]

Multicloud

Multicloud is the use of multiple cloud computing services in a single heterogeneous architecture to reduce reliance on single vendors, increase flexibility through choice, mitigate against disasters, etc. It differs from hybrid cloud in that it refers to multiple cloud services, rather than multiple deployment modes (public, private, legacy).[108][109][110]

Architecture[edit]

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Cloud computing sample architecture

Cloud architecture,[111] the "systems architecture of the "software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.

Cloud engineering[edit]

"Cloud engineering is the application of "engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialization, standardization, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as "systems, "software, "web, "performance, "information, "security, "platform, "risk, and "quality engineering.

Security and privacy[edit]

Cloud computing issues

Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is in the cloud at any time. It could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete information.[112] Many cloud providers can share information with third parties if necessary for purposes of law and order even without a warrant. That is permitted in their privacy policies, which users must agree to before they start using cloud services. Solutions to privacy include policy and legislation as well as end users' choices for how data is stored.[112] Users can encrypt data that is processed or stored within the cloud to prevent unauthorized access.[3][112]

According to the "Cloud Security Alliance, the top three threats in the cloud are Insecure Interfaces and API's, Data Loss & Leakage, and Hardware Failure—which accounted for 29%, 25% and 10% of all cloud security outages respectively. Together, these form shared technology vulnerabilities. In a cloud provider platform being shared by different users there may be a possibility that information belonging to different customers resides on same data server. Therefore, Information leakage may arise by mistake when information for one customer is given to other.[113] Additionally, "Eugene Schultz, chief technology officer at Emagined Security, said that hackers are spending substantial time and effort looking for ways to penetrate the cloud. "There are some real Achilles' heels in the cloud infrastructure that are making big holes for the bad guys to get into". Because data from hundreds or thousands of companies can be stored on large cloud servers, hackers can theoretically gain control of huge stores of information through a single attack—a process he called "hyperjacking". Some examples of this include the Dropbox security breach, and iCloud 2014 leak.[114] Dropbox had been breached in October 2014, having over 7 million of its users passwords stolen by hackers in an effort to get monetary value from it by Bitcoins (BTC). By having these passwords, they are able to read private data as well as have this data be indexed by search engines (making the information public).[114]

There is the problem of legal ownership of the data (If a user stores some data in the cloud, can the cloud provider profit from it?). Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership.[115] Physical control of the computer equipment (private cloud) is more secure than having the equipment off site and under someone else's control (public cloud). This delivers great incentive to public cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[116] Some small businesses that don't have expertise in "IT security could find that it's more secure for them to use a public cloud. There is the risk that end users do not understand the issues involved when signing on to a cloud service (persons sometimes don't read the many pages of the terms of service agreement, and just click "Accept" without reading). This is important now that cloud computing is becoming popular and required for some services to work, for example for an "intelligent personal assistant (Apple's "Siri or "Google Now). Fundamentally, private cloud is seen as more secure with higher levels of control for the owner, however public cloud is seen to be more flexible and requires less time and money investment from the user.[117]

Limitations and disadvantages[edit]

According to "Bruce Schneier, "The downside is that you will have limited customization options. Cloud computing is cheaper because of "economics of scale, and — like any outsourced task — you tend to get what you get. A restaurant with a limited menu is cheaper than a personal chef who can cook anything you want. Fewer options at a much cheaper price: it's a feature, not a bug." He also suggests that "the cloud provider might not meet your legal needs" and that businesses need to weigh the benefits of cloud computing against the risks.[118] In cloud computing, the control of the back end infrastructure is limited to the cloud vendor only. Cloud providers often decide on the management policies, which moderates what the cloud users are able to do with their deployment.[119] Cloud users are also limited to the control and management of their applications, data and services.[120] This includes data caps, which are placed on cloud users by the cloud vendor allocating certain amount of bandwidth for each customer and are often shared among other cloud users.[121]

Privacy and "confidentiality are big concerns in some activities. For instance, sworn translators working under the stipulations of an "NDA, might face problems regarding "sensitive data that are not "encrypted.[122]

Emerging trends[edit]

Cloud computing is still a subject of research.[123] A driving factor in the evolution of cloud computing has been "Chief technology officers seeking to minimize risk of internal outages and mitigate the complexity of housing network and computing hardware in-house.[124] Major cloud technology companies invest billions of dollars per year in cloud "Research and Development. For example, in 2011 Microsoft committed 90 percent of its $9.6 billion "R&D budget to its cloud.[125] Research by investment bank Centaur Partners in late 2015 forecasted that "SaaS revenue would grow from $13.5 billion in 2011 to $32.8 billion in 2016.[126]

See also[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Millard, Christopher (2013). Cloud Computing Law. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-967168-7. 
  • Singh, Jatinder; Powles, Julia; Pasquier, Thomas; Bacon, Jean (July 2015). "Data Flow Management and Compliance in Cloud Computing". IEEE Cloud Computing. 2 (4): 24–32. "doi:10.1109/MCC.2015.69. 
  • Armbrust, Michael; Stoica, Ion; Zaharia, Matei; Fox, Armando; Griffith, Rean; Joseph, Anthony D.; Katz, Randy; Konwinski, Andy; Lee, Gunho; Patterson, David; Rabkin, Ariel (1 April 2010). "A view of cloud computing". Communications of the ACM. 53 (4): 50. "doi:10.1145/1721654.1721672. 
  • Hu, Tung-Hui (2015). A Prehistory of the Cloud. MIT Press. "ISBN "978-0-262-02951-3. 
  • Mell, P. (2011, September 31). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from National Institute of Standards and Technology website: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf

External links[edit]


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