Canada has the biggest concentrated TV ownership out of all the G8 countries and it comes in second place for the most concentrated television viewers.
Broadcasting and telecommunications in Canada are regulated by the "Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), an independent governing agency that aims to serve the needs and interests of citizens, industries, interest groups and the government. The CRTC does not regulate newspapers or magazines.
Apart from a relatively small number of "community broadcasters, media in Canada are primarily owned by a small number of groups, including "Bell Canada, the Shaw family (via "Corus Entertainment and "Shaw Communications), "Rogers Communications, "Quebecor, and the government-owned "CBC/Radio-Canada. Each of these companies holds a diverse mix of television, specialty television, and radio operations. Bell, Rogers, Shaw, and Quebecor also engage in the telecommunications industry with their ownership of internet providers, television providers, and mobile carriers, while Rogers is also involved in publishing.
In 2007, CTVglobemedia, Rogers Media and Quebecor all expanded significantly through the acquisitions of "CHUM Limited, "CityTV and "Osprey Media, respectively. In 2010, "Canwest Global Communications, having filed for bankruptcy, sold its television assets to Shaw (through a new subsidiary, "Shaw Media) and spun off its newspaper holdings into "Postmedia Network, a new company founded by the "National Post's CEO "Paul Godfrey. Later that year, Bell also announced that it would acquire the remaining shares of CTVglobemedia (which was originally majority owned by Bell when it was formed in 2001; Bell had reduced its stake in the following years), forming "Bell Media.
Between 1990 and 2005 there were a number of media corporate mergers and takeovers in Canada. For example, in 1990, 17.3% of daily newspapers were independently owned; whereas in 2005, 1% were. These changes, among others, caused the Senate Standing Committee on Transport and Communications to launch a study of Canadian "news media in March 2003. (This topic had been examined twice in the past, by the Davey Commission (1970) and the "Kent Commission (1981), both of which produced recommendations that were never implemented in any meaningful way.)
The Senate Committee's final report, released in June 2006, expressed concern about the effects of the current levels of news media ownership in Canada. Specifically, the committee discussed their concerns regarding the following trends: the potential of media ownership concentration to limit news diversity and reduce news quality; the CRTC and Competition Bureau's ineffectiveness at stopping media ownership concentration; the lack of federal funding for the CBC and the broadcaster's uncertain mandate and role; diminishing employment standards for journalists (including less job security, less journalistic freedom, and new contractual threats to intellectual property); a lack of Canadian training and research institutes; and difficulties with the federal government's support for print media and the absence of funding for the internet-based news media.
The Senate report expressed particular concern about the concentration of ownership in the province of New Brunswick, where the Irving business empire owns all the English-language daily newspapers and most of the weeklies. Senator Joan Fraser, author of the report, stated, "We didn't find anywhere else in the developed world a situation like the situation in New Brunswick."
The report provided 40 recommendations and 10 suggestions (for areas outside of federal government jurisdiction), including legislation "amendments that would trigger automatic reviews of a proposed media merger if certain thresholds are reached, and CRTC regulation revisions to ensure that access to the broadcasting system is encouraged and that a diversity of news and information programming is available through these services.
In Brazil, the concentration of media ownership seems to have manifested itself very early. In this regard, Dr. Venício A. de Lima noted in 2003:
It must be noted that in Brazil there is an environment very conducive to concentration. Sectorial legislation has been timid, by express intention of the legislator, by failing to include direct provisions that limit or control the concentration of ownership, which, incidentally, goes in the opposite direction of what happens in countries like France, Italy and the United Kingdom, which are concerned with the plurality and diversity in the new scenario of "technological convergence (Lobato, "Folha de S.Paulo, 10/14/2001)".
Lima also points to other factors that would make media concentration easier, particularly in "broadcasting: the failure of legal norms that limit the equity interest of the same economic group in various broadcasting organizations; a short period (five years) for resell broadcasting concessions, facilitating the concentration by the big media groups through the purchase of independent stations, and no restrictions to the formation of national "broadcasting networks. He cites examples of horizontal, vertical, crossed and "in cross" concentration (a Brazilian peculiarity).
- Horizontal concentration: "oligopoly or monopoly produced within an area or industry; television ("pay or free) is the Brazilian classical model. In 2002 the "cable networks Sky and NET dominated 61% of the Brazilian market. In the same year, 58.37% of all advertising budgets were invested in TV – and in this aspect, "TV Globo and its "affiliates received 78% of the amount.
- Vertical concentration: integration of the different phases of production and distribution, eliminating the work of independent producers. In Brazil, unlike the United States, it is common for a TV network to produce, advertise, market and distribute most of its programming. TV Globo is known for its "soap operas exported to dozens of countries; it keeps under permanent contract the actors, authors, and the whole production staff. The final product is broadcast by a network of newspapers, magazines, radio stations and websites owned by "Globo Organizations.
- "Cross ownership: ownership of different kinds of media (TV, newspapers, magazines, etc.) by the same group. Initially, the phenomenon occurred in radio, television and print media, with emphasis on the group of ""Diários Associados." At a later stage appeared the "RBS Group (affiliated to TV Globo), with operations in the markets of "Rio Grande do Sul and "Santa Catarina. Besides being the owner of radio and television stations, and of the main local newspapers, it has two "Internet portals. The opinions of its commentators are thus replicated by a multimedia system that makes it extremely easy to spread the point of view advocated by the group.
- Monopoly "in cross": reproduction into local level, of the particularities of "cross ownership. Research carried out in the early 1990s, detected the presence of this singularity in 18 of the 26 "Brazilian states. Manifests itself by the presence of a TV channel with a large audience, often linked to TV Globo and by the existence of two daily newspapers, in which the one with the largest circulation is linked to the major television channel and to a network of radio stations, that almost always reproduces articles and the editorial line of the newspaper ""O Globo". In 2002, another survey (which did not include pay TV), found the presence of the "monopoly in cross" in 13 major markets in Brazil.
The "UNESCO office in "Brasília has expressed its concern over the existence of an outdated code of telecommunications (1962), which no longer meets the expectations generated by the "Brazilian Constitution of 1988 in the political and social fields, and the inability of the Brazilian government to establish an "independent regulatory agency to manage the media. Attempts in this direction have been pointed by the "mainstream media as attacks on "freedom of expression, the trend of the political left in the entire Latin American continent.
Council of Europe and European Union
Since the 1980, a significant debate has developed at the European level concerning the regulation of media ownership and the principles to be adopted to regulate media ownership concentration. Both the "Council of Europe (CoE) and the "European Union (EU) have tried to formulate a distinctive and comprehensive media policy, including on the issue of concentration. However, the emphasis of both the organisations was more on strengthening media diversity and pluralism than on limiting concentration, even though they have often expressed the need for common European media concentration regulations. However, the European Union enforces a common regulation for "environmental protection, "consumer protection and "human rights, but it has none for media pluralism.
Although there is no specific media concentration legislation at the European level, a number of existing legal instruments such as the Amsterdam Protocol, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive and actions programs contribute directly and indirectly to curbing media concentration at EU level.
When it comes to regulating media concentration at the common European level, there is a conflict between Member states and the "European Commission (EC). Even if Member states do not publicly challenge the need for common regulation on media concentration, they push to incorporate their own regulatory approach at the EU level and are reluctant to give the European Union their regulatory power on the issue of media concentration.
CoE’s initiative promoting media pluralism and curbing media concentration dates back to the mid-1970s. Several resolutions, recommendations, declarations by the CoE Committee of Ministers and studies by experts' groups have addressed the issue since then. The CoE’s approach has been mainly addressed at defining and protecting media pluralism, defined in terms of pluralism of media content in order to allow a plurality of ideas and opinions.
Within the European Union, two main standpoints have emerged in the debate: on the one hand, the "European Parliament has favoured the idea that, considering the crucial role that media play in the functioning of democratic systems, policies in this field should prevent excessive concentration in order to guarantee pluralism and diversity. On the other hand, the European Commission has privileged the understanding that the media sector should be regulated, as any other economic field, following the principles of market harmonization and liberalization.
Indeed, media concentration issues can be addressed both by general competition policies and by specific media sector rules. According to some scholars, given the vital importance of contemporary media, sector-specific competition rules in the media industries should be enhanced. Within the EU, the Council regulation 4064/89/EEC on the control of concentrations between undertakings as part of European competition legislation covered also media concentration cases. The need for sector-specific regulation has been widely supported by both media scholars and the European Parliament. In the 1980s, when preparing legislation on cross-border television many experts and MEPs argued for including provisions for media concentration in the EU directive but these efforts failed. In 1992, the Commission of the European Communities published a policy document named "Pluralism and Media Concentration in the internal Market - an assessment of the need for Community action" which outlined three options on the issue of media concentration regulation at the Community level, i.e. no specific action to be taken; action regulating transparency; and action to harmonize laws. Out of these options, the first one was chosen but the debate on this decision lasted for years. Council regulation as a tool for regulating media concentration was excluded and the two proposals on a media concentration directive advanced in the mid 1990s were not backed by the Commission. As a consequence, efforts at legislating media concentration at Community level were phased out by the end of the 1990s.
Despite a wide consensus over the idea that the vital importance of contemporary media justifies to regulate media concentration through sector-specific concentration rules going beyond the general competition policy, the need for sector specific regulation has been challenged in recent years due to the peculiar evolution of the media industry in the digital environment and "media convergence. In practice, sector-specific media concentration rules have been abolished in some European countries in recent years.
As a consequence, scholars Harcourt and Picard argue that “the trend has been to remove ownership rules and restrictions on media ownership within Europe in order that “domestic champions” can bulk up to “fend off” the US threat. This has been a key argument for the loosening of ownership rules within Europe”.
In 2002, the European Parliament tried to revitalize the efforts on regulating media concentration at the European level and adopted a resolution on media concentration which called on the European Commission to launch a broad and comprehensive consultation on media pluralism and media concentration and to prepare a Green Paper on the issue by the end of 2003. The European Commission failed to meet this deadline. In the following years, during the process of amending the Televisions Without Frontiers directive, which was adopted by the EP and the Council in 2007, the issue of media concentration was discussed, but it did not represented the core of the debate. In 2003, the European Commission issued a policy document named "The future of European Regulatory Audiovisual Policy" which stressed that, in order to ensure media pluralism, measures should aim at limiting the level of media concentration by establishing "maximum holdings in media companies and prevent[ing] cumulative control or participation in several media companies at the same time".
In 2007, reacting to concerns on media concentration and its repercussion on pluralism and "freedom of expression in the EU Member states raised by the European Parliament and by NGOs, the European Commission launched a new three-phase plan on media pluralism
In October 2009, a "European Union Directive was proposed to set for all member states common and higher standards for media pluralism, and "freedom of expression. The proposal was put to a vote in the "European Parliament and rejected by just three votes. The directive was supported by the "liberal-centrists, the "progressives and the "green party, and was opposed by the "European People's Party. Unexpectedly, the Irish liberals made exception by voting against the directive, and later revealed that they had been pressured by the Irish right-wing government to do so.
Following this debate, the European Commission commissioned a large, in depth study published in 2009 aiming to identify the indicators to be adopted to assess media pluralism in Europe.
The “Independent Study on Indicators for Media Pluralism in the Member States – Towards a Risk-Based Approach” provided a prototype of indicators and country reports for 27 EU member states. After years of refining and preliminary testings, the study resulted in the Media Pluralism Monitor (MPM), a yearly monitoring carried out by the Centre for media pluralism and freedom at the "European University Institute in Florence on a variety of aspects affecting media pluralism, including also the concentration of media ownership is considered. To assess the risk that media ownership concentration in a given country may actually hinder media pluralism, the MPM takes into account three specific elements:
- Horizontal concentration, that is concentration of media ownership within a given media sector (press, audio-visual, etc);
- Cross-media concentration across different media markets;
- "Transparency of media ownership.
In 2015, the MPM was carried out in 19 European countries. The results of the monitoring activity in the field of media market concentration identify 5 countries as facing a high risk: Finland, Luxembourg, Lithuania, Poland and Spain. The countries facing a medium risk are: 9: Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Sweden. Finally, only 5 countries face a low risk: Croatia, Cyprus, Malta, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the monitoring carried out in 2014, 7 of 9 countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, the UK) scored a high risk in audience concentration.
A 2016 report based on data collected by "MAVISE, a free online database on audiovisual services and companies in Europe, highlights the growing number of Pan-European media companies in the field of "broadcasting and divides them into different categories: multi‐country media groups, controlling “channels that play an important role in various national markets (for example "Modern Times Group, "CEME, "RTL, a Luxembourg-based media group operating in 10 countries, and "Sanoma). These groups generally control a high market share in the countries in which they operate, and have gradually emerged through the acquisition of existing channels or by establishing new companies in countries in which they were not already present. The four groups RTL Group, CEME, Modern Times Group and Sanoma are major players (in the top 4 regarding audience share) in 19 European countries (RTL Group, CEME and Modern Times Group are major players in 17 countries). Pan‐european broadcasters operate with a unique identity and well recognized brands across Europe. Most of them are based in the United States and have progressively expanded their activities in the European market. In many cases, these groups evolved from being content creators to also deliver such contents through channels renamed after the original brands.
Examples of such pan-European groups include "Discovery, "Viacom, "Time Warner, and "21st Century Fox, pan‐european distribution groups (cable and satellite operators), companies that operate at the European level in the distribution sector via cable, satellite or "IPTV. The emergence of major actors operating in this field has been made possible mainly thanks to the process of "digitalization and benefit of specific economies of scale.
EU Member States
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In the "Czech Republic about 80% of the newspapers and magazines are owned by German and Swiss corporations.
The two main press groups (Vltava-Labe-Press and Mafra) are (completely or partly) controlled by the German group Rheinisch-Bergische Druckerei- und Verlagsgesellschaft (Mediengruppe "Rheinische Post).
- Vltava-Labe-Press that owns the tabloids ŠÍP and ŠÍP EXTRA, 73 regional dailies Deník and other 26 weeklies and that is major "shareholder of publishing houses Astrosat, Melinor and 100% owner of Metropol and also partly controls the distribution of all the prints through PNS, a.s. is part of the German Verlagsgruppe Passau (that controls also the German Neue Presse Verlags, the Polish Polskapresse and the Slovak Petit Press).
- Mafra (that owns the centre-right dailies "Dnes, "Lidové noviny, the local edition of the "freesheet "Metro, the periodical 14dní, several monthly magazines, the TV "music channel "Óčko, the "radio stations Expresradio and Rádio Classic FM, several web portals and partly controls, together with Vltava-Labe-Press, the distribution company PNS, a.s.) is owned by the German Rheinisch-Bergische Drückerei- und Verlagsgesellschaft. This, in turn, owns 20% of the Verlagsgruppe Passau's "shares, creating in this way a sort of "cartel within the two corporations Vltava-Labe-Press and Mafra, controlling more than 50% of Czech print distribution through PNS, a.s. (26% by Mafra, 26,1% by Vltava-Labe-Press).
- "Ringier the Swiss group, controls in Czech Republic 16 daily "tabloids and weeklies (such as 24 hodin, Abc, Aha!, "Blesk, Blesk TV Magazin, Blesk pro ženy, Blesk Hobby, Blesk Zdravi, Nedělní Blesk, Nedělní Sport, Reflex, Sport, Sport Magazin) as well as 7 "web portals, reaching approximately 3.2 million readers.
"Czech governments, anxious not to be seen as placing any obstacles in the way of the country's path to "EU membership, have defended foreign newspaper ownership as a manifestation of the principle of the "free movement of capital.
The centre-left newspaper "Právo is currently the only non-foreign owned Czech newspaper.
The weekly "Respekt is published by R-Presse, the majority of whose shares are owned by former Czech "Minister of foreign affairs "Karel Schwarzenberg.
The national television market is dominated by 4 terrestrial stations, two public ("Czech TV1 and "Czech TV2) and two private ("NOVA TV and "Prima TV), which draw 95% of audience share.
Concerning the diversity of output, this is limited by a series of factors: the average low level of professional education among Czech journalists is compensated by "informal professionalization", leading to a degree of conformity in approaches; political parties hold strong ties in Czech media, especially print, where more than 50% of Czech journalists identify with the Right, while only 16% express sympathy for the Left; the process of commercialization and ""tabloidization" has increased, lowering differentiation of contents in Czech print media.
"Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, claiming to have over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries in Europe. In the 1960s and 1970s the company's media followed an aggressive conservative policy (see "Springerpresse). It publishes Germany's only nationwide tabloid, "Bild and one of Germany's most important broadsheets, "Die Welt. Axel Springer also owns a number of regional newspapers, especially in "Saxony and in the "Hamburg Metropolitan Region, giving the company a de facto monopoly in the latter case. An attempt to buy one of Germany's two major private TV Groups, "ProSiebenSat.1 in 2006 was withdrawn due to large concerns by regulation authorities as well as by parts of the public. The company is also active in Hungary, where it is the biggest publisher of regional newspapers, and in Poland, where it owns the best-selling tabloid "Fakt, one of the nation's most important broadsheets, "Dziennik, and is one of the biggest shareholder in #2 private TV company, "Polsat.
"Bertelsmann is one of the world's largest media companies. It owns "RTL Group, which is one of the two major private TV companies in both Germany and the Netherlands and also owning assets in Belgium, France, UK, Spain, Czech and Hungary. Bertelsmann also owns "Gruner+Jahr, Germany's biggest popular magazine publisher, including popular news magazine "Stern and a 26% share in investigative news magazine "Der Spiegel. Bertelsmann also owns "Random House, a book publisher, #1 in the "English-speaking world and #2 in Germany.
In Ireland, the company, "Independent News & Media (CEO: "Tony O'Reilly), owns many national newspapers: the "Evening Herald, "Irish Independent, "Sunday Independent, "Sunday World and "Irish Daily Star. It also owns 29.9% of the "Sunday Tribune. Broadcast media is divided between state owned "RTÉ which operates several radio stations and television channels and has started digital radio and television services in the early 2010s; "TG4 and Irish language broadcaster, and "TV3 a commercial television operator. "Denis O'Brien an Irish billionaire with a fortune partly accumulated through the "Esat Digifone licence controversy, formed Communicorp Group Ltd in 1989, with the company currently owning 42 radio stations in 8 European countries, including Ireland's "Newstalk, "Today FM, "Dublin's 98FM, "SPIN 1038 and SPIN South West. In January 2006, O'Brien took a stake in Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media (IN&M). As of May 2012, he holds a 29.9% stake in the company, making him the largest shareholder. This compares to O'Reilly's family stake of around 13%.
"Silvio Berlusconi, the former "Prime Minister of Italy, is the major shareholder of – by far – Italy's biggest (and "de facto only) private free TV company, "Mediaset, Italy's biggest publisher, "Mondadori, and Italy's biggest advertising company Publitalia. One of Italy's nationwide dailies, "Il Giornale, is owned by his brother, "Paolo Berlusconi, and another, "Il Foglio, by his former wife, "Veronica Lario. Berlusconi has often been criticized for using the media assets he owns to advance his political career.
In Britain and Ireland, "Rupert Murdoch owns best-selling tabloid "The Sun as well as the broadsheet "The Times and "Sunday Times, and 39% of satellite broadcasting network "BSkyB. In March 2011, the United Kingdom provisionally approved Murdoch to buy the remaining 61% of BSkyB, however, subsequent events ("News of the World hacking scandal and its closure in July 2011) leading to the "Leveson Inquiry have halted this takeover.
"Trinity Mirror own five major national titles, the "Daily Mirror, "Sunday Mirror and "The Sunday People, and the Scottish "Sunday Mail and "Daily Record as well as over 100 regional newspapers. They claim to have a monthly digital reach of 73 million people.
"Daily Mail and General Trust (DMGT) own The "Daily Mail and "The Mail on Sunday, "Ireland on Sunday, and free London daily "Metro, and control a large proportion of regional media, including through subsidiary "Northcliffe Media, in addition to large shares in "ITN and "GCap Media.
"The Guardian is owned by Guardian Media Group, who use an equity owning trust and a "Cayman Islands offshore corporation to minimize their tax liabilities.
"Richard Desmond owns "OK! magazine, the "Daily Express and the "Daily Star. He used to own "Channel 5; on 1 May 2014 the channel was acquired by "Viacom for £450 million (US$759 million).
The "Evening Standard and former print publication "The Independent are both owned by Russian businessman and ex KGB agent "Alexander Lebedev.
"BBC News produces news for its "television channels and "radio stations.
"Independent Television News produces news for "ITV, "Channel 4 and "Channel 5.
"Independent Radio News, which has a contract with "Sky News, produces news for the most popular "commercial radio stations.
In India a few political parties also own media organizations, for example "Kalaignar TV is owned by Tamil Nadu's former Chief Minister "M. Karunanidhi. "Sakshi TV a Telugu channel in Andhra Pradesh is owned by ex-chief minister's son and family.
In Israel, Arnon Mozes owns the most widespread Hebrew newspaper, "Yediot Aharonot, the most widespread Russian newspaper "Vesty, the most popular Hebrew news website "Ynet, and 17% of the cable TV firm "HOT. Moreover, Mozes owns the Reshet TV firm, which is one of the two operators of the most popular channel in Israel, Channel 2.
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In Mexico there are only two national broadcast television service companies, "Televisa and "Azteca. These two broadcasters together administer 434 of the 461 total commercial television stations in the country (94.14%).
Though concern about the existence of a duopoly had been around for some time, a press uproar sparked in 2006, when "a controversial reform to the Federal Radio and Television Law, seriously hampered the entry of new competitors, like "Cadena Tres.
Televisa also owns subscription TV enterprises "Cablevision (Mexico)and "SKY, a publishing company Editorial Televisa , and the "Televisa Radio broadcast radio network, creating a de facto media monopoly in many regions of the country.
In the United States, movie production is known to be dominated by major studios since the early 20th Century; before that, there was a period in which "Edison's Trust monopolized the industry. The music and television industries recently witnessed cases of media consolidation, with "Sony Music Entertainment's parent company merging their music division with Bertelsmann AG's "BMG to form "Sony BMG and Tribune's "The WB and CBS Corp.'s "UPN merging to form "The CW. In the case of Sony BMG, there existed a "Big Five" (now ""Big Four") of major "record companies, while The CW's creation was an attempt to consolidate ratings and stand up to the "Big Four" of American "network (terrestrial) television (this despite the fact that the CW was, in fact, partially owned by one of the Big Four in CBS). In television, the vast majority of broadcast and basic cable networks, over a hundred in all, are controlled by eight corporations: "News Corporation (the Fox family of channels), "The Walt Disney Company (which includes the ABC, ESPN and Disney brands), "National Amusements (which includes "CBS Corporation and "Viacom), "Comcast (which includes the NBC brands), "Time Warner, "Discovery Communications, "E. W. Scripps Company, "Cablevision, or some combination thereof.
There may also be some large-scale owners in an industry that are not the causes of monopoly or oligopoly. "iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel Communications), especially since the "Telecommunications Act of 1996, acquired many "radio stations across the United States, and came to own more than 1,200 stations. However, the radio broadcasting industry in the United States and elsewhere can be regarded as oligopolistic regardless of the existence of such a player. Because radio stations are local in reach, each licensed a specific part of spectrum by the "FCC in a specific local area, any local market is served by a limited number of stations. In most countries, this system of licensing makes many "markets local oligopolies. The similar market structure exists for television broadcasting, cable systems and newspaper industries, all of which are characterized by the existence of large-scale owners. Concentration of ownership is often found in these industries.
In the United States, data on ownership and market share of media companies is not held in the public domain.["citation needed]["why?]
Recent media mergers in the United States
Over time the amount of media merging has increased and the amount of "media outlets have increased. That translates to fewer companies owning more media outlets, increasing the concentration of ownership. In 1983, 90% of US media was controlled by 50 companies; today, 90% is controlled by just 5 companies.
|Company||Media Outlets||Revenues (2015)|
|"Comcast||Through its subsidiary "NBCUniversal, it holds "NBC and "Telemundo, "Universal Pictures, "Illumination Entertainment, "Focus Features, "DreamWorks Animation, 26 television stations in the "United States and cable networks "USA Network, "Bravo, "CNBC, "The Weather Channel, "MSNBC, "Syfy, "NBCSN, "Golf Channel, "Esquire Network, "E!, "Chiller, "Universal HD and the "NBC Sports Regional Networks. Comcast also owns the "Philadelphia Flyers through a "separate subsidiary.||$80.40 billion|
|"The Walt Disney Company||Holdings include: "American Broadcasting Company, cable networks "ESPN, the "Disney Channel, "Disney XD, "A&E and "Lifetime, approximately 30 radio stations, music, video game, and book publishing companies, production companies "Touchstone, "Marvel Entertainment, "Lucasfilm, "Walt Disney Pictures, "Pixar, mobile app developer "Disney Mobile, "Disney Consumer Products and Interactive Media, and "theme parks in several countries. Also has a longstanding partnership with "Hearst Corporation, which owns additional TV stations, newspapers, magazines, and stakes in several Disney television ventures.||$52.46 billion|
|"News Corporation||Holdings include: the "Fox Broadcasting Company, "21st Century Fox; cable networks "Fox News Channel, "Fox Business Network, "Fox Sports 1, "Fox Sports 2, "National Geographic, "Nat Geo Wild, "FX, "FXX, "FX Movie Channel, and the regional "Fox Sports Networks ; film production companies "20th Century Fox, "Fox Searchlight Pictures and "Blue Sky Studios; "Dow Jones & Company, "Wall Street Journal, "New York Post.||$28.98 billion|
|"Time Warner||Formerly the largest media conglomerate in the world, with holdings including: "CNN, the "CW (a "joint venture with "CBS), "HBO, "Cinemax, "Cartoon Network/"Adult Swim, "HLN, "NBA TV, "TBS, "TNT, "truTV, "Turner Classic Movies, "Warner Bros. Pictures, "Castle Rock, "DC Comics, "Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, and "New Line Cinema.||$28.11 billion|
|"National Amusements||(CBS Corp) Holdings include: "CBS Television Network and the CW (a joint venture with Time Warner), cable networks "CBS Sports Network, "Showtime, "Pop; 30 television stations; "CBS Radio, Inc., which has 130 stations; "CBS Television Studios; book publisher "Simon & Schuster.||$27.15 billion|
*Although Viacom and CBS Corporation have been separate companies since 2006, they are both partially owned subsidiaries of the private "National Amusements company, headed by "Sumner Redstone. As such, Paramount Home Entertainment handles DVD/Blu-ray distribution for most of the CBS Corporation library.
"News Corporation was split into two separate companies on June 28, 2013, with publishing assets and Australian media assets going to a spin-off known as "News Corp, and broadcasting and media assets going to "21st Century Fox. Both companies remain under the control of "Rupert Murdoch, although Murdoch has reduced involvement in the new News Corp.
American public distrust in the media
A 2012 "Gallup poll found that Americans' distrust in the mass media had hit a new high, with 60% saying they had little or no trust in the mass media to report the news fully, accurately, and fairly. Distrust had increased since the previous few years, when Americans were already more negative about the media than they had been in the years before 2004.
A recent study has concluded that group participation contributes to the public perceptions of the legitimacy or credibility of mass media. Accordingly, high involvement in media incites more scrutiny and more biased scrutiny of media content.
About 70% of Venezuelan TV and radio stations are in secret, personal hands, while only about 5% or less of these stations are currently state-owned. The remaining stations are mostly owned by pro-government communities. VTV was the only state TV channel in Venezuela only about a decade ago. For the last decade, through the present day, the Venezuelan government operates and owns five more stations.
Commercial outlets completely rule over the radio sector. However, the Venezuelan government is willingly able to fund a good amount of radio shows and TV stations. The primary newspapers of Venezuela are private companies, that are frequently condemning of their government. These newspapers being produced in Venezuela don't have a great, big following.
- Among other assets, Disney owns "ABC, "Buena Vista Motion Pictures Group, and "ESPN; it is a partner in "A&E Networks, which includes "History, "A&E, and "Lifetime.
- CBS Corporation owns "CBS, CBS Radio (formerly Infinity Broadcasting), "Simon & Schuster editing group, a 50% ownership stake in "The CW, etc. Though technically separate companies, CBS and Viacom (owners of "Paramount Pictures, "MTV Networks and several mostly cable television stations) have a large portion of common ownership through "Sumner Redstone's "National Amusements.
- "Comcast owns "NBCUniversal, "The Weather Channel, "G4 (which shut down in late 2014), "NBCSN, "style., "E!, "Comcast SportsNet, the "Philadelphia Flyers and the "Philadelphia 76ers. As of February 13, 2014, Comcast also plans to acquire "Time Warner Cable.
- "Time Warner owns "CNN, "TBS, "TNT, "Sports Illustrated "Time (both now spun-off into a separate publicly-traded company), and a 50% ownership stake in "The CW. It previously owned "Time Warner Cable, but spun off that company in 2009.
- Bertelsmann owns "Arvato, "Direct Group, "RTL Group (which in turn owns "VOX, a part in "M6 TV channel, and "FremantleMedia), and several other companies.
- "Bain Capital and "Thomas H. Lee Partners own "iHeartMedia, Inc., one of the largest radio station and billboard ownership groups in the United States, its syndication wing "Premiere Networks (which controls several of the most popular U.S. radio programs), and a share in "The Weather Channel.
- "Rupert Murdoch, the media magnate, a part of News Corp., also owns British "News of the World, "The Sun, "The Times, and "The Sunday Times, as well as the "Sky Television network, which merged with "British Satellite Broadcasting to form "BSkyB, and "SKY Italia; in the US, he owns the "Fox Networks, "The Wall Street Journal and the "New York Post. Since 2003, he also owns 34% of DirecTV Group (formerly "Hughes Electronics), operator of the largest American satellite TV system, "DirecTV, and "Intermix Media (creators of "myspace.com) since 2005. See also "Murdoch Newspaper List.
- The estate of "William Randolph Hearst, doing business as "Hearst Corporation, owns minority shares in "ESPN Inc. and A&E Networks, "King Features Syndicate, and fifteen newspapers along with 29 local television stations.
- "Oaktree Capital Management's "Triton Media Group owns "Dial Global (As of December 12, 2013, "Cumulus Media now owns Dial Globial, which it renamed "WestwoodOne), "Waitt Radio Networks, "Westwood One and "Jones Radio Networks, three major satellite music radio providers; they also own "Townsquare Media (itself a consolidation of "Regent Communications, "Double O Radio and "Gap Broadcasting, the last of which has mainly bought radio stations away from Clear Channel Communications).
- Companies tied to the Dolan family and "Cablevision (either "AMC Networks or "Madison Square Garden, Inc.) own "AMC, "IFC, "Sundance Channel, "WE tv, "News 12 Networks, "MSG Network, "Fuse TV, "SportsTime Ohio, the "New York Rangers, the "New York Knicks, and the "Cleveland Indians
- "E. W. Scripps Company owns fourteen newspapers, nine broadcast television stations, "Travel Channel, "HGTV, "Food Network, "DIY Network, "Cooking Channel, "GAC, and the "National Spelling Bee.
- "Gannett Company owns "USA Today, and a large number of local newspapers, and until that division was "spun off in 2015, many television stations.
European media organizations
- "Lagardère Group owns "Hachette Filipacchi Médias, which is the largest magazine publisher in the world, 100% of "Lagardère Media, 34% of "CanalSat, and "Hachette Livre (as well as parts in the European military aerospace "EADS company).
- "Vivendi owns "Canal + Group and "Universal Music Group.
- "Edouard de Rothschild has 37% of French left-wing daily "Libération since 2005.
- Arms company "Dassault owns 82% of the "Socpresse, which controls conservative "Le Figaro (in which the "Carlyle Group previously had a 40% stake), as well as "L'Express.
- "Le Monde is owned by Groupe ''Le Monde'', which also controls "Télérama and other publications of "La Vie Catholique, as well as 51% of "Le Monde diplomatique.
- French "Bouygues company owns 42.9% of "TF1 TV channel, and is the "parent company of "Bouygues Télécom.
- "Modern Times Group, quoted on the "Stockholm Stock Exchange, owns "Viasat TV network and "Metro International, which is the world's largest chain of free newspapers, publishing 57 daily Metro editions in 18 countries.
- In the UK, "Daily Mail and General Trust plc owns newspapers including the "Daily Mail, "Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC, has a 29.9% stake in "GCap Media (the owner of "Classic FM and other radio stations), and a 20% stake in "ITN, and also owns regional publisher "Northcliffe Media.
- "Bolloré, owned by "Vincent Bolloré, who is "Havas's main share-holder and president and UK group "Aegis' first share-holder. Bolloré owns "Direct 8 French TV channel.
- "Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, controlled by "Fininvest, the family "holding company of "Silvio Berlusconi, possesses a large share of the magazine publishing industry in Italy.
- "Mediaset, also controlled by Silvio Berlusconi's Fininvest, owns 3 out of 7 national TV channels in Italy. Mr Berlusconi in his function of prime minister also exerts great influence over 3 more channels ("RAI-owned), thus directly or indirectly controlling almost 90% of Italy's mass media.
- "Bonnier owns in its native Sweden, the main commercial TV channel "TV4; the satellite broadcaster "C More Entertainment; the major newspapers "Dagens Nyheter, "Sydsvenskan, "Dagens Industri and "Expressen, cinema chain SF Bio and film production companies "Svensk Filmindustri and Sonet Film and the book publisher of the same name. While in Finland, it owns the largest commercial television broadcaster "MTV3; a nationwide radio station "Radio Nova, and a major broadsheet and tabloid "Aamulehti and "Iltalehti.
- "Agenda-setting theory
- "Alternative media
- "Big Three television networks
- "Corporate media
- "Freedom of speech
- "Freedom of the press
- "Lists of corporate assets
- "Local News Service
- "Mainstream media
- "Media bias
- "Media conglomerate
- "Media cross-ownership in the United States
- "Media democracy
- "Media imperialism
- "Media manipulation
- "Media proprietor
- "Media transparency
- "Monopolies of knowledge
- "Network neutrality
- "Old media
- "Partido da Imprensa Golpista
- "Politico-media complex
- "Prometheus Radio Project
- "Propaganda model
- "State controlled media
- "Telecommunications Act of 1996
- "Western media
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- Doyle, Gillian (2002). Media ownership: the economics and politics of convergence and concentration in the UK and European media. SAGE. "ISBN "978-0-7619-6680-7.
- Harcourt, Alison (2005). European Institutions and the Regulation of Media Markets. Manchester University Press. "ISBN "978-0-7190-6645-0.
- Harcourt, Alison; Robert Picard (2009). Policy Economic and Business Challenges of Media Ownership Regulation. Journal of Business Media Studies.
- Steven, Peter (2004). The No-nonsense Guide to Global Media. Verso. "ISBN "978-1-85984-581-3.
- Amelia Arsenault & Manuel Castells (2008) The Structure and Dynamics of Global Multi-Media Business Networks. International Journal of Communication.
- Bagdikian, Benjamin H. (2004). The new media monopoly. Beacon Press. "ISBN "978-0-8070-6187-9.
- Baker, C. Edwin (2007). Media concentration and democracy: why ownership matters. Cambridge University Press. "ISBN "978-0-521-86832-7.
- Compaine, Benjamin M.; Gomery, Douglas (2000). Who owns the media?: competition and concentration in the mass media industry. Psychology Press. "ISBN "978-0-8058-2936-5.
- Croteau, David & Hoynes, William (2006). The business of media: corporate media and the public interest. Pine Forge Press. "ISBN "978-1-4129-1315-7.
- Dwyer, Tim (2010). Media Convergence. McGraw-Hill International. "ISBN "978-0-335-22873-7.
- Harper, Joe & Yantek, Thom, eds. (2003). Media, profit, and politics: competing priorities in an open society. Kent State University Press. "ISBN "978-0-87338-754-5.
- Hassan, Robert & Thomas, Julian, eds. (2006). The new media theory reader. McGraw-Hill International. "ISBN "978-0-335-21710-6.
- McChesney, Robert W. (1997). Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy. Seven Stories Press. "ISBN "1-888363-47-9.
- Noam, Eli M. (2009). Media ownership and concentration in America. Oxford University Press. "ISBN "978-0-19-518852-3.
- Skinner, David et al., eds. (2005). Converging media, diverging politics: a political economy of news media in the United States and Canada. Lexington Books. "ISBN "978-0-7391-1306-6.
- Media convergence. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
- "Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media (1992)
- "Orwell Rolls in His Grave (2004) documentary available on DVD considers media concentration in the U.S.
- "Beyond Citizen Kane by "Simon Hartog (1993); about "Roberto Marinho's "Globo Group in Brazil
- Broadcast Blues (2009) Award-winning documentary by former Emmy Winning Radio and TV producer Sue Wilson available on DVD <http://www.SueWilsonReports.com> shows how poor U.S. media policy created media consolidation and teaches people how to force broadcasters to serve the public interest.
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- Global Issues.com
- Who Owns What by the "Columbia Journalism Review
- Structure and Dynamics of the Global Multi-Media Business Networks Amelia Arsenault and Manuel Castells (2008) International Journal of Communication
- Who Owns What on Television
- Essay examining the reasons and consequences of media ownership
- Campaign For Democratic Media Canadian organization fighting for democratic media.
- Free Press an organization opposing media ownership concentration
- A visual representation of 25 years of media mergers and how the biggest media conglomerates in the United States came to be
- Lasar's Letter on the Federal Communications Commission Media ownership controversy timeline, 1996–2004
- Media ownership study ordered destroyed
- Media Conglomerates, Mergers, Concentration of Ownership
- Media Ownership Chart by watchdog group MediaChannel
- Why TV sucks A critique of the concentration thesis from the left
- FCC Hearing on Media Consolidation, Seattle, Nov 2007 Video of public testimony
- Treepex - Online Newspaper subcategory Increased concentration of media ownership has adverse effects on the pluralism of media output.
- The Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom (CPBF) – a UK-based organisation campaigning for open, accountable and democratic media
- The Day That TV News Died – Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist "Chris Hedges on corporate media control.
Supporting Media Deregulation:
Opposing Media Deregulation: