Since the "Cologne European Council in 1999, the "Common Security and Defence Policy (or CSDP) has become a significant part of the CFSP. The EU itself has limited military capability, member states are responsible for their own territorial defence and a majority of EU members are also members of NATO, which is responsible for the defence of Europe.
There was also the "Western European Union (WEU), which was a European security organisation related to the EU. In 1992, the WEU's relationship with the EU was defined, when the EU assigned it the ""Petersberg tasks" (humanitarian missions such as peacekeeping and "crisis management). These tasks were later transferred from the WEU to the EU by the "Amsterdam Treaty; they formed part of the new CFSP and the "Common Security and Defence Policy. Elements of the WEU were merged into the EU's CFSP and the President of the WEU was also the High Representative. In 2010 the merger led to the final dissolution of the WEU (30 June 2011).
Following the "Kosovo war in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO." To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the "Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the "EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to deploy about 1500 men quickly. EU forces have been deployed on "peacekeeping missions from Africa to the "Balkans and the middle east. EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the "European Defence Agency, "satellite centre and the "military staff.
Political and Security Committee
The Political and Security Committee (PSC or "COPS" from its French acronym) first established as an interim body in 2000 is described by the "Nice European Council Conclusions as the "linchpin" of the "European Security and Defence Policy and the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Its responsibilities include the drafting of opinions for the "Foreign Affairs Council, which is one of the configurations of the "Council of the European Union, and exercising "political control and strategic direction" of EU crisis-management operations. The committee is a standing body and is composed of national representatives of "senior / ambassadorial level" and meets at least twice a week (Tuesdays and Fridays) in "Brussels. It is chaired by the "European External Action Service.
Stopping humanitarian atrocities
EU foreign policy is committed to the protection of human rights. Research suggests that rhetoric along these lines from EU decision-makers is consistent with actual EU foreign policy activity. Military and economic interventions by the EU are consistently more likely in countries where violence explicitly targets civilians. Geostrategic concerns also influence EU action, as the EU has been "most attentive to human rights violations in non-EU European states, followed by countries in sub-Saharan Africa, while it has been least active in Asia and the Americas".
The European Union considers to be terrorist organisations those groups or those entities that are controlled directly or indirectly by persons who commit or attempt to commit terrorist acts, participating in these groups, or facilitating the execution of terrorist plans. It also includes defining those groups and entities acting on behalf or under the direction of such persons, groups and entities, including funds derived or generated from property owned or controlled directly or indirectly by such persons or by associated persons, groups and entities. The watch list was reviewed for the Law Library of Congress in 2007.
The European Union gives a definition of terrorism as Common Position 2001/931/CFSP of 27 December 2001, also referred to by successive acts. It highlights them as intentional acts which, given their nature or context as defined crimes under domestic law, may seriously harm a State or an international organization when committed for the purpose of:
- seriously intimidating a population
- unduly compelling a Government or international organization to perform or abstain from performing any act
- seriously destabilizing or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social constructs
List of terrorist organisations
The list of terrorist organisations was started in 2001 with the 13 organisations listed on 27 December of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP. The European Community had not listed "Al-Qaeda although the "9/11 attacks had been the instigator of the list. It has been updated by a number of subsequent declarations, such as Common Position 2006/231/CFSP of 21 December 2005; for example so as to include "LTTE.
Common Position 2005/847/CFSP of the "European Council of 29 November 2005 updated the list of these organizations, which are as follows:
- Abu Nidal
- Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades
- Al-Aqsa eV
- Al-Takfir wa-l-Hijra
- Aum Shinrikyo
- Babbar Khalsa
- Communist Party of the Philippines, including the New People's Army
- Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
- ETA / Bath Tierra y Libertad / Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA), which includes organizations: KAS, Xaki, Ekin, Jarrai-Haika-Segi and Gestoras pro Amnistía
- Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya
- Islamic Front of the great fighters of the East
- Grupos de Resistencia Anti-Fascist Primero de Octubre / October 1, anti-fascist resistance group (GRAPO)
- Hamas, including 'Izz Brigades al-Din al-Qassam
- Hizbul Mujahideen
- Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development
- International Sikh Youth Federation
- International Solidarity
- Kahane Chai
- Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
- Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
- Mujahedin-e Khalq (MKO or MEC), except for the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI)
- National Liberation Army / Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)
- Orange Volunteers (OV)
- Front for the Liberation of Palestine
- Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, also known as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
- Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC)
- Real IRA
- Red Brigades for the Construction of the Communist Party Fighter (BR-PCC)
- Red Hand Defenders (RHD)
- Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)
- Revolutionary Nuclei / Epanastatiki Pirines
- Revolutionary Organization November 17 / Dekati Evdomi Noemvri
- Devrimci Sol or Army / Front / Revolutionary People's Liberation Party (DHKP / C)
- Revolutionary Popular Struggle / Epanastatikos Laikos Agonas (ELA)
- Partido Comunista Peruano - Sendero Luminoso / Shining Path (SL)
- Stichting Al Aqsa Mosque (aka Stichting Al Aqsa Nederland, aka Al Aqsa Nederland)
- Brigade XX Luglio
- Ulster Defence Association / Ulster Freedom Fighters (UDA / UFF)
- United Self-Defense of Colombia (AUC)
- Core initiative proletarian revolutionary (results Inactive)
- Informal Anarchist Federation including cell cooperative artisan fire, natural - occasionally spectacular
Outside the CFSP
Besides its own foreign and security policy, the Commission is also gaining greater representation in international bodies. Representation in international bodies is previously through the "European Commissioner for External Relations, who worked alongside the High Representative, but now with the "High Representative directly as a "Commission Vice-President. In the UN the EU has gained influence in areas such as aid due to its large contributions in that field (see below). In the "G8, the "EU has the rights of membership besides that of chairing/hosting summit meetings. The EU is represented at the G8 by the presidents of the Commission and the Council. In the "World Trade Organisation (WTO), where all 28 member states are represented, the EU as a body is represented by "Trade Commissioner.
The influence of the EU is also felt through the "enlargement. The potential benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered a major factor contributing to the reform and stabilisation of former Communist countries in Eastern Europe. This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as ""soft power", as opposed to military "hard power". An example of the support the European Union offers to the reform processes of its neighbours is EUBAM, the "European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, which assists the governments of Moldova and Ukraine in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards.
The European Union's influential economic status and its nation-like characteristics has been acknowledged by the United States' "Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in their publication "The World Factbook. The EU was included in the Factbook in December 2004.
The "European Community humanitarian aid office, or "ECHO", provides "humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries. In 2006 its budget amounted to 671 million euro, 48% of which went to the "ACP countries. Counting the EU's own contributions and those of its member states together, the EU is the largest aid donor in the world.
The EU's aid has previously been criticised by the think-tank "Open Europe for being inefficient, mis-targeted and linked to economic objectives. Furthermore, some charities have claimed European governments have inflated the amount they have spent on aid by incorrectly including money spent on debt relief, foreign students, and refugees. Under the de-inflated figures, the EU did not reach its internal aid target in 2006 and the EU would not reach the international target of 0.7% of "GNP until 2015. However, only a few countries have reached that target. In 2005 EU aid was 0.34% of the GNP, which was higher than that of the United States and Japan. The ex "commissioner for aid, "Louis Michel, has called for aid to be delivered more rapidly, to greater effect, and on humanitarian principles.
Although the Irish people were reassured of their neutrality before agreeing to the "Nice Treaty, the "Finnish Prime Minister, "Matti Vanhanen, on 5 July 2006, while speaking to the "European Parliament as "Council President declared:
|“||Mr Pflüger described Finland as neutral. I must correct him on that: Finland is a member of the EU. We were at one time a politically neutral country, during the time of the "Iron Curtain. Now we are a member of the Union, part of this community of values, which has a common policy and, moreover, a common foreign policy.||”|
Nevertheless, a similar guarantee on neutrality in relation to the Treaty of Lisbon was granted to Ireland at the European Council of 18/19 June 2009:
The European Council also agreed that other concerns of the Irish people, as presented by the Taoiseach, relating to taxation policy, the right to life, education and the family, and Ireland's traditional policy of military neutrality, would be addressed to the mutual satisfaction of Ireland and the other Member States, by way of the necessary legal guarantees.
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