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See also: "MUD

"Douglas Engelbart first envisioned collaborative computing in 1951 and documented his vision in 1962,[6] with "working prototypes in full operational use by his research team by the mid-1960s,[7] and held the first public demonstration of his work in 1968 in what is now referred to as ""The Mother of All Demos."[8] The following year, Engelbart's lab was hooked into the "ARPANET, the first computer network, enabling them to extend services to a broader userbase. See also "Intelligence Amplification "Section 4: Douglas Engelbart, "ARPANET Section on "ARPANET Deployed, and the Doug Engelbart Archive Collection.

Online collaborative gaming software began between early networked computer users. In 1975, "Will Crowther created "Colossal Cave Adventure on a "DEC PDP-10 computer. As internet connections grew, so did the numbers of users and multi-user games. In 1978 "Roy Trubshaw, a student at Essex University in the United Kingdom, created the game MUD (Multi-User Dungeon).

The US Government began using truly collaborative applications in the early 1990s.[9] One of the first robust applications was the Navy's Common Operational Modeling, Planning and Simulation Strategy (COMPASS).[10] The COMPASS system allowed up to 6 users created point-to-point connections with one another; the collaborative session only remained while at least one user stayed active, and would have to be recreated if all six logged out. MITRE improved on that model by hosting the collaborative session on a server that each user logged into. Called the Collaborative Virtual Workstation (CVW), this allowed the session to be set up in a virtual file cabinet and virtual rooms, and left as a persistent session that could be joined later.[11]

In 1996, "Pavel Curtis, who had built MUDs at "PARC, created PlaceWare, a server that simulated a one-to-many auditorium, with side chat between "seat-mates", and the ability to invite a limited number of audience members to speak. In 1997, engineers at "GTE used the PlaceWare engine in a commercial version of MITRE's CVW, calling it InfoWorkSpace (IWS). In 1998, IWS was chosen as the military standard for the standardized Air Operations Center.[12] The IWS product was sold to "General Dynamics and then later to Ezenia.[13]

Groupware[edit]

Collaborative software was originally designated as groupware and this term can be traced as far back as the late 1980s, when Richman and Slovak (1987)[14] wrote:

"Like an electronic sinew that binds teams together, the new groupware aims to place the computer squarely in the middle of communications among managers, technicians, and anyone else who interacts in groups, revolutionizing the way they work."

Even further back, in 1978 Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz coined the term groupware; their initial 1978 definition of groupware was, “intentional group processes plus software to support them.” Later in their article they went on to explain groupware as “computer-mediated culture... an embodiment of social organization in hyperspace." Groupware integrates co-evolving human and tool systems, yet is simply a single system.[1]

In the early 1990s the first commercial groupware products were delivered, and big companies such as "Boeing and "IBM started using electronic meeting systems for key internal projects. "Lotus Notes appeared as a major example of that product category, allowing remote group collaboration when the internet was still in its infancy. Kirkpatrick and Losee (1992)[15] wrote then:

"If GROUPWARE really makes a difference in productivity long term, the very definition of an office may change. You will be able to work efficiently as a member of a group wherever you have your computer. As computers become smaller and more powerful, that will mean anywhere."

Design and implementation issues[edit]

The complexity of groupware development is still an issue. One reason for this is the socio-technical dimension of groupware. Groupware designers do not only have to address technical issues (as in traditional software development) but also consider the organizational aspects [16] and the social group processes that should be supported with the groupware application. Some examples for issues in groupware development are:

One approach for addressing these issues is the use of design patterns for groupware design.[20] The patterns identify recurring groupware design issues and discuss design choices in a way that all stakeholders can participate in the groupware development process.

Groupware and levels of collaboration[edit]

Groupware can be divided into three categories depending on the level of "collaboration:[21][22]

  1. Communication can be thought of as unstructured interchange of information. A phone call or an "IM Chat discussion are examples of this.
  2. Conferencing (or collaboration level, as it is called in the academic papers that discuss these levels) refers to interactive work toward a shared goal. Brainstorming or voting are examples of this.
  3. Co-ordination refers to complex interdependent work toward a shared goal. A good metaphor for understanding this is to think about a sports team; everyone has to contribute the right play at the right time as well as adjust their play to the unfolding situation - but everyone is doing something different - in order for the team to win. That is complex interdependent work toward a shared goal: collaborative management.

Collaborative management (coordination) tools[edit]

Collaborative management tools facilitate and manage group activities. Examples include:

Collaborative software and human interaction[edit]

The design intent of collaborative software (groupware) is to transform the way documents and "rich media are shared in order to enable more effective team collaboration.

Collaboration, with respect to information technology, seems to have several definitions. Some are defensible but others are so broad they lose any meaningful application. Understanding the differences in human interactions is necessary to ensure the appropriate technologies are employed to meet interaction needs.

There are three primary ways in which humans interact: conversations, transactions, and collaborations.

Conversational interaction is an exchange of information between two or more participants where the primary purpose of the interaction is discovery or relationship building. There is no central entity around which the interaction revolves but is a free exchange of information with no defined constraints generally focused on personal experiences.[24] Communication technology such as telephones, "instant messaging, and e-mail are generally sufficient for conversational interactions.

Transactional interaction involves the exchange of transaction entities where a major function of the transaction entity is to alter the relationship between participants.

In collaborative interactions the main function of the participants' relationship is to alter a collaboration entity (i.e., the converse of transactional).

See also[edit]

Closely related terms[edit]

Groupware type of applications[edit]

Other related type of applications[edit]

Other related terms[edit]

Lists of collaborative software[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Johnson-Lenz, Peter (30 April 1990). "Rhythms, Boundaries, and Containers". Awakening Technology. 
  2. ^ Carstensen, P.H.; Schmidt, K. (1999). "Computer supported cooperative work: new challenges to systems design". Citeseer.ist.psu.edu. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  3. ^ Beyerlein, M; Freedman, S.; McGee, G.; Moran, L. (2002). Beyond Teams: Building the Collaborative Organization. The Collaborative Work Systems series, Wiley.
  4. ^ Wilson, P. (1991). Computer Supported Cooperative Work: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Pub. "ISBN 978-0792314462
  5. ^ Aparicio, M and Costa,C. (2012) Collaborative systems: characteristics and features. In Proceedings of the 30th ACM international conference on Design of communication (SIGDOC '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 141-146. "doi:10.1145/2379057.2379087
  6. ^ Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, Douglas C. Engelbart, 1962
  7. ^ A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect, Douglas C. Engelbart and William K. English, 1968.
  8. ^ "1968 Demo Overview and Links to Video". Dougengelbart.org. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  9. ^ "Learning from user experience with groupware". Portal.acm.org. "doi:10.1145/99332.99362. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  10. ^ Heritage of Delivering Successful Warfighting Solutions
  11. ^ Collaborative virtual environments for analysis and decision support, Mark Mayburry
  12. ^ "(Press Release) InfoWorkSpace saves lives in Iraq - Ezenia!, Inc". Ezenia.com. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  13. ^ "(Press Release) InfoWorkSpace - Ezenia!, Inc". Ezenia.com. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  14. ^ Richman, Louis S; Slovak, Julianne (June 8, 1987). "SOFTWARE CATCHES THE TEAM SPIRIT New computer programs may soon change the way groups of people work together -- and start delivering the long-awaited payoff from office automation.fouttoune". Money.cnn.com. 
  15. ^ Kirkpatrick, D.; Losee, S. (March 23, 1992). "HERE COMES THE PAYOFF FROM PCs New network software lets brainstormers around a table all talk at once on their keyboards. The result: measurable productivity gains from desktop computing". Money.cnn.com. 
  16. ^ D'Atri A., De Marco M., Casalino N. (2008). “Interdisciplinary Aspects of Information Systems Studies”, pp. 1-416, Physica-Verlag, Springer, Germany, Doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2010-2 "ISBN 978-3-7908-2009-6.
  17. ^ A Case Study in Technology Transfer of Collaboration Tools
  18. ^ Collaborating securely - Can it be done?
  19. ^ Ellis, Clarence A.; Gibbs, Simon J.; Rein, Gail (1991). "Groupware: some issues and experiences.". Communications of the ACM. 34: 39–58. "doi:10.1145/99977.99987. 
  20. ^ Till Schümmer and Stephan Lukosch. 2007. Patterns for Computer-Mediated Interaction (Wiley Software Patterns Series). John Wiley & Sons. "ISBN 978-0-470-02561-1
  21. ^ "Groupware - Communication, Collaboration and Coordination". Lotus Development Corporation. 1995. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. 
  22. ^ Casalino N., Draoli M. (2009), “Governance and Organizational Aspects of an Experimental Groupware in the Italian Public Administration to Support Multi-Institutional Partnerships”, in Information Systems: People, Organizations, Institutions, and Trchnologies, D’Atri A., Saccà D. (Eds.), Physica-Verlag, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 81-89, "ISBN 978-3-7908-2147-5, doi 10.1007/978-3-7908-2148-2_11
  23. ^ Chaffey, Dave (1998). Groupware, Workflow, and Intranets: Reengineering the Enterprise with Collaborative Software. Boston: Digital Press. 
  24. ^ Dunbar, R. I.; Marriott, A.; Duncan, N. D. (1997). "Human conversational behavior" (PDF). Human Nature : An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective. 8 (3): 231–246. "doi:10.1007/BF02912493. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 

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