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Common Security and Defence
Policy of the European Union
""Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg ""Coat of arms of Europe.svg ""Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg
Arms of the "Military Committee (l.) and its "chairman (m.), as well as the "Military Staff (r.)

Equipment 546 ships, 2,448 aircraft & 7,490 battle tanks
Founded 1996 (as the European Security and Defence Identity)
Current form 2009 (upon the entry into force of the "Treaty of Lisbon)
Headquarters Kortenberg building, "Brussels, "Belgium ("Military Planning and Conduct Capability)
"High Representative "Federica Mogherini
"Director General of the Military Staff Lt. Gen "Esa Pulkkinen
"Chairman of the Military Committee General "Michail Kostarakos
Active personnel 1,823,000 (2014)[1]
Budget $226.73 billion (2016)[1]
Percent of GDP 1.42% (2014)[1]
""Flag of Europe.svg
This article is part of a series on the
"politics and government of
European Union

The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the "European Union (EU) comprises the Union's defence and crisis management structures and capabilities, and is a major part of the EU "Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The CSDP, which is covered by articles 42-46 of the "Treaty on European Union, has resulted in the deployment of missions abroad for peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. The Union's "High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, currently "Federica Mogherini, is responsible for proposing and implementing CSDP decisions. Decisions relating to the CSDP are taken by the Council of the European Union by unanimity. However, there are some exceptions like for instance when the Council adopts some decisions implementing an EU decision or for some decisions relating to the "European Defence Agency (EDA) and "Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), where decisions are taken by qualified majority voting.

The CSDP's predecessor, the European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI), was introduced as a European security project in both the "North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the "Western European Union (WEU) in 1996. In 1999, ESDI was transformed into the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) and transferred to the EU. In 2009, the "Treaty of Lisbon introduced the present name, CSDP.


Legal basis[edit]

The main legal basis of the CSDP is Article 42 of the "Treaty on European Union (TEU), as amended in 2009 by the "Treaty of Lisbon:


High Representative[edit]

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the EU's "Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the CSDP. The position is currently held by "Federica Mogherini.

The post was created under the "Treaty of Amsterdam as the High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy; it then was occupied by "Javier Solana for ten years until it was aggrandised following the "Lisbon Treaty providing a seat on the "European Commission and chair of the "council of EU foreign ministers. Following the "Lisbon Treaty the post is assisted by the "European External Action Service (EEAS) that was set up in December 2010.[3]

Where foreign matters is agreed between "EU member states, the High Representative can speak for the EU in that area, such as negotiating on behalf of the member states. The Representative co-ordinates the work of the "European Union Special Representatives as well as other appointments such as anti-terrorist co-ordinator.

Beside representing the EU at international fora and co-ordinating the "Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence Policy, the High Representative is:

According to proposals made in 2009 by the Swedish EU presidency, the High Representative will control the staffing and budget of the EEAS, and propose the size of budget to be allocated. The High Representative is responsible for appointing EEAS staff and for controlling general foreign policy (outside of trade, development and enlargement which has to be made together with the Commission) including security initiatives and intelligence sharing. However, although the High Representative may prepare initiatives, decisions will still have to be taken by the member states in Council. The High Representative would also have to report to Parliament.[4]

While there has been some criticism of the vague division of powers between the EU's top players, "Ukrainian ambassador to the EU Andriy Veselovsky praised the framework and clarified it in his own terms: The "President of the European Commission speaks as the EU's "government" while the "President of the European Council is a "strategist". The High Representative specialises in "bilateral relations" while the "European Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy deals in technical matters such as the free trade agreement with Ukraine (here, Veselovsky makes a mistake, as "FTAs are actually part of the EU's "common commercial policy—for which the "European Commissioner for Trade is responsible). The "President of the European Parliament meanwhile articulates the EU's values.[5]

With the growth in role of the High Representative, and their exclusion from the European Council, the national foreign ministers are now uncertain of their role vs the High Representative. At an informal meeting in Finland it was mooted that they could serve as special envoys on the High Representative's behalf. This has been backed by Ashton who said that so long as the EU spoke with one voice, it didn't matter who was speaking.[6]

External Action Service[edit]

""Common Security and Defence Policy is located in European Union
EEAS, EDA, Council
Location of decentralised CSDP agencies in addition to the Brussels-based "External Action Service (EEAS), "Defence Agency (EDA) and "Council

The European External Action Service (EEAS) is the "diplomatic service and "foreign and "defence ministry of the "European Union (EU). The EEAS is led by the "High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR), who is also President of the "Foreign Affairs Council and Vice-President of the "European Commission, and carries out the EU's "Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).[4][7]

The EEAS does not propose or implement policy in its own name, but prepares acts to be adopted by the "High Representative, the "European Commission or the "Council.[8] The EEAS is also in charge of EU diplomatic missions ("delegations)[9] and intelligence and crisis management structures.[10][11][12]

The EEAS, as well as the office of the HR, was introduced upon the entry into force of the "Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009. It was formally established on 1 December 2010[13] The EEAS was formed by merger of the external relations departments of the "European Commission and of the "Council, which were joined by staff seconded from national diplomatic services of the Member States.[7] Although it supports both the Commission and the Council, the EEAS is independent from them and has its own staff, as well as a separate section in the EU budget.[14]

The EEAS and the "European Defence Agency (EDA) together form the Secretariat of the "Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), the structural integration pursued by 25 of the 28 national armed forces of the EU since 2017.[15]

Military Staff[edit]

The European Union Military Staff (EUMS) is a Directorate-General of the "External Action Service (EADS) of the "European Union (EU) that contributes to the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) by providing strategic advice to the "High Representative (HR) and commanding non-executive operations through its "Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC) operational headquarters. EU officials have indicated that a review in 2018 might extend the MPCC's mandate to also include executive missions.[16][17]

The EUMS also reports to the "European Union Military Committee (EUMC), representing "member states' "Chiefs of Defence, and performs "early warning", situation assessment and strategic planning.

The EUMS currently consists of 200+ military and civilian personnel, and is located in the Kortenberg building in Brussels. The structure of the "Military Staff and "Military Committee as of 1 November 2017:[18] Colour key:
     "High Representative (a "Vice-President of the "Commission)
     ""Coat of arms of the European Union Military Committee.svg "Military Committee (a "Council body)
     ""Coat of arms of the European Union Military Staff.svg "Military Staff (a Directorate-General of the "External Action Service)

"High Representative
"Military Committee
""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg
Working Group
""Golden star.svg
Working Group/Headline Goal Task Force
"Military Staff
"Director General
""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg
Legal advisor
"Deputy Director General
""Golden star.svg""Golden star.svg
Horizontal Coordination
Assistant Chief of Staff for Synchronisation EU cell at "SHAPE
EU Liaison at the "UN in NY Assistant Chief of Staff for External Relations
"NATO Permanent Liaison Team
Directorate A:
Concepts & Capabilities
""Golden star.svg
Directorate B:
""Golden star.svg
Directorate C:
""Golden star.svg
Directorate D:
""Golden star.svg
Directorate E:
Communications & Information Systems
""Golden star.svg
"Military Planning and
Conduct Capability

Chief of Staff
""Golden star.svg
Working Group
Current Operations

Intelligence and Situation Centre[edit]

Security & Defence College[edit]

The "European Security and Defence College (ESDC) was established after the incorporation of the "Western European Union within the EU.

The European Security and Defence College ("English initials ESDC, "French initials CESD for Collège Européen de Sécurité et de Défense) is a "virtual institution within the "External Action Service (EEAS) of the "European Union (EU) for strategic level training within the area of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). ESDC was created in 2005 by a decision of the "EU Council,[19] and takes the form of a "network of various national institutions of the "European Union member states, such as defence colleges, the "European Union Institute for Security Studies, and other educational and academic institutions.[20][21]


Preparatory bodies[edit]


Defence Agency[edit]

The European Defence Agency (EDA) was established in July 2004 and is based in Brussels. It supports the EU Member States in improving their military capabilities in order to complete CSDP targets as set out in the European Security Strategy. In that capacity, it makes proposals, coordinates, stimulates collaboration, and runs projects. The Member States themselves, however, remain in charge of their defence policies, planning and investment. Four strategies form the framework to guide the activities of the Agency and its 26 participating Member States: 1) the Capability Development Plan (CDP), 2) the European Defence Research & Technology; 3) the European Armaments Cooperation (EAC) and 4) the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB).

Border and Coast Guard Agency[edit]

Institute for Security Studies[edit]

The "European Union Institute for Security Studies (ISS) was established after the incorporation of the "Western European Union within the EU.

The (ISS) was inaugurated in January 2002 and is based in Paris. Although an EU agency, it is an autonomous think tank that researches EU-relevant security issues. The research results are published in papers, books, reports, policy briefs, analyses and newsletters. In addition, the EU-ISS convenes seminars and conferences on relevant issues that bring together EU officials, national experts, decision-makers and NGO representatives from all Member States.

Satellite Centre[edit]

The "European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen) was established after the incorporation of the "Western European Union within the EU.

The European Union Satellite Centre was incorporated as an agency of the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2002. It is located in Torrejón de Ardoz, in the vicinity of Madrid, Spain. The centre supports the decision-making of the European Union in the field of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including crisis management missions and operations, by providing products and services resulting from the exploitation of relevant space assets and collateral data, including satellite and aerial imagery, and related services.

Other arrangements[edit]

  States which participate in the CSDP
  States with an opt-out from the CSDP

Permanent Structured Cooperation[edit]

Members of PESCO

The "European Defence Initiative was a proposal for enhanced "European Union defence cooperation presented by France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in Brussels on 29 April 2003, before the extension of the coverage of the enhanced cooperation procedure to defence matters. The "Treaty of Lisbon added the possibility for "those Member States whose military capabilities fulfill higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding missions [to] establish permanent structured cooperation within the Union framework".[22]

Those states shall notify their intention to "the Council and to the "High Representative. The Council then adopts, by "qualified majority a decision establishing permanent structured cooperation and determining the list of participating Member States. Any other member state, that fulfills the criteria and wishes to participate, can join the PSCD following the same procedure, but in the voting for the decision will participate only the states already part of the PSCD. If a participating state no longer fulfills the criteria a decision suspending its participation is taken by the same procedure as for accepting new participants, but excluding the concerned state from the voting procedure. If a participating state wishes to withdraw from PSCD it just notifies "the Council to remove it from the list of participants. All other decisions and recommendations of "the Council concerning PSCD issues unrelated to the list of participants are taken by "unanimity of the participating states.[22]

The criteria established in the PSCD Protocol are the following:[22]

On 7 September 2017 an agreement was made between EU foreign affairs ministers to move forward with PESCO with 10 initial projects. Although the details are still to be established, the aim would be for it to be as inclusive of member states as possible and is anticipated to be activated in December 2017.[23][24][25][26] The agreement was signed on 13 November by 23 of the 28 members states. Ireland and Portugal have notified the High Representative and the Council of the European Union of their intentions to join PESCO.[27] Denmark did not participate as it has an "opt-out from the Common Security and Defence Policy, nor did the United Kingdom, which is scheduled to "withdraw from the EU in 2019 .[28][29] Malta opted-out as well.[30][31]

Headline Goal 2010[edit]

Berlin Plus agreement[edit]

The Berlin Plus agreement is the short title of a comprehensive package of agreements made between "NATO and the "EU on 16 December 2002.[32] These agreements were based on conclusions of NATO's "1999 Washington summit, sometimes referred to as the CJTF mechanism,[33] and allowed the EU to draw on some of NATO's military assets in its own peacekeeping operations.

Military Erasmus[edit]

The European initiative for the exchange of young officers inspired by Erasmus, often referred to as military Erasmus, is an initiative undertaken by the "European Union (EU) member states aimed at developing the exchanges between armed forces of future "military officers as well as their teachers and instructors during their initial education[34] and training. Due to the fact that the initiative is implemented by the Member States on a purely voluntary basis, their autonomy with regard to military training is not compromised.


Galileo navigation system[edit]

Secure Software-defined Radio (PESCO)[edit]

Military Mobility (PESCO)[edit]


Global Strategy[edit]


Defence Fund[edit]

The European Defence Fund is a fund managed by the "European Union (EU) for coordinating and increasing national investment in defence research and improve interoperability between national forces. It was proposed in 2016 by "President "Jean-Claude Juncker and established in 2017 to a value of €5.5 billion per year. The fund has two stands; research (€90 million until the end of 2019 and €500 million per year after 2020) and development & acquisition (€500 million in total for 2019-20 then €1 billion per year after 2020).[35]

Together with the "Coordinated Annual Review on Defence and "Permanent Structured Cooperation it forms a new comprehensive defence package for the EU.[36]



Within Union framework[edit]

"Irish Army personnel from the "Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010

The battle groups adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a "battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[37][38] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the "Council of the European Union.

The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[39] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the "European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new ""standing army" for Europe.[38] The troops and equipment are drawn from the "EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, "United Nations Secretary-General "Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[40]

Medical Command (PESCO)[edit]

The European Medical Command (EMC) is a planned medical command centre in support of "EU missions, formed as part of the "Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).[41]

The EMC will provide the EU with a permanent medical capability to support operations abroad, including medical resources and a rapidly deployable medical task force. The EMC will also provide medical evacuation facilities, triage and resuscitation, treatment and holding of patients until they can be returned to duty, and emergency dental treatment. It will also contribute to harmonising medical standards, certification and legal (civil) framework conditions.[42]

EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core (PESCO)[edit]

The European Union Force Crisis Response Operation Core (EUFOR CROC) is a flagship defence project under development as part of the "Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) facility. EURFOR CROC will contribute to the creation of a "full spectrum force package" to speed up provision of military forces and the EU's crisis management capabilities.[43]

Rather than creating a standing force, the project involves creating a concrete catalogue of military force elements that would speed up the establishment of a force when the EU decides to launch an operation. It is land-focused and aims to generate a force of 60,000 troops from the contributing states alone. While it does not establish any form of "European army", it foresees an deployable, interoperable force under a single command.[44]

Germany is the lead country for the project, but the French are heavily involved and it is tied to President "Emanuel Macron's proposal to create a standing intervention force. The French see it as an example of what PESCO is about.[45]

Outside Union framework[edit]

""Common Security and Defence Policy is located in European Union
Location of headquarters of a selection of intergovernmental defence organisations that are established outside the EU framework, but may support the CSDP in accordance with Article 42.3 of the "Treaty on European Union ("Those Member States which together establish multinational forces may also make them available to the common security and defence policy.")
Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013

The European Corps, often shortened as Eurocorps, is an "army corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in "Strasbourg, France. Based in the French city of "Strasbourg, the corps had its headquarters established in May 1992, activated in October 1993 and declared operational in 1995. The nucleus of the force is the "Franco-German Brigade, established in 1987.[46]

Maritime Force[edit]
Gendarmerie Force[edit]

The European Gendarmerie Force (EUROGENDFOR or EGF) is an intervention force with militarised police functions and specialisation in crisis management, designed after the French "Gendarmerie, the Spanish "Guardia Civil, and the Italian "Carabinieri and its Multinational Specialized Units (M.S.U.).[47][48] The force was created in 2006, and had its status enshrined in the Treaty of Velsen, signed 18 October 2007.[49]

See also:





In the EU terminology, civilian CSDP interventions are called ‘missions’, regardless of whether they have an executive mandate such as "EULEX Kosovo or a non-executive mandate (all others). Military interventions, however, can either have an executive mandate such as for example Operation ATALANTA in which case they are referred to as ‘operations’ and are commanded at two-star level; or non-executive mandate (e.g. "EUTM Somalia)in which case they are called ‘missions’ and are commanded at one-star level.

The first deployment of European troops under the ESDP, following the 1999 declaration of intent, was in March 2003 in the "Republic of Macedonia. ""EUFOR Concordia" used NATO assets and was considered a success and replaced by a smaller police mission, EUPOL Proxima, later that year. Since then, there have been other small police, justice and monitoring missions. As well as the Republic of Macedonia, the EU has maintained its deployment of peacekeepers in "Bosnia and Herzegovina, as part of "EUFOR Althea mission.[50]

Between May and September 2003 EU troops were deployed to the "Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during ""Operation Artemis" under a mandate given by "UN Security Council Resolution 1484 which aimed to prevent further atrocities and violence in the "Ituri Conflict and put the DRC's peace process back on track. This laid out the "framework nation" system to be used in future deployments. The EU returned to the DRC during July–November 2006 with "EUFOR RD Congo, which supported the "UN mission there during the country's elections.

Geographically, EU missions outside the Balkans and the DRC have taken place in "Georgia, "Indonesia, "Sudan, "Palestine, and "Ukraine-"Moldova. There is also a judicial mission in "Iraq ("EUJUST Lex). On 28 January 2008, the EU deployed its largest and most multi-national mission to Africa, "EUFOR Tchad/RCA.[51] The UN-mandated mission involves troops from 25 EU states (19 in the field) deployed in areas of eastern "Chad and the north-eastern "Central African Republic in order to improve security in those regions. "EUFOR Tchad/RCA reached full operation capability in mid-September 2008, and handed over security duties to the UN (MINURCAT mission) in mid-March 2009.[52]

The EU launched its first maritime CSDP operation on 12 December 2008 (Operation ATALANTA). The concept of the European Union Naval Force (EU NAVFOR) was created on the back of this operation, which is still successfully combatting piracy off the coast of Somalia almost a decade later. A second such intervention was launched in 2015 to tackle migration problems in the southern Mediterranean (EUNAVFOR Med), working under the name Operation SOPHIA.

Most of the CSDP missions deployed so far are mandated to support Security Sector Reforms (SSR) in host-states. One of the core principles of CSDP support to SSR is local ownership. The EU Council defines ownership as “the appropriation by the local authorities of the commonly agreed objectives and principles”.[53] Despite EU's strong rhetorical attachment to the local ownership principle, research shows that CSDP missions continue to be an externally driven, top-down and supply-driven endeavour, resulting often in the low degree of local participation.[54]


Background 1945–1954[edit]

Earlier efforts were made to have a common European security and defence policy. The 1947 "Treaty of Dunkirk between UK and France was a European alliance and mutual assistance agreement after WWII. This agreement was transferred in 1948 to the military Article 4 of the "Treaty of Brussels which included the "BeNeLux countries. To reach the treaty goals the "Western Union Defence Organization was set up 1948 with an allied European command structure under British Field Marshal Montgomery. In 1949 the United States and Canada joined the alliance and its mutual defence agreements through the "North Atlantic Treaty with its Article 5 mutual defence clause which differed from the Brussels Treaty as it did not necessarily include military response. In 1950 the "European Defence Community (EDC), similar in nature to "European Coal and Steel Community, was proposed but failed ratification in the French parliament. The military "Western Union Defence Organization was during the 1950–1953 "Korean War augmented to become the "North Atlantic Treaty Organization of the "cold war. The failure to establish the EDC resulted in the 1954 amendment of the "Treaty of Brussels at the "London and Paris Conferences which in replacement of EDC established the political "Western European Union (WEU) out of the earlier established "Western Union Defence Organization and included "West Germany and "Italy in both "WEU and "NATO as the conference ended the occupation of "West Germany and the defence aims had shifted from Germany to the "Soviet Union.

Petersberg tasks[edit]

In 1992, the "Western European Union adopted the "Petersberg tasks, designed to cope with the possible destabilising of Eastern Europe. The WEU itself had no standing army but depended on cooperation between its members. Its tasks ranged from the most modest to the most robust, and included:[55]

WEU-NATO relationship and the Berlin agreement[edit]

At the 1996 NATO ministerial meeting in "Berlin, it was agreed that the "Western European Union (WEU) would oversee the creation of a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO structures.[56] The "ESDI was to create a European 'pillar' within NATO, partly to allow European countries to act militarily where "NATO wished not to, and partly to alleviate the "United States' financial burden of maintaining "military bases in Europe, which it had done since the "Cold War. The Berlin agreement allowed European countries (through the WEU) to use NATO assets if it so wished (this agreement was later amended to allow the European Union to conduct such missions, the so-called Berlin-plus arrangement).

Incorporation of the Petersberg tasks and the WEU in the EU[edit]

The "European Union incorporated the same "Petersberg tasks within its domain with the "Amsterdam Treaty. The treaty signalled the progressive framing of a common security and defence policy based on the "Petersberg tasks. In 1998, traditional "British reluctance to such a plan changed into endorsement after a bilateral declaration of "French President "Jacques Chirac and the "British Prime Minister "Tony Blair in "St. Malo, where they stated that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises".

In June 1999, the "Cologne European Council decided to incorporate the role of the "Western European Union within the EU, eventually shutting down the WEU. The Cologne Council also appointed "Javier Solana as the "High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy to help progress both the "CFSP and the ESDP.

Helsinki Headline Goal[edit]

The "European Union made its first concrete step to enhance military capabilities, in line with the ESDP, in 1999 when its member states signed the "Helsinki Headline Goal. They include the creation of a catalogue of forces, the 'Helsinki Force Catalogue', to be able to carry out the so-called “Petersberg Tasks”. The EU launched the European Capabilities Action Plan (ECAP) at the Laeken Summit in December 2001. However, it became clear that the objectives outlined in the Helsinki Headline Goal were not achievable quickly. In May 2004, EU defence ministers approved ""Headline Goal 2010", extending the timelines for the EU's projects. However, it became clear that the objectives cannot be achieved by this date too. French Foreign Minister "Alain Juppé espressed his desperation: “The common security and defense policy of Europe? It is dead.”[57]

European Security Strategy[edit]

The "European Security Strategy was written in 2003 and was the policy document that guided for a time the European Union's international security strategy. Its headline reads: "A Secure Europe In A Better World". The document was approved by the European Council held in Brussels on 12 December 2003 and drafted under the responsibilities of the EU High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP "Javier Solana. With the emergence of the ESDP, it is the first time that Europe has formulated a joint security strategy. It can be considered a counterpart to the "National Security Strategy of the United States.

The document starts out with the declaration that "Europe has never been so prosperous, so secure nor so free". Its conclusion is that "The world is full of new dangers and opportunities". Along these lines, it argues that in order to ensure security for Europe in a globalising world, multilateral cooperation within Europe and abroad is to be the imperative, because "no single nation is able to tackle today's complex challenges". As such the ESS identifies a string of key threats Europe needs to deal with: "terrorism, proliferation of "weapons of mass destruction, regional conflict, "failed states, and "organised crime.[58]

The document was followed by the 2008 Report of the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: Providing Security in a Changing World. It concludes with the admonition "To build a secure Europe in a better world, we must do more to shape events. And we must do it now."[59]

Berlin Plus agreement and the relationship with NATO[edit]

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
  EU member only
  NATO member only
  member of both

Concerns were voiced that an independent European security pillar might result in a declining importance of NATO as a transatlantic forum. In response to St. Malo, the former US-Secretary of State "Madeleine Albright put forth the three famous D’s, which outline American expectations towards ESDP to this day: no duplication of what was done effectively under NATO, no decoupling from the US and NATO, and no discrimination against non-EU members such as Turkey.

In the joint EU-NATO declaration of 2002, the six founding principles included partnership—for example, crisis management activities should be "mutually reinforcing"—effective mutual consultation and cooperation, equality and due regard for ‘the decision-making autonomy and interests’ of both EU and NATO, and ‘coherent and mutually reinforcing development of the military capability requirements common to the two organisations’. In institutional terms, the partnership is reflected in particular by the ""Berlin plus agreement" from March 2003, which allows the EU to use NATO structures, mechanisms and assets to carry out military operations if NATO declines to act. Furthermore, an agreement has been signed on information sharing between the EU and NATO, and EU liaison cells are now in place at "SHAPE (NATO’s strategic nerve centre for planning and operations) and NATO’s Joint Force Command in Naples.

A phrase that is often used to describe the relationship between the EU forces and NATO is "separable, but not separate":[60] the same forces and capabilities form the basis of both EU and NATO efforts, but portions can be allocated to the European Union if necessary. The "right of first refusal governs missions: the EU may only act if NATO first decides not to.

Treaty of Lisbon[edit]

The 2009 "Treaty of Lisbon renamed the ESDP to Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The post of "High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy has been created (superseding the "High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy and "European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy). Unanimous decisions in the "Council of the European Union continue to instruct the EU foreign policy and CSDP matters became available to "enhanced co-operation.

The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common Union defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. It shall in that case recommend to the member States the adoption of such a decision in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.
The policy of the Union in accordance with this article shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain member states, which see their common defence realised in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, under the North Atlantic Treaty, and be compatible with the common security and defence policy established within that framework.

Lisbon also led to the termination of the "Western European Union in 2010 as, with the solidarity clause (deemed to supersede the WEU's military mutual defence clause) and the expansion of the CSDP, the WEU became redundant. All its remaining activities are to be wound up or transferred to the EU by June 2011.[61]

Lisbon extends the enhanced co-operation mechanism to defence issues and also envisions the establishment of a "Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Defence Data Portal, Official 2012 defence statistics from the European Defence Agency
  2. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. 
  3. ^ Gateway to the European Union, European External Axis Service – accessed 16 February 2011
  4. ^ a b Rettman, Andrew (23 October 2009) EU states envisage new foreign policy giant, EU Observer
  5. ^ Rettman, Andrew (15 March 2010) Ukraine gives positive appraisal of new-model EU, EU Observer
  6. ^ Mahony, Honor (15 March 2010) EU foreign ministers ponder their post-Lisbon role, EU Observer
  7. ^ a b Gatti, Mauro (2016). European External Action Service: Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination. Leiden: Brill. p. 94. "ISBN "9789004323612. "OCLC 951833456. 
  8. ^ Gatti, Mauro (2016). European External Action Service : Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination. Leiden: Brill. p. 148. "ISBN "9789004323612. "OCLC 951833456. 
  9. ^ Art. 5 of COUNCIL DECISION establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service PDF, Council of the European Union, 20 July 2010
  10. ^ "The Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD)". 
  11. ^ "The Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)". 
  12. ^ "The European Union Military Staff (EUMS)". 
  13. ^ Rettman, Andrew (2 December 2010) Ashton names EU foreign-service priorities at low-key launch event, EU Observer
  14. ^ Gatti, Mauro (2016). European External Action Service: Promoting Coherence through Autonomy and Coordination. Leiden: Brill. pp. 109–117. "ISBN "9789004323612. "OCLC 951833456. 
  15. ^ https://isnblog.ethz.ch/defense/permanent-structured-cooperation-an-institutional-pathway-for-european-defence
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